2.

7 DNA Replication,
Transcription, and
Translation
IB Biology Year 2
Fall 2015
Thanks to Ms. Stuckey, modified by V. Azuree 2015

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DNA replication

DNA is semi-conservative ○ 1 strand old ○ 1 strand new ● Original used as a “template” for the 2 new strands ○ Complementary base pairing ■ A-T ■ C-G .7 U1 The replication of DNA is semi-conservative and depends on complementary base pairing.Semi-Conservative Replication 2. ● Post replication.

Even if it seems right. we need to back up theories! 1958 . coli in 15N then transfer to 14 N Measured density after several generations.7 NOS1 Obtaining evidence for scientific theories: Meselson and Stahl obtained evidence for the semi-conservative replication of DNA. 14N DNA Caesium chloride and a centrifuge Multiple generations of E.Meselson and Stahl 15 N DNA vs.Evidence for Semi-Conservative Replication 2. HUH?!? .

Link to video in picture! See also: Bozeman Bio Meselson and Stahl .

113 -114 in your book (see answer key if we don’t get to it in class!) . p.7 S2 Analysis of Meselson and Stahl’s results to obtain support for the theory of semi-conservative replication of DNA.Pause to Analyze 2.

Helicase (everyone’s fave enzyme) 2.7 U2 Helicase unwinds the double helix and separates the two strands by breaking hydrogen bonds. Step #1 Twisty double-helix in your way? Here comes helicase! Enzyme that uses ATP to unwind DNA by breaking Hbonds Actually a protein complex Looks like a donut (yum) Untwist AND unzip DNA REPLICATION ! .

youtube.7 U3 DNA polymerase links nucleotides together to form a new strand. lagging strand DNA polymerase adds in complementary nucleotides by positioning them properly to form H bonds with the template Covalently bonds phosphate group to sugar.NO EXCEPTIONS Leading strand vs. using the pre-existing strand as a template Step #2 Moves from 5’ → 3’ .DNA polymerase 2. Pretty fool-proof https://www.com/watch?v=8kK2zwjRV0M#t=535 .

optimum 72°C Repeat over and over 30 cycles .Polymerase Chain Reaction HUMAN MADE 2.7 A1 Use of Taq DNA polymerase to produce multiple copies of DNA rapidly by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). still works at 54°C. High temp (~95°C) breaks H bonds Cool down (~54°C) for re-annealing of primers Extra primers prevent parents from coming back together Temp to 72°C to allow Taq DNA polymerase to replicate DNA Taq DNA polymerase withstand 95°C.PCR .DNA amplified by 1 billion!! . Make MANY copies of DNA using change in temp.

animation linked to picture .7 A1 Use of Taq DNA polymerase to produce multiple copies of DNA rapidly by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR).PCR .Polymerase Chain Reaction 2.

animation link on picture Transcription .

Transcription 2. DNA is pretty much useless without being “converted” to readable polypeptides. First step between DNA → Protein = Transcription .7 U4 Transcription is the synthesis of mRNA copied from the DNA base sequences by RNA polymerase.

7 U4 Transcription is the synthesis of mRNA copied from the DNA base sequences by RNA polymerase. Similar to DNA replication . RNA separates and double helix reforms 4. Still moves 5’ → 3’ 3. Transcription DNA (template) → mRNA (end result) occurs in the NUCLEUS 1.Transcription 2. .RNA polymerase forms Hbonds between complementary base pairs and covalent bonds between nucleotides a. Transcription stops at the end of the gene. RNA polymerase binds at the start of a gene 2.

Sense vs.Transcription 2.not transcribed Sequence matches mRNA (but T for U!) . Antisense strands Does it matter which strand DNA copies? YES!!! Template strand = ANTISENSE strand is transcribed from 5’ → 3’ has the complementary DNA sequence Sense strand .7 U4 Transcription is the synthesis of mRNA copied from the DNA base sequences by RNA polymerase.

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large and small composed of rRNA.Translation 2. Step #2 mRNA → polypeptide chain Ribosome “reads” and translates mRNA codons into amino acid chains 2 subunits . proteins .7 U5 Translation is the synthesis of polypeptides on ribosomes.

all different lengths (av.000 nucleotides) depends on the gene How much mRNA and which mRNA is produced? depends on the polypeptides needed by the cell Pancreas lots of mRNA that carries code for insulin Don’t forget about tRNA and rRNA. 2. mRNA . too! .7 U6 The amino acid sequence of polypeptides is determined by mRNA according to the genetic code.mRNA and the Genetic Code 2.

Yes. 64 possibilities (4x4x4) 20 amino acids Memorize them all? Heck no! CODON CHART! .Codons (or. How does the tRNA know which amino acids to bring? Codons! mRNA read in sets of 3 nucleotides that code for a specific amino acid.7 U7 Codons of three bases on mRNA correspond to one amino acid in a polypeptide. Jessica. you have to use the stupid chart thingie) 2.

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UAC c. Deducing the DNA base sequence for the mRNA strand. AGA. S3. Deduce the codons for: a. CGCGCGAGG Arg Ala Arg 3. deduce the base ofPro the ANTISENSE strand of DNA GAG TAG CTT ATT GGG . Use a table of mRNA codons and their corresponding amino acids to deduce the sequence of amino acids coded by a short mRNA strand of known base sequence. 1. Arg CGU. CGC.7 S1. Trp UGG b. CGA. Tyr UAU. S4 Use a table of the genetic code to deduce which codon(s) correspond to which amino acids.Decoding Base Sequences 2. AGG 2. ACG Thr b. deduce the AA sequence of the polypeptide translated from the mRNA Leu sequence Ile Glu STOP b. Deduce amino acid sequence that corresponds to these mRNA sequences: a. If the mRNA contains the base sequence CUC AUC GAA UAA CCC a. CACGGG His Gly c.

7 U8 Translation depends on complementary base pairing between codons on mRNA and anticodons on tRNA.Codons and Anticodons 2. mRNA has a 3 nucleotide codon 2. Ribosomes are binding sites for both and catalyse polypeptide assembly . 1. tRNA has a 3 nucleotide complementary anticodon 3.

2nd tRNA brings the next AA. Main events: 1. Ribosome slides down.Codons and Anticodons 2. Only 2 tRNAs at a time! 4. mRNA binds to small subunit of ribosome 2. Next tRNA comes in 7. Ribosome catalyzes the addition of the 2 AAs 5. Ribsome makes next peptide bond Repeat over and over! Mistakes are rare! . tRNA brings the first AA 3. releasing tRNA 1 and shifting tRNA 2 6.7 U8 Translation depends on complementary base pairing between codons on mRNA and anticodons on tRNA.

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Diabetes patients need insulin bovine. shark used in past has some differences! can cause allergies Genetically transfer the human insulin gene into bacteria Bacteria then mass produce the human version of insulin which we can harvest! .7 A2 Production of human insulin in bacteria as an example of the universality of the genetic code allowing gene transfer between species. porcine.Production of Human Insulin in Bacteria 2.

More review: Learn Genetics Transcribe and Translate a Gene DNA. & The Longest Word Ever: Crash Course Biology #11 Bozeman Science DNA Replication Bozeman Science Transcription and Translation . Hot Pockets.

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