2.

7 DNA Replication,
Transcription, and
Translation
IB Biology Year 2
Fall 2015
Thanks to Ms. Stuckey, modified by V. Azuree 2015

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DNA replication

Semi-Conservative Replication 2. ● Post replication. DNA is semi-conservative ○ 1 strand old ○ 1 strand new ● Original used as a “template” for the 2 new strands ○ Complementary base pairing ■ A-T ■ C-G .7 U1 The replication of DNA is semi-conservative and depends on complementary base pairing.

Evidence for Semi-Conservative Replication 2. Even if it seems right. 14N DNA Caesium chloride and a centrifuge Multiple generations of E. HUH?!? . we need to back up theories! 1958 .7 NOS1 Obtaining evidence for scientific theories: Meselson and Stahl obtained evidence for the semi-conservative replication of DNA. coli in 15N then transfer to 14 N Measured density after several generations.Meselson and Stahl 15 N DNA vs.

Link to video in picture! See also: Bozeman Bio Meselson and Stahl .

113 -114 in your book (see answer key if we don’t get to it in class!) .7 S2 Analysis of Meselson and Stahl’s results to obtain support for the theory of semi-conservative replication of DNA. p.Pause to Analyze 2.

7 U2 Helicase unwinds the double helix and separates the two strands by breaking hydrogen bonds. Step #1 Twisty double-helix in your way? Here comes helicase! Enzyme that uses ATP to unwind DNA by breaking Hbonds Actually a protein complex Looks like a donut (yum) Untwist AND unzip DNA REPLICATION ! .Helicase (everyone’s fave enzyme) 2.

NO EXCEPTIONS Leading strand vs. lagging strand DNA polymerase adds in complementary nucleotides by positioning them properly to form H bonds with the template Covalently bonds phosphate group to sugar. using the pre-existing strand as a template Step #2 Moves from 5’ → 3’ . Pretty fool-proof https://www.DNA polymerase 2.com/watch?v=8kK2zwjRV0M#t=535 .7 U3 DNA polymerase links nucleotides together to form a new strand.youtube.

High temp (~95°C) breaks H bonds Cool down (~54°C) for re-annealing of primers Extra primers prevent parents from coming back together Temp to 72°C to allow Taq DNA polymerase to replicate DNA Taq DNA polymerase withstand 95°C. optimum 72°C Repeat over and over 30 cycles .DNA amplified by 1 billion!! .7 A1 Use of Taq DNA polymerase to produce multiple copies of DNA rapidly by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR).PCR . still works at 54°C.Polymerase Chain Reaction HUMAN MADE 2. Make MANY copies of DNA using change in temp.

PCR . animation linked to picture .7 A1 Use of Taq DNA polymerase to produce multiple copies of DNA rapidly by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR).Polymerase Chain Reaction 2.

animation link on picture Transcription .

First step between DNA → Protein = Transcription .7 U4 Transcription is the synthesis of mRNA copied from the DNA base sequences by RNA polymerase. DNA is pretty much useless without being “converted” to readable polypeptides.Transcription 2.

Transcription stops at the end of the gene.RNA polymerase forms Hbonds between complementary base pairs and covalent bonds between nucleotides a.7 U4 Transcription is the synthesis of mRNA copied from the DNA base sequences by RNA polymerase. Still moves 5’ → 3’ 3. RNA separates and double helix reforms 4. RNA polymerase binds at the start of a gene 2. Similar to DNA replication . Transcription DNA (template) → mRNA (end result) occurs in the NUCLEUS 1. .Transcription 2.

Sense vs. Antisense strands Does it matter which strand DNA copies? YES!!! Template strand = ANTISENSE strand is transcribed from 5’ → 3’ has the complementary DNA sequence Sense strand .7 U4 Transcription is the synthesis of mRNA copied from the DNA base sequences by RNA polymerase.not transcribed Sequence matches mRNA (but T for U!) .Transcription 2.

animation link on picture Translation .

proteins . Step #2 mRNA → polypeptide chain Ribosome “reads” and translates mRNA codons into amino acid chains 2 subunits .large and small composed of rRNA.Translation 2.7 U5 Translation is the synthesis of polypeptides on ribosomes.

2. mRNA .all different lengths (av.mRNA and the Genetic Code 2. too! .000 nucleotides) depends on the gene How much mRNA and which mRNA is produced? depends on the polypeptides needed by the cell Pancreas lots of mRNA that carries code for insulin Don’t forget about tRNA and rRNA.7 U6 The amino acid sequence of polypeptides is determined by mRNA according to the genetic code.

Codons (or. Yes. you have to use the stupid chart thingie) 2. Jessica. How does the tRNA know which amino acids to bring? Codons! mRNA read in sets of 3 nucleotides that code for a specific amino acid.7 U7 Codons of three bases on mRNA correspond to one amino acid in a polypeptide. 64 possibilities (4x4x4) 20 amino acids Memorize them all? Heck no! CODON CHART! .

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deduce the base ofPro the ANTISENSE strand of DNA GAG TAG CTT ATT GGG . Trp UGG b. Arg CGU. If the mRNA contains the base sequence CUC AUC GAA UAA CCC a. CGC.7 S1. S4 Use a table of the genetic code to deduce which codon(s) correspond to which amino acids. deduce the AA sequence of the polypeptide translated from the mRNA Leu sequence Ile Glu STOP b. Deducing the DNA base sequence for the mRNA strand. ACG Thr b. Tyr UAU. CGCGCGAGG Arg Ala Arg 3. Deduce the codons for: a. AGG 2. AGA. CACGGG His Gly c.Decoding Base Sequences 2. 1. Deduce amino acid sequence that corresponds to these mRNA sequences: a. S3. Use a table of mRNA codons and their corresponding amino acids to deduce the sequence of amino acids coded by a short mRNA strand of known base sequence. CGA. UAC c.

tRNA has a 3 nucleotide complementary anticodon 3.Codons and Anticodons 2. mRNA has a 3 nucleotide codon 2. 1.7 U8 Translation depends on complementary base pairing between codons on mRNA and anticodons on tRNA. Ribosomes are binding sites for both and catalyse polypeptide assembly .

Ribsome makes next peptide bond Repeat over and over! Mistakes are rare! . Only 2 tRNAs at a time! 4. Main events: 1.7 U8 Translation depends on complementary base pairing between codons on mRNA and anticodons on tRNA. releasing tRNA 1 and shifting tRNA 2 6. mRNA binds to small subunit of ribosome 2. Next tRNA comes in 7. 2nd tRNA brings the next AA.Codons and Anticodons 2. Ribosome catalyzes the addition of the 2 AAs 5. tRNA brings the first AA 3. Ribosome slides down.

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7 A2 Production of human insulin in bacteria as an example of the universality of the genetic code allowing gene transfer between species.Production of Human Insulin in Bacteria 2. shark used in past has some differences! can cause allergies Genetically transfer the human insulin gene into bacteria Bacteria then mass produce the human version of insulin which we can harvest! . Diabetes patients need insulin bovine. porcine.

More review: Learn Genetics Transcribe and Translate a Gene DNA. Hot Pockets. & The Longest Word Ever: Crash Course Biology #11 Bozeman Science DNA Replication Bozeman Science Transcription and Translation .

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