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Data collection
Process of gathering and measuring
information on variables of interest,
in an established system
Compilation and interpretation of
primary and secondary information
integration of different sources

Types of data
Primary: original data collected by
the researcher for the purposes of his
or her own study at hand
Secondary: information collected by
individuals or agencies and
institutions other than the researcher

Quantitative & qualitative

Quantitative approach
Positivist based on philosophical
approach known as logical positivism
Follow the natural-scientific method
Research to be limited to what we can
observe and measure objectively
Attempt to develop and test theories
and models
Ex: the study of observable human

Qualitative approach
Not rigorously examined or measured
Opposite to upholding the naturalscientific method
Not to follow strict natural-scientific
methods when collecting and
interpreting data
Ex: the study on the experiencing of
human behaviour

Quantitative vs qualitative


To evaluate objective data

consisting of numbers (quantity,
amount, frequency, etc)

To evaluate subjective data that

are produced by the respondents
on interviews (human beings)

Analyse the data using complex

structured methods to confirm
the hypothesis

Analyse the data using flexible

and explorative methods to
deepen the understanding about
the investigation

To understand the outsides

perspective free from bias

To understand the insiders

perspective to get the first-hand
experience to get best data

Stable research process

Dynamic and changeable process

The research structure is

controlled - particularistic

Uncontrolled and wide sources od

data (documents, records,
photos, observations, interviews,
case studies) - holistic

Example of research using

quantitative method
Quantitative methods
Experimental research
Quasi-experimental research
Non-experiment research

Experimental research
Control on the independent variable
Random assignment to groups
Nuisance variables

Quasi-experimental research

Cannot randomly assign subject to

differ groups
Interrupted time-series design

Non-experiment research

Random assignment
Planned intervention
Survey design
Example: astronomy (we cannot
manipulate the stars)

Qualitative research

Approach design or set of techniques

Descriptive form of research
Useful in hypothesistesting research

Data selection
Samples a part of a population

Sampling data technique

Simple random sampling
Each member of the population has the same
chance to be included in samples

Stratified random sampling

Separating the population into mutual groups and
drawing simple random sample from each group
Example: gender, age, profession, etc.

Systematic sampling
Where the number of a sample is consistent to
collect all of the samples from the population.

Data collection strategies

What you need to know (figures,
Where the data available
(environments, people, animals)
Resources and time availability
Complexity of the data
Frequency of the data collection