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Catalino Ortiz Brocka (April 3,
1939 May 21, 1991) is a
Filipino film director. He is widely
regarded as one of the most
influential and significant Filipino
filmmakers in Philippine cinema
history. In 1983, he founded the
organization Concerned Artists of
the Philippines (CAP), dedicated
to helping artists address issues
confronting the country.

Brocka was openly gay and he often incorporated LGBT

themes into his films. He has directed landmark films such
as Tinimbang Ka Ngunit Kulang (1974), Maynila sa mga
Kuko ng Liwanag (1975), Insiang (1976), Bayan Ko: Kapit
sa Patalim (1984), and Orapronobis (1989). In 1997, he
was posthumously given the National Artist of the
Philippines for Film award for "having made significant
contributions to the development of Philippine arts."


Fight for Us (Filipino: ''Orapronobis'') is a

1989 Filipino political thriller film directed by
Lino Brocka. The film stars Phillip Salvador
and Dina Bonnevie.
After being released from a Philippine prison
following the fall of Ferdinand Marcos, a
former priest (Salvador) gives up his violent
activities in favor of peaceful social activism.
But he quickly discovers that vicious death
squads, and notorious counter-insurgency
operations, still plague his country, and soon
he is considering joining the resistance again.


Weighed But Found Wanting
(Filipino: Tinimbang Ka Ngunit
Kulang; also known as Human
Imperfections) is a 1974 Filipino
drama film directed by Lino Brocka.
The films stars Christopher De Leon
(in his debut role), Hilda Koronel,
Lolita Rodriguez and Eddie Garcia.
Considered one of Brocka's most
important films, it won six awards
(including Best Picture) at the 23rd
FAMAS Awards in 1975.

The story begins with a flashback to the past of a

woman called Kuala (Lolita Rodriguez). An herbolario
(traditional/folk medicine practitioner) performs an
abortion on Kuala, as Cesar (Eddie Garcia) watches her.
The abortion was a success, but when Kuala sees the
aborted fetus, she becomes disturbed. In the next scene,
she walks in the middle of a grassy plain, and as the heat
becomes more and more unbearable, she becomes
In the present, Kuala, now the village idiot, wanders
about her Nueva Ecija town in dirty clothes and with
mangy hair. The townsfolk mock and deride Kuala, and
she is pushed into a watering hole where she almost

Bertong Ketong (Mario O'Hara), a leper yearning for

female companionship, attracts Kuala with a rattle and
takes her to his shack in the cemetery. Junior (Christopher
de Len) makes friends with them, defying the
prohibitions of his father, Cesar Blanco, who is a lawyer
and failed politician.
Junior asks Berto's advice concerning his problems with
his eccentric teacher, Mr. Del Mundo (Orlando Nadres),
who has a crush on him, and with his girlfriend,
Evangeline (Hilda Koronel), who flirted with her escort
during that year's Santacruzan. The jealous Junior left the
procession and sought the company of Milagros (Laurice
Guillen), who seduces him.

The local Asociacin de las Damas Cristianas

(Association of Christian Ladies) is later scandalised to
discover that Kuala has fallen pregnant. She is forced to
live in the custody of the pious Lola Jacoba (Rosa Aguirre).
When Berto makes a clandestine visit to Kuala, she tells
him of his unhappiness. Berto tells this to Junior, who
resolves to help the pregnant Kuala make an escape from
Lola Jacoba's house and lead her back to Berto's shack.
However, Berto knows she will be taken away and returns
her to Lola Jacoba, and promises to retrieve her after she
has given birth.

Some nights later, Kuala experiences labour pains. She

finds her way to Berto's shack, at which point Berto rushes
out to fetch a doctor. When the doctor refuses to help him,
Berto takes him hostage but repeats he will not kill him.
As Berto flees with the doctor, the doctor's wife shouts for
help, awakening the townspeople who rush to follow the
fleeing pair. Before Berto and the doctor reach the shack,
however, the doctor escapes and a chase ensues. A group
of policemen come to the doctor's rescue and shoot Berto.
Junior sees this and is shocked; he holds Berto's dead
body and weeps in the midst of the crowd.

