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ALC PDH RADIO

Technical Training
Instructor
Mr. Monthien Satantoranin
Senior Manager Technical Support
ALC

Training Topics
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

ALC

ALC Equipment Structure


Installation , Configuration and Operating
SCT Network Management
Faults and Alarm Understanding
Troubleshooting and Looback Test
Path/Link Calculation

ALC Equipment Structure


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

ALC

ALC IDU ( Indoor Unit)


ALC ODU ( Outdoor Unit)
LIM ( Line Interface Module)
RIM ( Radio Interface Module)
Interconnection IDU to ODU cable

IDU ( Indoor Unit)

Mains Features
Max capacity : 16 E1 + 3 Ethernet Port
IDU size: 1U high only and single board
Service channel: optional V11 codirectional.
Loops: RF loop, IF loop and Baseband loops
ATPC range : depending on frequency (20dB or 40 dB)
Internal PRBS
IDU-ODU cable: 370 meter of or RG8

ALC

IDU (Indoor Unit)


SCT LAN port
120ohm E1 Sub-D type
connectors

LCT USB
connector

PSU connector
Trib. 1-2-3-4

Q3

LCT

PSU alarm LEDs

Trib. 9-10-11-12

48V1

USER IN/OUT

1
2
Trib. 13-14-15-16

PS2

Manual operation /
Loop active
Fuse: 3.15A (M)

Tx Rx
R

TEST

AL

2
Trib. 5-6-7-8

TEST
R AL

48V2

PS1

TX RX

IDU-ODU cable
SMA connectors

Reset
Alarms
ALC

Active branch (Tx / Rx)

Reference Tooth

Volt/dBm in Rx
Weight = 4.5 Kg

ODU (Outdoor Unit)


ALC

ODU Mounting

Max.1 dB Loss
ALC

ALC

ODU with
Integrated antenna

1+1 ODU

1+0 ODU

Unprotected ODU
ALC

Interconnection cable
Frequency signals:
Tx IF
Rx IF
Telemetry IDUODU
Telemetry ODUIDU
Power 48 VDC

330 MHz
140 MHz
17.5 MHz
5.2 MHz

Max length (1/4 inch or RG 8 cable)


4/16QAM
ALC

370 m
10

Equipment Composition
ALC is made up by different sub-modules housed in
two mechanical structures:
1) IDU

LIM
Controller
RIM (one per branch)

2) ODU

Radiotransceiver (RT, one per branch)

ALC

11

Module functionalities
Line

interfaces

Line

Mux-Demux circuits, Service Mux-demux circuits

Bit

insertion-extraction,

Modulator
Switch
BER

LIM

- Demodulator (digital side)

management

counters

Power

supply

Cable

interface

Modulator

RIM

(analog side) 330 MHz

Demodulator

(analog side) 140 MHz


Radio

Power supply

Cable

interface

IF

ALC

Service interfaces

Management software ports

Equipment controller

EOC

Alarm LEDs

User in / Alarm out facilities

CONTROLLER

RT

unit

RF

unit: Transmitter, Receiver

12

Equipment
structure
ALC

13

Controller

ALC

14

ALC

LIM

Tx direction

15

LIM

Rx direction
*FEC = Forward Error Corrector
Example:
FEC *

Without BER=10-6
With BER=10-13

(+2.5 dB)

(block code)

errors

ALC

16

RIM

ALC

17

ODU

ALC

18

ALC characteristics (1)


Tx

power (4QAM/16QAM):
7 GHz +27 dBm / +22 dBm
15 GHz
+25 dBm / +20 dBm
23 GHz
+20 dBm / +15 dBm

Tx/Rx

spacing:
7 GHz 154/161/168/196/245 MHz
15 GHz
420/728 MHz
23 GHz
1008/1232 MHz

Power

1+0
1+1
ALC

consumption
< 30 W
< 55 W
19

ALC characteristics (2)


