7 DNA Replication,
Transcription, and
IB Biology Year 2
Fall 2015
Thanks to Ms. Stuckey, modified by V. Azuree 2015

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DNA replication

DNA is semi-conservative ○ 1 strand old ○ 1 strand new ● Original used as a “template” for the 2 new strands ○ Complementary base pairing ■ A-T ■ C-G . ● Post replication.7 U1 The replication of DNA is semi-conservative and depends on complementary base pairing.Semi-Conservative Replication 2.

coli in 15N then transfer to 14 N Measured density after several generations. we need to back up theories! 1958 .Evidence for Semi-Conservative Replication 2.7 NOS1 Obtaining evidence for scientific theories: Meselson and Stahl obtained evidence for the semi-conservative replication of DNA. Even if it seems right. HUH?!? . 14N DNA Caesium chloride and a centrifuge Multiple generations of E.Meselson and Stahl 15 N DNA vs.

Link to video in picture! See also: Bozeman Bio Meselson and Stahl .

p.7 S2 Analysis of Meselson and Stahl’s results to obtain support for the theory of semi-conservative replication of DNA.Pause to Analyze 2.113 -114 in your book (see answer key if we don’t get to it in class!) .

Step #1 Twisty double-helix in your way? Here comes helicase! Enzyme that uses ATP to unwind DNA by breaking Hbonds Actually a protein complex Looks like a donut (yum) Untwist AND unzip DNA REPLICATION ! .7 U2 Helicase unwinds the double helix and separates the two strands by breaking hydrogen bonds.Helicase (everyone’s fave enzyme) 2.

7 U3 DNA polymerase links nucleotides together to form a new strand.DNA polymerase 2. lagging strand DNA polymerase adds in complementary nucleotides by positioning them properly to form H bonds with the template Covalently bonds phosphate group to sugar.NO EXCEPTIONS Leading strand vs. using the pre-existing strand as a template Step #2 Moves from 5’ → 3’ .com/watch?v=8kK2zwjRV0M#t=535 .youtube. Pretty fool-proof https://www.

optimum 72°C Repeat over and over 30 cycles .Polymerase Chain Reaction HUMAN MADE 2.7 A1 Use of Taq DNA polymerase to produce multiple copies of DNA rapidly by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). High temp (~95°C) breaks H bonds Cool down (~54°C) for re-annealing of primers Extra primers prevent parents from coming back together Temp to 72°C to allow Taq DNA polymerase to replicate DNA Taq DNA polymerase withstand 95°C. Make MANY copies of DNA using change in temp.DNA amplified by 1 billion!! . still works at 54°C.PCR .

7 A1 Use of Taq DNA polymerase to produce multiple copies of DNA rapidly by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR).PCR . animation linked to picture .Polymerase Chain Reaction 2.

animation link on picture Transcription .

First step between DNA → Protein = Transcription .7 U4 Transcription is the synthesis of mRNA copied from the DNA base sequences by RNA polymerase.Transcription 2. DNA is pretty much useless without being “converted” to readable polypeptides.

Similar to DNA replication .Transcription 2. Still moves 5’ → 3’ 3. RNA separates and double helix reforms 4. Transcription stops at the end of the gene. Transcription DNA (template) → mRNA (end result) occurs in the NUCLEUS 1.RNA polymerase forms Hbonds between complementary base pairs and covalent bonds between nucleotides a.7 U4 Transcription is the synthesis of mRNA copied from the DNA base sequences by RNA polymerase. RNA polymerase binds at the start of a gene 2. .

Antisense strands Does it matter which strand DNA copies? YES!!! Template strand = ANTISENSE strand is transcribed from 5’ → 3’ has the complementary DNA sequence Sense strand .7 U4 Transcription is the synthesis of mRNA copied from the DNA base sequences by RNA polymerase.not transcribed Sequence matches mRNA (but T for U!) . Sense vs.Transcription 2.

animation link on picture Translation .

proteins .large and small composed of rRNA. Step #2 mRNA → polypeptide chain Ribosome “reads” and translates mRNA codons into amino acid chains 2 subunits .7 U5 Translation is the synthesis of polypeptides on ribosomes.Translation 2.

7 U6 The amino acid sequence of polypeptides is determined by mRNA according to the genetic code. mRNA .all different lengths (av. too! . 2.000 nucleotides) depends on the gene How much mRNA and which mRNA is produced? depends on the polypeptides needed by the cell Pancreas lots of mRNA that carries code for insulin Don’t forget about tRNA and rRNA.mRNA and the Genetic Code 2.

Jessica.7 U7 Codons of three bases on mRNA correspond to one amino acid in a polypeptide. 64 possibilities (4x4x4) 20 amino acids Memorize them all? Heck no! CODON CHART! . How does the tRNA know which amino acids to bring? Codons! mRNA read in sets of 3 nucleotides that code for a specific amino acid. Yes. you have to use the stupid chart thingie) 2.Codons (or.


S4 Use a table of the genetic code to deduce which codon(s) correspond to which amino acids. S3. CGA. Deducing the DNA base sequence for the mRNA strand. ACG Thr b. Deduce the codons for: a. deduce the AA sequence of the polypeptide translated from the mRNA Leu sequence Ile Glu STOP b. Arg CGU. AGA. CGC.Decoding Base Sequences 2. If the mRNA contains the base sequence CUC AUC GAA UAA CCC a. CACGGG His Gly c.7 S1. deduce the base ofPro the ANTISENSE strand of DNA GAG TAG CTT ATT GGG . Use a table of mRNA codons and their corresponding amino acids to deduce the sequence of amino acids coded by a short mRNA strand of known base sequence. CGCGCGAGG Arg Ala Arg 3. UAC c. Trp UGG b. Deduce amino acid sequence that corresponds to these mRNA sequences: a. AGG 2. 1. Tyr UAU.

Ribosomes are binding sites for both and catalyse polypeptide assembly . mRNA has a 3 nucleotide codon 2.7 U8 Translation depends on complementary base pairing between codons on mRNA and anticodons on tRNA. tRNA has a 3 nucleotide complementary anticodon 3. 1.Codons and Anticodons 2.

mRNA binds to small subunit of ribosome 2. Ribsome makes next peptide bond Repeat over and over! Mistakes are rare! . Only 2 tRNAs at a time! 4.Codons and Anticodons 2. Ribosome catalyzes the addition of the 2 AAs 5. 2nd tRNA brings the next AA. tRNA brings the first AA 3.7 U8 Translation depends on complementary base pairing between codons on mRNA and anticodons on tRNA. releasing tRNA 1 and shifting tRNA 2 6. Ribosome slides down. Main events: 1. Next tRNA comes in 7.


porcine.Production of Human Insulin in Bacteria 2. shark used in past has some differences! can cause allergies Genetically transfer the human insulin gene into bacteria Bacteria then mass produce the human version of insulin which we can harvest! . Diabetes patients need insulin bovine.7 A2 Production of human insulin in bacteria as an example of the universality of the genetic code allowing gene transfer between species.

& The Longest Word Ever: Crash Course Biology #11 Bozeman Science DNA Replication Bozeman Science Transcription and Translation .More review: Learn Genetics Transcribe and Translate a Gene DNA. Hot Pockets.

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