Junior then enters the shack where Kuala has

successfully birthed a boy, but lies weakened by the
labour. She becomes lucid, and in her sanity she
recognises Junior and realizes that Berto has been killed.
She also recognises Cesar amongst the crowd, and asks
him why he killed their child, revealing his secret. Kuala
then gives her baby to Junior, and dies. As Junior leaves
the shack, he stares hard at the townspeople, including
his parents, Evangeline, and all who were unkind to him,
Berto and Kuala. He walks near Berto's corpse and stops
by, as the people look on in silence. Junior leaves the
cemetery with Berto and Kuala's son.


Miguel Pamintuan de Leon, also

known as Mike de Leon (born May
24, 1947) is a Filipino film director,
cinematographer, scriptwriter and
film producer.

Mike de Leon deservedly received the Parangal

Sentenyal sa Sining at Kultura at the Cultural Center of the
Philippines in February 1999. His Batch '81 and Sister
Stella L. had been among the 25 Filipino films shown in
New York from July 31 to August 1999, organized by the
Film Society of Lincoln Center, in partnership with the
Philippine Centennial Commission, the Cultural Center of
the Philippines, IFFCOM, the Philippine Information
Agency, the Consulate General of the Philippines in New
York and the Philippine Centennial Coordinating Council Northeast USA. These series of Filipino films were
presented at the Walter Reade Theater of the Lincoln
Center, in celebration of the 100th year of Philippine

Mike de Leon's movie "Batch '81" is regarded as a

classic. It explores the psychological and physical impact
of college hazing process as a batch of students of Class
'81 commence their journey of education. The movie was
highly acclaimed for its direction internationally and was
particularly well received in Australia.

A ghost story involving a botched abortion
with haunting images and masterful camera
work. Charo Santos is introduced here, before
she became a big-time producer. While the
story itself is not that ground breaking, the
cinematography and use of various lenses is
enough to see it over and over again.

A Filipino horror/ghost film paying homage to

Antonioni's BLOW UP, where a photographer realizes the
woman he has been photographing is really the possessed
sister of a woman whom his father killed. Much like
Antonioni's masterpiece, ITIM questions the amount of
veracity we place on captured images and shows how
film, and the filmic process, can help bring hidden truth to
light. By using his photos, the photographer is (literally)
able to exorcise the demon's of his father's past and bring
him to judgement.


Bayaning 3rd World (English: 3rd World
Hero) is a 1999 Filipino film directed by
Mike de Leon that examines the heroism
of Philippine national hero Jose Rizal,
particularly on his supposed retraction of
his writings against the Roman Catholic
Church in the Philippines during the
Spanish colonization period in the country.

Two filmmakers try to create a film venturing on the life of

Jos Rizal. Before they do that, they try to investigate on the
heroism of the Philippine national hero. Of particular focus is
his supposed retraction of his views against the Roman
Catholic Church during the Spanish regime in the Philippines
which he expressed primarily through his two novels Noli Me
Tangere and El Filibusterismo. The investigation was done
mainly by "interviewing" key individuals in the life of Rizal
such as his mother Teodora Alonso, his siblings Paciano,
Trinidad, and Narcisa, his love interest and supposed wife
Josephine Bracken, and the Jesuit priest who supposedly
witnessed Rizal's retraction, Vicente Balaguer. Eventually,
the two filmmakers would end up "interviewing" Rizal
himself to get to the bottom of the issue.

Ishmael Bernal (30 September 1938
2 June 1996) was a Filipino film,
stage and television director, actor
and screenwriter. Noted for his
melodramas, particularly with
feminist and moral issues, he
directed many landmark Filipino
films such as Nunal sa Tubig (1975),
City After Dark (1980), Relasyon
(1982), Himala (1982), and Hinugot
sa Langit (1985). He was declared a
National Artist of the Philippines in

He won the Urian for best director four times for

Dalawang Pugad, Isang Ibon (Two Nests, One Bird), 1977;
Broken Marriage, 1983; Hinugot Sa Langit (Wrenched From
Heaven), 1985; and Pahiram Ng Isang Umaga (Lend Me
One Morning), 1989; and the best screenplay for City After
Dark, 1980. His film Pagdating Sa Dulo, won for him the
FAMAS for best screenplay award while Himala (Miracle),
1982, garnered nine major awards in the Metro Manila
Film Festival. In that same year, Bernal was chosen by the
Manunuri ng Pelikulang Pilipino as the Most Outstanding
Filmmaker of the Decade 1971-1980. Among the 10 best
films chosen by the critics, five were his. These include
Pagdating Sa Dulo, Nunal Sa Tubig, Manila By Night,
Himala and Hinugot Sa Langit. He was also hailed as
Director of the Decade by the Catholic Mass Media Awards