Rx

HBER (10E-3) thresholds (4QAM/16QAM):


- in 16x2
7 GHz -84 dBm / -80 dBm
15 GHz
-83.5 dBm / -79.5 dBm
23 GHz
-83 dBm / -79 dBm
- in 4x2
7 GHz -90 dBm / -86 dBm
15 GHz -89.5 dBm / -85.5 dBm
23 GHz
-89 dBm / -85 dBm

Max
ALC

Rx power - 20 dBm
20

Installation ,Configuration and


Operating
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

ALC

IDU, ODU Installation


SCT :Network Management Software
LCT :Local Craft Terminal
Parameter and Configuration
Alarm Monitoring
Backup ,Upload and Download firmware

21

Installation
IDU

Installation
Power Supply and Grounding
E1 Cable and Wiring
Antenna and ODU Mounting

ALC

22

Installation
IDU

Installation (1)
USB/LCT
E1
Power Supply
IDU to ODU
Cable

ALC

23

Installation
IDU

Installation (2)

IDU to ODU Cable

ALC

24

Installation
Power

Supply and Grounding


Power Supply
-48 to -57.6 Vdc
Nominal Consumption
44 watts (1+0)
24 watts ( IDU only)

ALC

25

Installation
Power

Supply and Grounding

1= IDU grounding point

5=IDU matching tail grounding

2=ODU grounding point

6=Battery grounding point

3= IDU-ODU interconnect cable 7=Grounding cord connect to Earth ground rod


4=Cable grounding/Station ground

ALC

26

Installation
ODU Grounding

ALC

27

Installation
E1

ALC

Cable and Wiring

28

Installation
Antenna

ALC

and ODU Mounting

29

Installation
Antenna

ALC

and ODU Mounting

30

Installation
Antenna

ALC

and ODU Mounting

31

Installation
Antenna

and ODU Mounting

ODU final housing position for

ODU final housing position for

Vertical Polarization

Horizontal Polarization

ALC

32

Antenna and ODU mounting


1

ALC

33

SCT/LCT : Main Features


SCT/LCT

connection
SCT Main Window Menus
Routing
Stored Routing Table
Station management
Commang Logger
Equipment features management
Configuration backup/restore
Alarm monitoring
LCT Main Window Manus
Radio Parameter Configurations
ALC

34

SUBNETWORK and LOCAL


CRAFT TERMINAL
SCT/LCT

PERSONAL COMPUTER WITH GRAPHICAL DISPLAY


WINDOWS 98, NT, 2000, XP SW PLATFORM
TCP/IP COMMUNICATION PROTOCOL USING:
RS232 Serial port (COM1/2 + PPP)
USB +PPP
Ethernet LAN

ALC

35

ALC RADIO IP PROTOCOL STACK


APPLICATION SOFTWARE
SNMP
TCP / UDP
IP / OSPF
LLC 802.2
MAC 802.3
802.3
(ETH LAN)

ALC

PPP
LCT
USB

EOC (Radio)
64Kb/s

ASYN-RS232
57.6Kb/s

36

SCT : Connections

ALC

37

Connection to the equipment

ALC

38

Login

User: SYSTEM
Password:
ALC

(read & write) ; RLOM

siaemicr

(read only)
39

Stations

Equipments inside the station

His

ALC

lo
y
r
to

40

Read again the


status of the
equipment

User management
and time alignment

Configuration
upload/download
and station
management

Configuration of
the equipment
Log as SYSTEM an
equipment in monitor

ALC

History log
management

Configuration of
the connection

list of commands

41

SCT Menu-Equipment

ALC

42

SCT Menu-Option

ALC

43

SCT Menu-Network

ALC

44

SCT Menu-Tool

ALC

45

Equipment menu

Equipment configuration
Agent, name, time
Alarms, group by group
Alarms configuration
Test, loops, manual operations
Alarms reading (refresh)
Firmware update
Performance monitoring
Units
Automatic troubleshooting
Routing and addressing

