7 DNA Replication,
IB Biology Year 2
Thanks to Ms. Stuckey, modified by V. Azuree 2015
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7 U1 The replication of DNA is semi-conservative and depends on complementary base pairing. DNA is semi-conservative
○ 1 strand old
○ 1 strand new
● Original used as a “template” for the 2 new strands
○ Complementary base pairing
● Post replication.
7 NOS1 Obtaining evidence for scientific theories: Meselson and Stahl obtained evidence for the
semi-conservative replication of DNA.Evidence for Semi-Conservative Replication
2. we need to back up theories!
Even if it seems right.Meselson and Stahl
N DNA vs. coli in 15N then transfer to
Measured density after several generations. 14N DNA
Caesium chloride and a centrifuge
Multiple generations of E.
Link to video in picture!
Meselson and Stahl
7 S2 Analysis of Meselson and Stahl’s results to obtain support for the theory of semi-conservative
replication of DNA.
p.Pause to Analyze
2.113 -114 in your book
(see answer key if we don’t get to it in class!)
Helicase (everyone’s fave enzyme)
2.7 U2 Helicase unwinds the double helix and separates the two strands by breaking hydrogen bonds.
Twisty double-helix in your way? Here comes helicase!
Enzyme that uses ATP to unwind DNA by breaking Hbonds
Actually a protein complex
Looks like a donut (yum)
Untwist AND unzip
DNA REPLICATION !
DNA polymerase adds in complementary nucleotides by
positioning them properly to form H bonds with the
Covalently bonds phosphate group to sugar. using the pre-existing strand
as a template
Moves from 5’ → 3’ .DNA polymerase
2.7 U3 DNA polymerase links nucleotides together to form a new strand.
Leading strand vs.com/watch?v=8kK2zwjRV0M#t=535
DNA amplified by 1 billion!!
. still works at 54°C.
High temp (~95°C) breaks H bonds
Cool down (~54°C) for re-annealing of primers
Extra primers prevent parents from coming back
Temp to 72°C to allow Taq DNA polymerase to
Taq DNA polymerase
withstand 95°C.PCR . optimum
Repeat over and over
30 cycles .Polymerase Chain Reaction HUMAN MADE
Make MANY copies of DNA using change in temp.7 A1 Use of Taq DNA polymerase to produce multiple copies of DNA rapidly by the polymerase chain reaction
PCR .Polymerase Chain Reaction
.7 A1 Use of Taq DNA polymerase to produce multiple copies of DNA rapidly by the polymerase
chain reaction (PCR).
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2.7 U4 Transcription is the synthesis of mRNA copied from the DNA base sequences by RNA
DNA is pretty much useless without being “converted” to
First step between DNA → Protein = Transcription
7 U4 Transcription is the synthesis of mRNA copied from the DNA base sequences by RNA
polymerase. Transcription stops at the end of the gene.
. RNA separates and double helix reforms
DNA (template) → mRNA (end result)
occurs in the NUCLEUS
1. Similar to DNA replication .Transcription
2. Still moves 5’ → 3’
3.RNA polymerase forms Hbonds between complementary base pairs and covalent
bonds between nucleotides
a. RNA polymerase binds at the start of a gene
Sequence matches mRNA (but T for
. Antisense strands
Does it matter which strand DNA copies?
Template strand = ANTISENSE strand
is transcribed from 5’ → 3’
has the complementary DNA
Sense strand .7 U4 Transcription is the synthesis of mRNA copied from the DNA base sequences by RNA
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mRNA → polypeptide chain
Ribosome “reads” and translates mRNA codons into amino acid
2 subunits . proteins
.large and small
composed of rRNA.7 U5 Translation is the synthesis of polypeptides on ribosomes.Translation
all different lengths (av.
mRNA .000 nucleotides)
depends on the gene
How much mRNA and which mRNA is produced?
depends on the polypeptides needed by the cell
lots of mRNA that carries code for insulin
Don’t forget about tRNA and rRNA. too!
.mRNA and the Genetic Code
2.7 U6 The amino acid sequence of polypeptides is determined by mRNA according
to the genetic code. 2.
Codons (or.7 U7 Codons of three bases on mRNA correspond to one amino acid in a polypeptide. you have to use the stupid chart thingie)
How does the tRNA know which amino
acids to bring?
mRNA read in sets of 3 nucleotides
that code for a specific amino acid. Jessica.
64 possibilities (4x4x4)
20 amino acids
Memorize them all?
Heck no! CODON CHART!
1. CGA. CGCGCGAGG Arg Ala Arg
2.Decoding Base Sequences
2. Deduce amino acid sequence that corresponds to these mRNA sequences:
a. CGC. deduce the base
the ANTISENSE strand of DNA
GAG TAG CTT ATT GGG
.7 S1. Use a table of
mRNA codons and their corresponding amino acids to deduce the sequence of amino acids coded by a short mRNA
strand of known base sequence. Deducing the DNA base sequence for the mRNA strand. Trp UGG
b. ACG Thr
b. CACGGG His Gly
c. Deduce the codons for:
c. If the mRNA contains the base sequence CUC AUC GAA UAA CCC
a. Tyr UAU. deduce the AA sequence of the polypeptide translated from the mRNA
Ile Glu STOP
b. S3. AGA. S4 Use a table of the genetic code to deduce which codon(s) correspond to which amino acids.
mRNA has a 3 nucleotide
2.7 U8 Translation depends on complementary base pairing between codons on mRNA and
anticodons on tRNA. Ribosomes are binding sites
for both and catalyse
. tRNA has a 3 nucleotide
1.Codons and Anticodons
7 U8 Translation depends on complementary base pairing between codons on mRNA and
anticodons on tRNA. Ribosome slides down.
1. releasing tRNA 1 and shifting tRNA 2
6. Ribosome catalyzes the addition of the 2 AAs
5. tRNA brings the first AA
3. Ribsome makes next peptide bond
Repeat over and over!
Mistakes are rare!
. 2nd tRNA brings the next AA. mRNA binds to small subunit of ribosome
2. Next tRNA comes in
7. Only 2 tRNAs at a time!
4.Codons and Anticodons
7 A2 Production of human insulin in bacteria as an example of the universality of the genetic code
allowing gene transfer between species. porcine.Production of Human Insulin in Bacteria
2. shark used in past
has some differences!
can cause allergies
Genetically transfer the human insulin gene into bacteria
Bacteria then mass produce the human version of
insulin which we can harvest!
Diabetes patients need insulin
& The Longest Word Ever: Crash Course Biology #11
Bozeman Science DNA Replication
Bozeman Science Transcription and Translation
. Hot Pockets.More review:
Learn Genetics Transcribe and Translate a Gene