Bernal also won the CMMA Best Director Award (1983),

the Bronze Hugo Award in the Chicago International Film
Festival (1983) for the movie Himala. The Cultural Center
of the Philippines presented him the Gawad CCP Para sa
Sining for film in 1990. In 1993, he received the ASEAN
Cultural Award in Communication Arts in Brunei
Bernal, the daring artist, bohemian, and activist,
undermined the established canons of the Philippine
popular movies from within, created a void, and then filled
it with cinematic excess, an hysteria that was illuminating
and iridescent.


Manila By Night also known as City After Dark is a

1980 Filipino Gawad Urian Award winning drama
film directed by critically acclaimed director
Ishmael Bernal and starred Gina Alajar and Charito
Solis. Released at the height of the Marcos
regime, the film uncovers the other face of Manila
by depicting the ugly aspects of life in the city unemployment, prostitution, drug addiction, and
lack of decent housing. Considered as one of
Bernal's masterpieces, it is an epic multi-narrative
of people who have shady pasts and are trying to
exist in an unforgiving world.

The film's events take place in the course of several nights, involving
various protagonists and the city itself. William Martinez plays a folk
singer from a rich family who becomes addicted to heroin through the
influence of lesbian pusher and pimp, Cherie Gil. Martinez's mother in
the movie, played by Charito Solis, is herself a reformed prostitute who,
like Lady Macbeth, is obsessed with cleaning her hands to remove the
dirt of her past. She does her best to be respectable after marrying an
ex-cop played by Johnny Wilson. Meanwhile, Cherie Gil's character is in
love with a blind masseuse, played by Rio Locsin, with two illegitimate
children. Locsin lives with Jojo Santiago, whose character fantasizes of
earning American dollars while working in Saudi Arabia. Another
character, portrayed by Alma Moreno, is a nurse who, in reality, is a call
girl. Her live-in taxi-driver lover, played by Orestes Ojeda, is fooling
around with a waitress played by Lorna Tolentino, who is the presumed
girlfriend of a gay couterier played by Bernardo Bernardo. As dawn
breaks over the city, the bizarre lives of the characters of Manila's
nightlife seem like an alter-ego of the respectable, busy daytime world.


Laurice Guillen (born

January 31, 1947) is a Filipino
actress and director.

A protg of Lino Brocka, Guillen began her first major work as a director
with "Kasal" in 1979 with Hilda Koronel and Christopher de Leon. Then
with "Kung Akoy Iiwan Mo with Nora Aunor in 1980. It was in 1981 when
she made "Salome" for Bancom Audio-Vision with Gina Alajar in the lead.
The movie was a critical success, winning a best director for her in the
Gawad Urian.The same was shown at the Toronto International Film
Festival and described as "the kind of cinematic discovery that singlehandedly justifies the festival's existence".< Init sa Magdamag.
Ipagpatawad Mo was also directed by Guillen, as was Dahil Mahal Kita:
The Dolzura Cortez Story in 1993, before her retirement from
filmmaking. Dedicating herself to the Marian movement, Guillen made
pilgrimages to churches and cathedrals throughout the Philippines with
her husband, believing that Mary had called on her to experience a
spiritual renewal. By 1998 she was thinking about returning to
filmmaking, and following a good reception of Ipagpatawad Mo by a
group of priests, who encouraged her to back into filmmaking, along with
an appearance on Kris Aquino's talk show, she did so.

Her first new production was Tanging Yaman, released

in 2001, which won several awards at the Metro Manila
Film Festival. Following 2002's American Adobo, Guillen
directed Santa Santita in 2004,which represented the
Philippines at the Bangkok International Film Festival. In
2006 she was awarded the Gawad Tanglaw ng Lahi by
Ateneo de Manila University for services to the Arts. In
2009 she directed I Love You Goodbye, following it up with
Sa 'yo Lamang in 2010, starring Lorna Tolentino. As well as
working as a director, Guillen also served as Chief
Executive Officer of the Film Development Council of the
Philippines, before her appointment was unexpectedly not
renewed in 2005. After breaking away from the previous
Filipino directors guild due to a desire for reform, Guillen
helped found the Directors Guild of the Philippines,
resigning on March 26, 2001 due to her feeling that this
reform had not been carried out.