ALC

46

ALC

47

Properties
Equipment name
Agent, used in alarm
history and in
subnetwork wizard
Equipment time alignment
and network time
alignment
Software restart
(doesnt cut the traffic)

ALC

48

View Current Alarms

ALC

49

Alarm configuration

ALC

50

Manual operations list

ALC

51

Firmware Update
Firmware
Switch
Download of
the firmware

Upload of
the actual
firmware

ALC

52

Download of the new firmware


Position of the file
firmware.dwl

Overwriting of old
firmware (total
dowload slow)
Download of different
sections only (fast) or
towards peripheral (radio)
Bench switch after
the download
ALC

53

Performance Monitoring

Start/Stop of
selected item

Quality results
Output power
Input power

ALC

Show of the results


of the selected item

54

UNITS

Part number

Part number

Status

Kind of trouble
ALC

Trouble severity
55

Diagnosis
Reading the actual alarms the
Diagnosis prepares an explanation
of every trouble and the
procedures to follow to solve the
problem

ALC

56

Port addresses
All SIAE equipments, regarding SCT software and supervision, are
routers: all interfaces need an address and relevant subnet mask

Addresses can be set clicking:


1.

Set values

2.

Store

3.

Restart

Client (always)
ALC

57

Routing

ALC

58

Routing
ALC Port and Address

ALC

59

Routing

ALC

ALC Port and Address in daisy chain

60

Routing table
Type and address of
crossed port towards
Destination

Netmask and
IP address of
Destination
Type and address
of crossed port
Default destination
ALC

61

Stored Routing Table


The Stored Routing Table adds routing lines, after a
Restart, to the running Routing Table of the NE.
In this way we can change Ports addresses (operation that
needs a restart) without loosing a remote NE:
1. In Stored Routing Table add the routing lines
relevant to new port addresses you are going to set
2. Set the new port addresses (the equipment restarts)
3. After the restart the equipment has new addresses and
the routing table configured already: the NE
management is still running

ALC

62

Station management
NEs connected to SCT can be assigned in
various stations using the tool :
Subnetwork Configuration Wizard

ALC

63

Alarm correlation
Every alarm is reported with
Alarm beginning
Alarm end (gravity info is maintained)

ALC

64

Alarm acknowledgement
Alarm acknowledge is available in
alarm history list: every
acknowledgement can
be managed completely
in station list: new alarm
info is highlighted by
an asterisk

ALC

65

Command logger
Cmd Logger reads the list of operations, executed by the users,
stored on the controller of the equipment.
The log, uploaded from equipment, is stored on the PC for
further consultations. Following filters are available:
Operations date
User address
User type
Operation name

ALC

66

Configuration upload/download
Upload (from equipment)
From

Tool menu, open the proper Template


Select Upload operation and the equipment you want to
upload information from
Save them in a file (*.cfg)

Download (to equipment)


From

Tool menu, open the proper file (*.cfg)


Select Download operation and the equipment you want
to download information to
Uploaded parameters and *.cfg file are editable using
Equipment Configuration Wizard.
ALC

67

Configuration Template
Configuration

template: it is relevant to equipment


radio parameters as frequency, attenuation, capacity,
thresholds,
Address

configuration template: it is relevant to


management parameters as port IP addresses, routing
tables, remote elements tables, OSPF.
Both configurations are necessary during first
installation or when Controller module is substituted
with a spare one: you can use a file to download or set
every parameter manually.
ALC

68

Full backup
The whole amount of parameters (equipment
parameters, address parameters and remote element
table) can be uploaded from equipment, saved in a
file (*.bku), downloaded to equipment.
These parameters cannot be editated.

