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By:

Fitri Suri Solehah bte Hj Mat Usen


4 UTM

4.5 ENZYMES
LEARNING OUTCOMES

State what enzyme are


Explain why enzymes are needed in life processes
List the general characteristics of enzymes
Relate the name of enzyme to substrate
State sites where enzymes are synthesised
State the meaning of intracellular enzymes and extracellular enzymes
Explain the involvement of specific organelles in the production of
extracellular enzymes

Explain the effects of pH,temperature,enzyme


concentration and substrate concentration on
enzyme activity
Explain the mechanism of enzyme action
Relate the mechanism of enzyme action with
pH,temperature,enzyme concentration and
substrate concentration
Explain the uses of enzymes in daily life and
industry using examples

Example of enzyme

Role of enzymes in organisms


Enzymes are protein
Enzymes are biological catalyst that
speed up the rate of biochemical
reactions in the cells
Chemical reactions that occur within a
living organism are called metabolism
Metabolic reaction starts with the
substrate and ends with product

General characteristics of enzymes

a)
b)

Speed up the rates of chemical reaction but remains unchanged


at the end of the reaction
Not destroyed by the reactions they catalyse
Highly specific that is each enzyme can only catalyse one kind
of substrate
Needed in small quantities because they are not used up but
released at the end of a reaction
Enzyme-catalyses reaction are reversible
Can be slowed down or completely stopped by inhibitors.
-e.g. : heavy metals such as lead and mercury
Require helper molecules called cofactors
Cofactors are divide by two:
organic cofactor like water soluble vitamin
Inorganic cofactor like ferum and copper

Naming of enzymes
An enzyme is named according to the name of the substrate it
catalyses
Other enzyme were named before a systematic way of naming
enzyme was formed
-e.g. : pepsin, trypsin and rennin

By adding suffix -ase at the end of the name of their


substrate
Enzyme for catalysing the hydrolysis
Example :

substrate

enzymes

products

lactose

lactase

glucose +
galactose

maltose

maltase

Glucose

cellulose

cellulase

Glucose

lipid

lipase

Glycerol + fatty
acid

starch

amylase

Maltose

protein

protease

Pepton +
polypeptide

The sites of enzyme synthesis


Ribosomes are attached to the roughed endoplasmic reticulum.
Information for the synthesis of enzyme is carried by DNA
The different of bases in DNA are codes to make different protein
RNA is formed to translate the codes into a sequence of amino
acids
Amino acids are bonded together to form specific enzyme according
to the DNAs codes

Intracellular and extracellular


enzyme
Intracellular : synthesised and retained in the cell for the
use of cell itself
: found in the cytoplasm, nucleus,
mitochondria and chloroplast
Example : 1) oxydoreductase catalyse biological oxidation
2) reduction in the mitochondria
Extracellular : synthesised in the cell but secreted from
the cell to work
externally
Example : 1) digestive enzyme produced by the pancreas
are not used by cells in the pancreas but are transported
to the duodenum

Production of extracellular enzymes


Protein/Enzymes are synthesized in the ribosomes are
transported through the spaces between the rough
endoplasmic reticulum
Protein depart from the RER wrapped in vesicles that
bud off from the sides of the RER
These transport vesicles fuse with the membrane of
the Golgi apparatus
Secretory vesicles containing these modified protein
bud off from the Golgi membrane and travel to the
plasma membrane
These vesicles will then fuse with the plasma membrane
before releasing the proteins outside the cells as
enzymes.

The mechanism of enzyme action

Enzymes are complex protein made of one or more


polypeptide chains
These polypeptide chain are folded into threedimensional shape which include a pocket called an
active site
The lock and key hypothesis
The substrate molecule represent the key
The enzyme molecule represent the lock
The substrate molecule binds to the active site to form
an enzyme-substrate complex
The enzyme catalyses the substrate to form
products, then leave the active site
Enzyme molecule is now free to bind to more substrate
molecules

Factor affecting enzyme activity


Temperature
At low temperatures, an enzyme-catalysed reaction takes place
slowly
For every 10C rise in temperature, the rate of reaction is doubled
However, this is only true up to the optimum temperature
Optimum temperature is the temperature at which an enzyme
catalyses a reaction at the maximum rate

Any increase in temperature will no longer increase the rate of


reaction because the bonds that hold enzyme molecules together
begin to break at high temperature, thus altering the threedimensional shape eventually destroying active site
Enzymes lose their activities and are said to be denatured
So, organisms cannot survive at temperatures above 40C

Ph
The optimum pH is the pH at which the rate of reaction is at the maximum
A change in pH can alter the charges on the active sites of the enzyme and
the substrate surfaces,it can reduce the ability of both molecules to bind
each other
Pepsin can function in an acidic condition (pH 2) within in the stomach
Trypsin can function in alkaline condition (pH 8.5) within the duodenum

Substrate concentration
Increase in substrate concentration, more substrate molecule are available
to bind the active sites of the enzyme
Hence, more products will be produced
Because more chances of collision between the substrate molecule and the
enzyme molecules for a catalytic reaction to take place
In increase in substrate concentration will only speed up the reaction if there
are enough enzyme molecules to catalyse the additional substrate
molecules
The rate of reaction is directly proportional to the substrate concentration
until the reaction reaches a maximum rate

After maximum rate, all active site of the enzyme


molecules are filled and engaged in catalysis
The enzyme is said to be saturated
The concentration of enzyme becomes a
limiting factor

Enzyme concentration
When the concentration of an enzyme
increases,more enzyme molecules are available
The rate of of reaction will increase only if there is
abundant supply of substrate molecules and other
factors are constant because more active sites are
made available for the catalytic reaction.
The rate of reaction is directly proportional to
the concentration of the enzyme present until a
maximum rate is achieved.
After the maximum rate,the doncentration of
substrate becomes a limiting factor.
If the concentration of enzyme is doubled,the
amount of substrate molecules also doubled.

The uses of enzymes


Can as catalysts in industries
The use of enzyme in industrial processes is known as
enzyme technology.
Enzyme are use widely in our daily life
be use

enzymes

uses

protease

Tenderise meat

amylase

To convert starch to sugar in the making of syrup

lipase

Ripening the cheese

In detergent

Effectively dissolve protein stain