The story starts as a seemingly simple crime
of passion, Jimmy, the persistent suitor, is
stabbed to death by Salome, the young and
pretty wife of Kario, an ordinary farmer.
But as the story unfolds, conflicting versions
of the crime are given.

Laurice Guillen's brilliant movie tells the story of

Salome, her version of what happened that fateful day
when the engineer (Dennis Roldan) from Manila came to
her house and attempted to rape her. She has been
avoiding the man but he continued to pursue her and
attempted to rape her. In a desperate move to protect her
dignity, she killed him. Or was she protecting herself? This
is the question the movie tried to answer, as the family
hired a lawyer to help them with their case.

Before the trial is over, you would have heard another

version of the story, reminiscent of Rashomon. But this
movie is closer to home, with its barrio setting, the girl
fight and the crispy dialogue.
Before the movie ends, we hear the point of view of
Johnny Delgado , the husband, who witnessed everything,
the third and real version. Credit Ricky Lee's masterful
script and Guillen's story to end with such melancholy, the
only way out for the two poor souls.

Brillante Mendoza (born 30 July 1960) is a
Filipino film director. He was born and
raised in San Fernando, Pampanga. He
took Advertising Arts of the then College
of Architecture and Fine Arts at the
University of Santo Tomas.
Mendoza won Best Director at the 62nd
Cannes Film Festival for his film Kinatay.

He has directed sixteen films since 2005. He won the

award for Best Director for his film Kinatay at the 62nd
Cannes Film Festival. His 2009 film Lola won the award for
Best Film at the 6th Dubai International Film Festival. His
2012 film Captive was shown in competition at the 62nd
Berlin International Film Festival in February 2012.
His 2012 film Thy Womb competed for the Golden Lion
at the 69th Venice International Film Festival. His
upcoming film Taklub has been selected to be screened in
the Un Certain Regard section at the 2015 Cannes Film


Thy Womb (Tagalog: Sinapupunan) is a

2012 Filipino drama film starring Nora
Aunor, Bembol Roco, Mercedes Cabral,
and Lovi Poe. Produced by Center Stage
Productions and the Film Development
Council of the Philippines (FDCP), Melvin
Mangada and Jaime Santiago, the film is
written by Henry Burgos and directed by
Brillante Mendoza. The film is one of the
8 official entries to the 2012 Metro
Manila Film Festival.

The film competed for theGolden Lionat the69th

Venice International Film Festival.Although it did not bag
the top honors,Thy Wombwas awarded three special
prizes by other Italian film groups La Navicella Venezia
Cinema Award, the P. Nazareno Taddei Award - Special
Mention, and the Bisato d' Oro Award for Best Actress (for
Nora Aunor)given by an independent Italian critics group
called Premio Della Critica Indipendiente.The film has also
been invited to the37th Toronto International Film
Festivalin September and the17th Busan International
Film Festivalin October.
It is also cited as the single most important
achievement in Philippine cinema for 2012 as it gets listed
in the BRITANNICA BOOK OF THE YEAR 2013 (A Review of
2012) by Encyclopdia Britannica.


Kinatay (English: Butchered, The Execution

of P) is a 2009 Filipino independent drama
film directed by Brillante Mendoza. The story
is centered on a criminology student (played
by Coco Martin) who accidentally joins a
syndicate to make enough money for his
The film premiered at the 62nd Cannes Film
Festival, where it won the Best Director
Award, the first Filipino film to do so. The
film was included in the 2009 Cinemalaya
Film Festival.

Peping, a criminology student, is recruited by his

schoolmate, Abyong, to work as a part-time errand boy for
a local syndicate that collects protection fees from various
businesses in Manila. The easy money Peping earns is
spent mostly on his girlfriend, Cecille, whos also a
student. Peping decides to marry her, but in order to do so
hell need more money. Abyong contacts Peping to join a
"special project" that pays more than normal.

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