ALC

69

LCT
for
ALC

ALC

70

Configuration

General
Bitrate

Modulation

Link ID (local only)

ALC

71

Rx Power Low thresholds

HBer,LBer, EWL
thresholds

ALC

1) General preset:
thresholds
72

2) General preset:
Rx switches

1+0
1+1

In case of no Rx

In case of Hber, Lber, EWL, first CRC correction


ALC

73

Radio link parameters


Main parameters of the link are:
Configuration
Capacity

For local
Modulation terminal

Setting has to
be copied in
remote terminal

Link ID
Frequency
Frequency

For both
Only Configuration
Capacity
local and has to be set locally (on
Modulation remote local and after on
terminal remote)
Link ID
ALC

74

PRBS (Pseudo Random Bit Sequence)


Measure results and duration

Alarm on Checked signal line

Sync Los events during test


Measure status
Pattern type

Checked signal selection

Tributary selection if
checked is Signal 2MBit

P.R.B.S replaces the traffic on selected channel


P.R.B.S. test is pointed out as Manual Operation (subject to timeout)
ALC

75

ATPC (Automatic Tx Power Control)

ALC

76

ATPC Characteristics
Maximum ATPC range:

This range is limited by the


amount of fixed attenuation with
respect to the nominal TX power

Power Control Criteria:

Remote terminal Received Signal


Level (RSL) and BER

ATPC speed:

30 dB/s

Purpouse:

To counteract the effect of flat fading,


minimizing nodal interferences

ALC

77

Maintenance
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

ALC

Reriodical Check
Alarm Meaning
Root Cause of Failure
Troubleshooting
Loop Facilities

78

Periodical Check
Periodical Checks are used to check for
radio equipment operation without the
presence of any alarm conditions

Check of the TX Power

Check of the Receive Signal Strength


( Reading Value must be match with link hop Cal.)

ALC

Check of BER and HOP performance

79

Normal operating condition

Rx level on both ODU match values given by


hop calculation.
Rx level accuracy:
-40

dBm -75 dBm range


-30 dBm -40 dBm range
ALC

3dB
4dB
80

Faulty condition: alarm notification


A faulty condition is pointed out by
IDU front panel LEDs:
- AL: alarms, internal or external
- TEST: manual operation active
SCT

window:

- Log history area (with alarm correlation)


- Equipment view current alarms (with alarms
grouping)

ALC

81

ALARMS
There are two directions of alarms: Tx and Rx
Tx

This line starts in LIM and arrives to output flange: when a situation of
more alarms is occurring, the most significative alarm of them is at the
beginning of Tx chain, all the others after are due to this
Rx

This line starts in output flange and arrives to LIM: when a situation of
more alarms is occurring, the most significative alarm of them is at the
beginning of Rx chain, all the others after should be caused by this

ODU

Rx
Most Significant alarm

RIM
LIM
ALC

Tx

ODU
RIM
LIM
82

COMMON group
Alarms not related to a specific part of the equipment but
relevant to the link.
Example:.
EOC radio alarm (relevant SCT management)
Link telemetry fail (relevant traffic, ATPC info, man op)
If both alarms are ON, the link is interrupted.
Investigation must be made on a possible condition of bad
propagation, or equipment failure

ALC

83

ALC

84

Link telemetry fail


No link between Local and Remote station. Traffic is cut.
Link telemetry is inserted in main radio frame in Bit Insertion
circuit inside LIM, and contains commands for the remote
station: switch off the radios on remote side in case of local RF
loop, Link ID, ATPC info.
Telemetry link is a connection between local and remote IDUs.
TEST - if this alarm occurs, a double IDU loop (both branches)
can be done: if this alarm disappears, local IDU is OK and the
problem is after (propagation, local radios, remote equipment).

