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CONJUNCTIVE ADVERBS

WRITING 1
WEEK 3, DECEMBER 2012

What are Conjunctive Adverbs


A conjunctive Adverb (also called
adverbial conjunction) is a type of adverb
that joins together two clauses. These
clauses are usually independent clauses,
otherwise known as complete sentences.

The Punctuation of conjunctive


adverbs
To correctly punctuate a conjunctive adverb, a
writer will use a semicolon or period at the end
of the first independent clause.
The conjunctive adverb is then used followed by
a comma and the next independent clause
E.g. (1). I wanted to go; however, I was too busy.
(2). Marion needed to be home early. Consequently,
she left work at 3 p.m.

Job of Conjunctive Adverbs


(1) I wanted to go; however, I was too busy.
(2) Marion needed to be home early.
Consequently, she left work at 3 p.m.

In this case, the conjunctive adverb may


look like a coordinate conjunction (and,
or, so, but, for), but it is not as strong as
a coordinate conjunction.

Functions of Conjunctive Adverbs


To:
Indicate a connection between two independent
clauses in one sentence
The due date for the final paper has passed; therefore, I
could not submit mine on time.

link the ideas in two or more sentences


I woke up very late this morning. Nevertheless, I wasnt late
to school.

show relationships between ideas within an


independent clause.

Examples of Conjunctive Adverbs


Accordingly
Additionally
Also
Besides
Comparatively
Consequently
Conversely
Finally
Further
Furthermore
Elsewhere
Equally
Hence

Henceforth
However
In addition
In comparison
In contrast
Indeed
Instead
Likewise
Meanwhile
Moreover
Namely
Nevertheless
Next

Nonetheless
Now
Otherwise
Rather
Similarly
Still
Subsequently
Then
Thereafter
Therefore
Thus
Yet

Links between clauses/sentences


The purpose of a conjunctive adverb is to show
a relationship between clauses such as
comparing or contrasting, showing a sequence
of events, or showing a cause and effect.

Result: therefore, consequently, of course


Addition: moreover, furthermore, also, in addition, likewise, further
Time: meanwhile, in the meantime
Contrast: however, instead, on the contrary, on the other hand, in
contrast, rather
Summary: thus, in conclusion, then
Reinforcement: further, in particular, indeed, above all, in fact

Conjunctive adverbs in writing

Main clause; conjunctive adverb, main clause


The heavy traffic on 5th street made Claire think twice about stopping by
the mall; moreover, she had a huge science paper due the next
morning.

If a conjunctive adverb is used at the beginning of the sentence


then use a comma immediately afterwards. For example:
John was tired after a long day at school. Therefore, he immediately
took a nap when he got home.

Sometimes the interruption of flow is weak so a comma isnt


necessary.
Anna dropped her cell phone in the swimming pool. She will therefore
have to do extra chores to earn money for a new one.

Here is another example of proper comma use.


George made a poor grade on his mid term exam. He is determined,
nevertheless, to get an A in the class.

Exercises
Choose the right conjunctive adverb for the sentence.
1) Hurry up;
Otherwise , you will be late for the train.
2) I studied hard for the exam;
however
, I failed.
3) Tom is a sportsman;
likewise , his brother Tom is athletic
4) He didnt go to college.
instead
, he started his own business.
5) He is not good-looking.
nevertheless , he is popular among girls.
6) She didnt take a bus to work today. Instead, she drove her car.
7) Jack wants a toy car for his birthday. Meanwhile, Jill wants a dollhouse for her
birthday.
8) They returned home. Likewise, I went home.
9) There are many history books; however, none of them may be accurate.
10) It rained hard; moreover, lightening flashed and thunder boomed.
11) The baby fell asleep; then, the doorbell rang.
12) The law does not permit drinking and driving anytime; otherwise, there would be
many more accidents.

What you have learnt in Writing 1


Subject-Verb Agreement
Types of Clauses
(Independent & Dependent Clauses)

Types of Sentences (Structures of Clauses)


(Simple, Compound, Complex, & CompoundComplex sentences)

Types of Dependent Clauses


(Adjective, Noun, Adverbs Clauses, & Participle
Phrases)

Fragment & Run-Ons sentences


Sentence Coherence & Unity
Conjunctive Adverbs

What will Final test cover of?


Weight 40%
Subject-verb agreement, types of clauses, types of
sentences, types of dependent clauses)

Weight 30 %
Sentence coherence (Logic, Parallelism & Shift)

Weight 20 %
Sentence Fragment & Run-Ons

Weight 10%
Conjunctive Adverbs

Thank You
&
Good Luck!!!