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ABO ANALYSIS

American
Board of
Orthodontics

WHAT IS ABO ANALYSIS?

Standard cephalometric analysis


proposed by the American Board of
Orthodontics (ABO)

Compilation of other analyses:


Downs
Steiners
McNamara
Wits Appraisal
Tweeds
Rickets

AREA OF STUDY
Cranial Base
- Maxilla to Cranial Base
- Mandible to Cranial Base
Maxillo-Mandibular relationship
Vertical height
Maxillary and Mandibular incisor position
Soft tissue

AREA OF STUDY
Cranial Base
- Maxilla to Cranial Base
- Mandible to Cranial Base
Maxillo-Mandibular relationship
Vertical height
Maxillary and Mandibular incisor position
Soft tissue

CRANIAL BASE
S

N
130

Ba

Cranial
Base

BaS-N

130

Skeletal landmarks:
Basion, Sela, Nasion
Effects:
-less than 130o short-face
-more than 130o long-face
If angle changes, theres an
effect on the temporal bone

AREA OF STUDY
Cranial Base
- Maxilla to Cranial Base
- Mandible to Cranial Base
Maxillo-Mandibular relationship
Vertical height
Maxillary and Mandibular incisor position
Soft tissue

AREA OF STUDY
Cranial Base
Types of
- Maxilla to Cranial Base
measurements
- Mandible to Cranial Base
Maxillo-Mandibular relationship
Vertical height
Maxillary and Mandibular incisor position
Soft tissue

A. MAXILLA TO CRANIAL BASE


S

Maxilla to
Cranial
Base

N
82

SNA

82

Skeletal landmarks:
Sela, Nasion, Point A
Point A

From Steiners analysis


Determines location of Maxilla
in relation to Cranial Base
Increase angle prognathic
Decrease angle retrognathic

B. MAXILLA TO CRANIAL BASE


Maxilla to
Cranial
Base

N
FH

N-A-FH

90

Skeletal landmarks:
Nasion, Point A, Frontal
Horizontal plane

90
Point A

From McNamara analysis


If increase forward growth of
maxilla or prognathic.
If decrease backward growth
of maxilla or retrognathic.

C. MAXILLA TO CRANIAL BASE


Maxilla to
Cranial
Base

A-Nas
Vert.
(mm)

-2mm

Skeletal landmarks:
Point A, Nasion Verticale
Nas Vert.

FH

From McNamara analysis

-2mm

Point A

Draw a perpendicular line from


the frontal horizontal plane
If increases prognathic maxilla

AREA OF STUDY
Cranial Base
- Maxilla to Cranial Base
- Mandible to Cranial Base
Maxillo-Mandibular relationship
Vertical height
Maxillary and Mandibular incisor position
Soft tissue

AREA OF STUDY
Cranial Base
- Maxilla to Cranial Base
Types of
- Mandible to Cranial Base
measurements
Maxillo-Mandibular relationship
Vertical height
Maxillary and Mandibular incisor position
Soft tissue

A. MANDIBLE TO CRANIAL BASE


S

Mandible
to Cranial
Base

SNB

80

Skeletal landmarks:
Sela, Nasion, Basion

80

From Steiners analysis


Determines location of Mandible in
relation to Cranial Base
Point B

Increase angle prognathic


mandible
Decrease angle retrognathic
mandible

B. MANDIBLE TO CRANIAL BASE


N

Mandible NPog-FH
to Cranial
Base

88

Skeletal landmarks:
Nasion Pogonion, Frontal
Horizontal plane

FH
88

From Downs analysis

Pog

Increase angle prognathic


mandible
Decrease angle retrognathic
mandible

C. MANDIBLE TO CRANIAL BASE


Mandible
to Cranial
Base

Pog-N
Vert.
(mm)

-6mm

Skeletal landmarks:
Pogonion, Nasion Vertical
Nas Vert.
FH

From ABO analysis


Nasion vertical line is
perpendicular to Frankfurt
Horizontal line

Pog
-6mm

From Nasion Vertical to


Pogonion, measure the distance:
-Increase mm retrognathic
-Decrease mm prognathic

AREA OF STUDY
Cranial Base
- Maxilla to Cranial Base
- Mandible to Cranial Base
Maxillo-Mandibular relationship
Vertical height
Maxillary and Mandibular incisor position
Soft tissue

AREA OF STUDY
Cranial Base
- Maxilla to Cranial Base
- Mandible to Cranial Base
Maxillo-Mandibular relationship
Vertical height
Maxillary and Mandibular incisor position
Soft tissue

Types of
measurements

A. MAXILLO-MANDIBULAR
RELATIONSHIP
N

MaxilloMandibular
Relationship

ANB

Point A

Skeletal landmarks:
Point A, Nasion, Point B

From Steiners analysis

Relates to the maxillary denture


base to mandibular denture base
Point B

Increase angle Class II


Decrease angle Class III

B. MAXILLO-MANDIBULAR
RELATIONSHIP
N

MaxilloMandibular
Relationship

A-NPog

1mm

Skeletal landmarks:
Point A, Nasion Pogonion

Point A
1mm

Measure the distance from Point A to


Nasion Pogonion line
Effect:
-more than 1 mm prognathic maxilla
-less than 1 mm retrognathic maxilla

Pog

C. MAXILLO-MANDIBULAR
RELATIONSHIP
AO

MaxilloMandibular
Relationship

Wits

2mm

An occlusal line from posterior teeth in


occlusion to incisal tip

2mm
Occlusa
l

BO

Perpendicular line from Point A to


occlusal plane, and perpendicular line
from Point B to occlusal plane. Measure
distance between BO to AO.
Increase mm prognathic denture base
Decrease mm retrognathic denture
base.

