7 DNA Replication,
Transcription, and
IB Biology Year 2
Fall 2015
Thanks to Ms. Stuckey, modified by V. Azuree 2015

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DNA replication

DNA is semi-conservative ○ 1 strand old ○ 1 strand new ● Original used as a “template” for the 2 new strands ○ Complementary base pairing ■ A-T ■ C-G . ● Post replication.7 U1 The replication of DNA is semi-conservative and depends on complementary base pairing.Semi-Conservative Replication 2.

HUH?!? .7 NOS1 Obtaining evidence for scientific theories: Meselson and Stahl obtained evidence for the semi-conservative replication of DNA.Meselson and Stahl 15 N DNA vs. we need to back up theories! 1958 . coli in 15N then transfer to 14 N Measured density after several generations.Evidence for Semi-Conservative Replication 2. Even if it seems right. 14N DNA Caesium chloride and a centrifuge Multiple generations of E.

Link to video in picture! See also: Bozeman Bio Meselson and Stahl .

7 S2 Analysis of Meselson and Stahl’s results to obtain support for the theory of semi-conservative replication of DNA.Pause to Analyze 2. p.113 -114 in your book (see answer key if we don’t get to it in class!) .

Step #1 Twisty double-helix in your way? Here comes helicase! Enzyme that uses ATP to unwind DNA by breaking Hbonds Actually a protein complex Looks like a donut (yum) Untwist AND unzip DNA REPLICATION ! .7 U2 Helicase unwinds the double helix and separates the two strands by breaking hydrogen bonds.Helicase (everyone’s fave enzyme) 2.

7 U3 DNA polymerase links nucleotides together to form a new strand.DNA polymerase 2. lagging strand DNA polymerase adds in complementary nucleotides by positioning them properly to form H bonds with the template Covalently bonds phosphate group to sugar. Pretty fool-proof https://www. using the pre-existing strand as a template Step #2 Moves from 5’ → 3’ .NO EXCEPTIONS Leading strand vs.com/watch?v=8kK2zwjRV0M#t=535 .youtube.

still works at 54°C. High temp (~95°C) breaks H bonds Cool down (~54°C) for re-annealing of primers Extra primers prevent parents from coming back together Temp to 72°C to allow Taq DNA polymerase to replicate DNA Taq DNA polymerase withstand 95°C. Make MANY copies of DNA using change in temp.DNA amplified by 1 billion!! .7 A1 Use of Taq DNA polymerase to produce multiple copies of DNA rapidly by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR).Polymerase Chain Reaction HUMAN MADE 2.PCR . optimum 72°C Repeat over and over 30 cycles .

7 A1 Use of Taq DNA polymerase to produce multiple copies of DNA rapidly by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). animation linked to picture .PCR .Polymerase Chain Reaction 2.

animation link on picture Transcription .

DNA is pretty much useless without being “converted” to readable polypeptides.7 U4 Transcription is the synthesis of mRNA copied from the DNA base sequences by RNA polymerase. First step between DNA → Protein = Transcription .Transcription 2.

RNA polymerase forms Hbonds between complementary base pairs and covalent bonds between nucleotides a.7 U4 Transcription is the synthesis of mRNA copied from the DNA base sequences by RNA polymerase.Transcription 2. . RNA polymerase binds at the start of a gene 2. Still moves 5’ → 3’ 3. Similar to DNA replication . Transcription stops at the end of the gene. Transcription DNA (template) → mRNA (end result) occurs in the NUCLEUS 1. RNA separates and double helix reforms 4.

not transcribed Sequence matches mRNA (but T for U!) . Antisense strands Does it matter which strand DNA copies? YES!!! Template strand = ANTISENSE strand is transcribed from 5’ → 3’ has the complementary DNA sequence Sense strand .Transcription 2. Sense vs.7 U4 Transcription is the synthesis of mRNA copied from the DNA base sequences by RNA polymerase.

animation link on picture Translation .

Step #2 mRNA → polypeptide chain Ribosome “reads” and translates mRNA codons into amino acid chains 2 subunits .7 U5 Translation is the synthesis of polypeptides on ribosomes. proteins .Translation 2.large and small composed of rRNA.

000 nucleotides) depends on the gene How much mRNA and which mRNA is produced? depends on the polypeptides needed by the cell Pancreas lots of mRNA that carries code for insulin Don’t forget about tRNA and rRNA. too! .all different lengths (av. mRNA .7 U6 The amino acid sequence of polypeptides is determined by mRNA according to the genetic code. 2.mRNA and the Genetic Code 2.

Yes. How does the tRNA know which amino acids to bring? Codons! mRNA read in sets of 3 nucleotides that code for a specific amino acid.7 U7 Codons of three bases on mRNA correspond to one amino acid in a polypeptide. you have to use the stupid chart thingie) 2. 64 possibilities (4x4x4) 20 amino acids Memorize them all? Heck no! CODON CHART! .Codons (or. Jessica.


deduce the base ofPro the ANTISENSE strand of DNA GAG TAG CTT ATT GGG . AGA. S4 Use a table of the genetic code to deduce which codon(s) correspond to which amino acids. Deducing the DNA base sequence for the mRNA strand. CACGGG His Gly c. S3. Tyr UAU. Deduce the codons for: a. Arg CGU. UAC c. Use a table of mRNA codons and their corresponding amino acids to deduce the sequence of amino acids coded by a short mRNA strand of known base sequence. deduce the AA sequence of the polypeptide translated from the mRNA Leu sequence Ile Glu STOP b. 1.7 S1. AGG 2. Deduce amino acid sequence that corresponds to these mRNA sequences: a. Trp UGG b.Decoding Base Sequences 2. CGC. If the mRNA contains the base sequence CUC AUC GAA UAA CCC a. CGA. ACG Thr b. CGCGCGAGG Arg Ala Arg 3.

Ribosomes are binding sites for both and catalyse polypeptide assembly . mRNA has a 3 nucleotide codon 2. 1.7 U8 Translation depends on complementary base pairing between codons on mRNA and anticodons on tRNA.Codons and Anticodons 2. tRNA has a 3 nucleotide complementary anticodon 3.

Next tRNA comes in 7. 2nd tRNA brings the next AA. mRNA binds to small subunit of ribosome 2. Ribosome slides down. Main events: 1. Ribsome makes next peptide bond Repeat over and over! Mistakes are rare! . releasing tRNA 1 and shifting tRNA 2 6.7 U8 Translation depends on complementary base pairing between codons on mRNA and anticodons on tRNA. tRNA brings the first AA 3. Ribosome catalyzes the addition of the 2 AAs 5. Only 2 tRNAs at a time! 4.Codons and Anticodons 2.


porcine. shark used in past has some differences! can cause allergies Genetically transfer the human insulin gene into bacteria Bacteria then mass produce the human version of insulin which we can harvest! . Diabetes patients need insulin bovine.7 A2 Production of human insulin in bacteria as an example of the universality of the genetic code allowing gene transfer between species.Production of Human Insulin in Bacteria 2.

More review: Learn Genetics Transcribe and Translate a Gene DNA. Hot Pockets. & The Longest Word Ever: Crash Course Biology #11 Bozeman Science DNA Replication Bozeman Science Transcription and Translation .

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