ALC

85

Communication Radio EOC Data link


No link between Local and Remote station or wrong
port address configuration.
EOC is the channel involved in management
communication.
If EOC radio link is active:
- Traffic is OK
- Management is cut (no remote)

ALC

86

PRBS Fail
When PRBS is working and no signal is received on checked
signal, in PRBS window the field Sync Los Alarm is active
together with PRBS Fail in Current alarms window
Every ON-OFF transition
increases the field
PRBS Fail Alarm Counter

ALC

87

Communication 2Mb EOC Data link


No EOC channel is present on selected tributary in selected timeslot : wrong
port address configuration or no tributary input (LOS).
EOC is the channel involved in management communication.
If EOC 2Mb link is active:
-Management is cut
(no remote)
- If relative LOS is active,
traffic on that tributary is
cut

ALC

88

Revertive
When a branch is declared preferential,
the switch on opposite branch gives
Revertive alarm.
The return to preferential branch, when
available again, happens after Wait Time
period.

ALC

89

2Mb/s G.704 (Trib.x)


Radio Fail/AIS and/or Line Fail/AIS
When management messages come via tributary
timeslot, further checks are performed on both
directions of this tributary

ALC

90

Tx Fail
When on remote side both radios dont receive, on local
side a Tx switch command is performed and Tx fail alarm
is enabled.
When this alarm is on,
check local ODU in stand by
This functionality is enabled
in LCT General Preset
The alarm remains active
until Reset is given

ALC

91

Link ID
Alarm is on if Link ID check is enabled (Link ID 0)
and remote Link ID is different from the local one.
Traffic is cut but signal is received and measured.
Output = AIS
This alarm
causes:

ALC

92

LIM group
These alarms come from
External fault: tributary LOS
LIM failure:
-Multiplexer/demultiplexer failure
-Modulator/demodulator failure
Warning: modulator/demodulator
circuitry is spread into LIM and RIM
modules.
RIM or ODU alarms propagation
(seen in LIM as Baseband RX alarm)
ALC

93

ALC

94

Tributary-1 Signal loss

Tx

Loss Of Signal alarm is active when a situation opposite to that


foreseen by configuration is performed on tributary interface:
No input or
or
cable disconnected
TRIB. STATUS

Tributary
connected

ALC

95

Multiplexer fail

Tx

The alarm is given during multiplexing of input tributaries by

Overflow stuffing memories

Overflow is due to bad clock of one tributary (too fast: >+50ppm)


or hardware failure
In case of Multiplexer Fail the signal forwarded to the radio is
N x AIS (from all the N tributaries)

ALC

96

Branch-x Modulator Fail

Tx

This alarm is active when at cable interface Tx IF


modulated signal (330 MHz) is missing or is under a
certain value; this is due to:
Modulator faulty
Cable IDU-ODU open (that produces high VSWR
value)

Traffic is cut

ALC

97

Branch-x ODU-IDU
Communication fail
This alarm occurs when on carrier used to receive
information from ODU, or remote commands from other side,
are detected:

CRC errors

Loss of frame

This carrier is separated from carrier used for opposite


direction (IDUODU) and from TX or RX carriers

ALC

98

Branch-x Demodulator Fail

Rx

This alarm is active when average deviation of symbol


recognition is higher of a certain level.
Every problem in constellation gives Demodulator alarm:
Problem of digital conversion of received signal from RIM
I or Q signal missing
High level of interference (bad quality but good Rx level)
No Rx IF modulated signal (140 MHz) from ODU (no Rx, ODU
faulty, IDU/ODU cable open)
Branch Rx quality alarm

Demodulator alarm causes:

(software settable)

Rx quality alarms (HBER, LBER, EWL)


Rx signal alarms (BaseBand Rx)

Traffic
is
cut
ALC

99

Branch-x BaseBand Rx

Rx

This alarm is active when

Bit Extraction does not work (in LIM)

Demodulator does not work (in LIM)

Demodulator does not receive from RIM or ODU

BaseBand Rx causes:
Demultiplexer Fail

Traffic is cut

ALC

100

Demultiplexer Fail

Rx

The alarm is given during demultiplexing by:

Frame Alignment Word not recognised (LOF - loss of frame)

Overflow destuffing memories

Overflow memories of hitless Rx switch

BaseBand Rx alarm

In case of Demultiplexer Fail, output is AIS (from all the


tributaries)
ALC

101

RIM group
These alarms come from
External fault: demodulator fail alarm and
ODU alarm are generated when ODU
becomes faulty
RIM failure: PSU alarm with cable
open/short alarm or modulator/demodulator
alarms are active
Warning: modulator/demodulator circuitry is
spread into LIM and RIM modules.