AREA OF STUDY
Cranial Base
- Maxilla to Cranial Base
- Mandible to Cranial Base
Maxillo-Mandibular relationship
Vertical height
Maxillary and Mandibular incisor position
Soft tissue

AREA OF STUDY
Cranial Base
- Maxilla to Cranial Base
- Mandible to Cranial Base
Maxillo-Mandibular relationship
Vertical height
Maxillary and Mandibular incisor position
Soft tissue
Types of

measurements

A. VERTICAL HEIGHT
Vertical
Height
N
S
32
32

SNMPA

32

Extend mandibular
plane and sela nasion
line to get an angle of
32o
From Steiners analysis

MPA

Effect:
-increase vertical
height skeletal open
bite
-decrease vertical
height skeletal deep
bite

B. VERTICAL HEIGHT
Vertical
Height

FMA

25

Extend mandibular
plane and frankfurt
horizontal line to get an
angle of 25o
FH
25

MPA

From Downs analysis


Effect:
-increase vertical
height skeletal open
bite
-decrease vertical
height skeletal deep
bite

C. VERTICAL HEIGHT
Vertical
Height
N

45%

ANS-Me
(%)

55%

45%

Normally, lower region


of face comprises 55%
because mandible
grows downward and
forward which suggests
its bigger proportion

55%

If not normal, then


unproportion face

ANS

Me

N-ANS
(%)

AREA OF STUDY
Cranial Base
- Maxilla to Cranial Base
- Mandible to Cranial Base
Maxillo-Mandibular relationship
Vertical height
Maxillary and Mandibular incisor position
Soft tissue

AREA OF STUDY
Cranial Base
- Maxilla to Cranial Base
- Mandible to Cranial Base
Maxillo-Mandibular relationship
Vertical height
Maxillary and Mandibular incisor position
Soft tissue

Types of
measurements

A. MAXILLARY & MANDIBULAR


INCISOR POSITION
Max. & Mand.
Incisor
Position
N
S
104

U1-SN

104

Landmarks:
-sela nasion tip of incisal and apex
of root bisects the line to get the
angle
To determine the position of incisors

U1

Effect:
-if angle increases protrusion of
upper incisors
-if angle decreases retrusion of
upper incisors

B. MAXILLARY &
MANDIBULAR INCISOR
POSITION
N
Max. & Mand. U1-NA
Incisor
Position

4mm

(mm)

Utilizes nacion and point A


U1

Point A

From the NA line measure the distance the


labial surface of upper central incisors or U1
From Steiner analysis

4mm

Effect:
-increase distance upper incisors protruded
-decrease distance upper incisors retruded

C. Maxillary & Mandibular Incisor


Position
Max. & Mand.
Incisor
Position

U1-NA

22

From Steiners analysis


22

Point A
U1

Utilizes the nasion point A


line and bisecting line of
upper one.
Effect:
-increase angle labioversion
or protrusion of U1
-decrease angle
linguoversion or retrusive U1

D. Maxillary & Mandibular Incisor


Position
Max. & Mand.
Incisor
Position

IMPA

90

From Tweeds analysis


This relates to the mandibular
plane to lower incisors.
The value 90o for lower incisors
makes it stable because it is
located on the basal bone (most
compact part of the bone)
90
IMPA

Effect ;
-angle increases protrusion
-angle decreases retrusion

E. Maxillary & Mandibular Incisor


Position
N

Max. & Mand.


Incisor
Position

L1-NB
(mm)

4mm

From Steiners analysis


Utilizes the nasion point B line

L1

Measure the distance from NB line to the


labial surface of the lower incisors.
4mm
Point B

Effect:
-distance increases protruded incisors
-distance decreases retrusive incisors

F. Maxillary & Mandibular Incisor


Position
N

Max. & Mand.


Incisor
Position

L1-NB

25

From Steiners analysis


Utilizes the NB line and bisecting
line of lower incisors or L1

L1
Point B
25

Effect:
-angle increases labioversion
of the lower incisors
-angle decreases linguoversion
of the lower incisors

G. Maxillary & Mandibular Incisor


Position
Point A

L1
2mm

Pog

Max. & Mand.


Incisor
Position

L1APog

2mm

Utilizes the point A Pogonion line


and measure the distance
from APog line to the labial surface
of lower incisors
Effect:
-distance increases protrusion
-distance decreases retrusive

H. Maxillary & Mandibular Incisor


Position
Max. & Mand.
Incisor
Position

U1-L1

130

From Downs and Steiners analysis


U1
130

L1

This utilizes the bisecting line of


the upper incisors or U1 and
bisecting line of lower incisors or
L1 to get the interincisal angle
Effect:
-if angle increases there is
uprighting of upper and lower
incisors
-if angle decreses protrusion

AREA OF STUDY
Cranial Base
- Maxilla to Cranial Base
- Mandible to Cranial Base
Maxillo-Mandibular relationship
Vertical height
Maxillary and Mandibular incisor position
Soft tissue

SOFT TISSUE
Soft Tissue

E-lineLower lip

-2mm

Tip of nose

Analysis for soft tissue


Draw a line from tip of the nose to
the tip of the chin, and then measure
the distance between the E-line (or
aesthetic line) and the lower lip
-2mm

Effect:
-if increases protrusion of the lips
-if decreases retrusion of the lips
Tip of chin

SUMMARY