ALC

102

ALC

103

Branch-1 Power Supply


This alarm is active when the PSU (Power Supply Unit) of one
RIM is switched off or is in failure condition

Analysis order is:

PSU

IDU

All alarmed
from now on

RT

If the PSU is off, all the alarms of that RIM are activated:
this alarm causes all
Rx Branch-1 alarms
except those relevant
Radio1 (is OFF)

ALC

104

Branch-1 Cable open/short


This alarm is active when the following situations occur:
- Cable open alarm no current through cable interface: ODU is not
supplied so situation looks like PSU alarm (Rx alarms) with cable alarm
instead PSU alarm
- Cable short alarm overcurrent/low voltage through cable interface
If both alarms are
active, 48 V source
has no enough current

Caused by high VSWR


value of damaged cable

Cable open
situation
ALC

105

RT group
These alarms come from
External fault: Rx power low alarm is
generated because of bad propagation
or by remote terminal faulty
ODU failure: PSU fail alarm or RF
VCO alarm or RF IF alarm is activated

ALC

106

ALC

107

Branch-x IDU-ODU
Communication fail
This alarm occurs in ODU when on carrier used to receive
command from IDU, are detected:

CRC errors

Loss of frame

This carrier is separated from carrier used for opposite


direction (ODUIDU) and from TX or RX carriers

ALC

108

Branch-1 RT Radio Power Supply


This alarm is active when the Power Supply
section of the radio doesnt work properly or is in
failure condition (voltage in input out of range).
Depending voltage value, radio can work.
When the under/over voltage is too high, radio is
off and other alarms (cable open) cover this.

ALC

109

Branch 1 RT VCO fail

Tx & Rx

This alarm occurs when VCO in RF unit is not able


to lock any frequencies.
Every problem in VCO causes alarms in both
directions: RF unit is not able to convert IF Tx in RF
Tx (Tx Power Low alarm) and RF Rx in IF Rx .
In this situation the alarm is active together with Tx
Power Low and all Rx alarms because RF channel
is not locked.

ALC

110

Branch 1 RT If fail
This alarm occurs when is not present IF signal inside
ODU. There are two different IF signals but one alarm
only.
No IF Tx : the alarm is on and causes Tx Power Low
No IF Rx: the alarm is on with all Rx alarms
Rt If fail can be caused by Modulator fail (no IF Tx)
When VCO is faulty, RF unit gives a IFRX signal made
up of noise: this is enough to mantain IF fail alarm off
(but Demodulator cannot work Rx alarms).
ALC

111

Branch 1 RT Tx Power Low

Tx

This alarm occurs when Tx power is 3 dB under


standard output of ODU-RF unit.
ATPC and manual attenuation do not affect this alarm
that is due by internal failure of RF unit.
This alarm can be activated by a manual operation
also: Tx Transmitter off in Radio Branch - Settings
If both Rx Power Low and Tx Power Low are active, RF
unit inside ODU is faulty

ALC

112

Branch 1 RT Rx Power Low


Rx

This alarm occurs when Rx power is under a


defined threshold (about 10 dB under standard Rx
level)
Threshold value can be set for both branches in
range - 40 dBm- 99 dBm in LCT - General preset
The alarm Rx Power Low is a branch alarm and it is
used to drive Rx switch

ALC

113

UNIT group
This group generates alarms when one of the
units, the equipment consists of, is faulty or
does not respond to controller polling:
Unit fail
Unit is not responding
Unit is missing
Unit hardware mismatch
Unit software mismatch
ALC

114

ALC

115

OTHER
ALARMS

ALC

116

Performance alarms
Every performance measure can drive the relevant alarm if threshold
is exceeded.
Threshold in sec. relevant 15 minutes alarm
Threshold in sec. relevant 24 hours alarm
Threshold in dB of Rx alarm
alarm counter reset

If 0, alarm
is disabled
ALC

15 minutes
alarms severity

117

Performance monitoring
15 min.
alarms
24 hours
alarms

PRX < -70

dBm

>

5
-5

m
dB

RX

R = 15 minutes

ALC

118

Recorder : Prx

date

ALC

LCT

time

dBm

119

Measures
Performances is a group of measures, 15 minutes by 15
minutes, day by day, recorded by the equipment itself and
downloaded on the PC (the download needs bitrate).
These measures remain active also with SCT (and PC)
disconnected.
Recorder Prx is the recording of Rx power on a log file inside
the PC: every time a new value is measured a new record is
written inside the log file with info of when (day, hour, minutes
and seconds) and how much (dBm measured).
This recording remains active until SCT is connected to the
equipment.

ALC

120

Current Alarms

ALC

121

Switch modes

Auto
Preferential: operator can select which branch must be
operative without alarms.
Wait Time = time before coming back to the preferential
branch when alarms disappear. In this way the controller
doesnt switch continuously in case of fleeting alarms.
Reset = Wait Time is not respected
Full auto: both branches have same priority

Manual forcing
Operator can select which branch must be operative despite
alarms

ALC

122

Tx switch criteria
1.
2.
3.

4.
5.
ALC

Highest priority
RIM PSU alarm
Manual forcing
Cable short/ Cable open alarm
Modulator failure
ODU unit failure alarm
VCO failure alarm
IF unit alarm
ODU PSU alarm
Tx power low alarm
Rx failure on both remote radios
lowest priority
Revertive Tx
123

Rx switch criteria
1.
2.
3.

4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Highest priority
RIM PSU alarm
Manual forcing
Cable short/open alarm
Base band unit failure alarm
Demodulator failure
ODU unit failure alarm
VCO failure alarm
IF unit alarm
ODU PSU alarm
High BER alarm (selectable: BER>10 -3,-4,-5)
Low BER alarm (selectable: BER >10 -6,-7,-8)
Early warning alarm (selectable: BER >10 -9,-10,-11,-12)
RF input low (selectable from -40dBm to -99dBm)
CRC pulse
Revertive Rx
lowest priority
ALC

124

EQUIPMENT FEATURE
MANAGEMENT
ALC

125

LOOP FACILITIES
Local Tributary Loop : used to test the cable interfacing

for the equipment upstream


Remote Tributary Loop : used to test two direction link

performance making use of an unused 2 Mbit/s signal

Baseband Loop : it permit to test the LIM circuits

IDU Loop : it permit to test the complete IDU (optional)

RF Loop : it permit to test the complete radio terminal

ALC

126

RF
LOOP

IDU
LOOP

BASEBAND
LOOP

MOD-DEMOD

RF

RIM 1

Branch

Line side

BASEBAND
1
LOOP

ODU 1

AL : available loops
data direction:
- towards the equipment that has enabled the loop (baseband, IDU, RF)
- selectable for E1 loop
- only local loops
MO
-E
D
M R
F
1 ID
IM
R
UO
1 R
U
D
F
P L
O
L
P
O

MU
MX
E
-D
X

AS
B
P
O
L
D
N
A
B
E

1 L
E
P
O

:AL :av ailbe lops


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IM
L

MUX-DEMUX

E1 LOOP

LIM

Radio side
ALC

LOOPS
127

Line side

ALC loop:
external PRBS

Radio side

E1 loop line side : loop works with line


enabled or not
E1 loop radio side : loop works with line
enabled on local side and on remote side
Base Band, IDU, RF loop : loop works if
line used is enabled local side and on
remote side
ALC

128

loops:
internal PRBS

Alarm OFF: signal is back!

E1 loop line side: it is before PRBS checking point


E1 loop radio side: loop works with line enabled on
remote side, indifferent* on local side.
Base Band, IDU, RF loop: loop works any status of
local* and remote line
__________________________________________________________
ALC
* PRBS enables automatically the local side of used line

129

Propagation Link
E.I.R.P = Pt + Gt+ Cable loss
Free space loss (L in Km, f in GHz)
Received power

PT

A fs 92.44dB 20 Log L f

PR dBm PT dBm A fs dB GT dB GR dB

PR

ALC

130

Antenna
D = antenna diameter
= wave lenght = c/f

= Aeff / Ageo= antenna efficiency 0,6

8
1
3

10
ms
c = speed of light =

D 2 2

Antenna gain G 10 Log
2

ALC

131

1) Refraction
Snell law:

n2

n1sen1 n2 sen 2

n4

n3

n1

n2

n1

k < 4/3 (sub-standard)

k > 4/3 (super-standard)

ALC

k = 4/3 (standard)

132

2) hgeo earth is not flat


2

hgeo

R0

considering geometrical visibility on


a planet with no air
2

L

hgeo
k R0

with k<4/3 , k=4/3 , k>4/3 considering the


troposphere refraction (previous page)

hgeo
L
ALC

R0 = 6378 km

133

3) First Fresnel zone


A nth fresnel zone gives in phase contributes to radio waves
propagation.
In order to avoid attenuation is important that first fresnel
zone is without obstacle: to tower height calculation, must be add
the ray of biggest Fresnel zone, the first zone

L
RM
2
L
RM
ALC

134

Height of the towers


We have to consider:

earths curvature

k effect (refraction)

first Fresnel zone free

From the first we obtain hgeo , with


refraction hgeo becomes hgeo
and from the last we have to add also RM

L
L
RM
hgeo

k R0
2
2

htower
ALC

135

example
L = 20 km
f = 23 GHz
k = 4/3

L

hgeo
0.047 km 47 m
1.333 R0

R0= 6378 km

L
RM
8.1m
2
htower= 47m + 8.1m = 55.1m
ALC

136

Fade Margin

from previous page: 4QAM/16x2


L = 20 km

PT= +20 dBm

f = 23 GHz

HBER - 82 dBm

A fs (dB ) 92.44 20 Log L f 92.44 53.26 145.7 dB


x = gain of antennas

FM = 40dB (purpouse)

FM= PR-HBER PR= -82dBm + 40dB = -42dBm

PR dBm PT dBm A fs dB GT dB GR dB
GT+GR= 2G = PR-PT+Afs= -42dBm-20dBm+146dB=84dB
GT=GR=42dB

ALC

D=60cm G=40dB

D=80cm G= 42,6dB

137

Rain attenuation (f > 8GHz )


freq

rain

25 mm/h

100 mm/h

10 GHz

0.5 dB/km

2.5 dB/km

15 GHz

1.5 dB/km

7 dB/km

20 GHz

2.1 dB/km

10 dB/km

30 GHz

4 dB/km

15 dB/km

40 GHz

6 dB/km

20 dB/km

ALC

138

Rain depolarization

H
vertical polar. e.m. wave

Drop weight
H
E
horizontal polar. e.m. wave

Wind
I

v
GHz

ALC

Drag (air resistence)

139

Multipath

Direct ray

Indirect ray

Indirect ray, depending on its phase, can increase or decrease the


power of the main stream
Two rays model

H 1 b e

j ( )

Direct ray: amplitude =


Indirect ray: amplitude = b , phase delay = , time delay =
In B position, received signal has a notch every 1/ Hz with
deepness depending on b
ALC

140

THANK YOU

ALC

141