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Functionalism Functionalism Talcott Talcott Parsons Parsons Presentation Presentation byby :: Melanie Melanie Lord, Lord, Anthony Anthony
Functionalism
Functionalism
Talcott
Talcott Parsons
Parsons
Presentation
Presentation byby ::
Melanie
Melanie Lord,
Lord, Anthony
Anthony Greiter,
Greiter, Zulfo
Zulfo Tursunovic
Tursunovic
Background Background • Born Born inin 1902 1902 inin Colorado Colorado Springs, Springs, Colorado. Colorado. •
Background
Background
• Born
Born inin 1902
1902 inin Colorado
Colorado Springs,
Springs,
Colorado.
Colorado.
• Youngest
Youngest of
of five
five children.
children.
• He
He came
came from
from religious
religious family
family that
that
valued
valued education.
education.
• His
His father
father was
was aa congregational
congregational minister
minister
and
and professor
professor atat Colorado
Colorado College.
College.
• His
His mother
mother was
was aa progressivist
progressivist and
and aa
suffragist.
suffragist.
Background Background • His His father father was was dismissed dismissed from from Colorado Colorado College,
Background
Background
• His
His father
father was
was dismissed
dismissed from
from Colorado
Colorado
College,
College, hehe moved
moved family
family toto New
New York
York City.
City.
• Parson
Parson spent
spent his
his last
last two
two years
years of
of high
high school
school
atat the
the Horace
Horace Mann
Mann School
School for
for Boys.
Boys.
• Talcott
Talcott was
was accepted
accepted into
into Amherst
Amherst College.
College.
• Began
Began his
his career
career asas aa biologist
biologist and
and later
later
became
became interested
interested inin economics
economics and
and sociology.
sociology.
• Talcott
Talcott graduated
graduated from
from Amherst
Amherst inin 1924
1924 and
and aa
year
year later
later entered
entered the
the London
London School
School of
of
Economic.
Economic.
Background Background • He He studied studied with with Bronislaw Bronislaw Malinowski, Malinowski, L.T. L.T. Hobhouse,
Background
Background
• He
He studied
studied with
with Bronislaw
Bronislaw Malinowski,
Malinowski, L.T.
L.T.
Hobhouse,
Hobhouse, and
and Morris
Morris Ginsberg.
Ginsberg.
• Received
Received scholarship
scholarship from
from the
the University
University of
of
Heidelberg,
Heidelberg, Where
Where hehe first
first learned
learned of
of the
the
works
works of
of Max
Max Weber.
Weber.
• He
He was
was greatly
greatly influenced
influenced byby Weber.
Weber.
• He
He was
was teaching
teaching atat Amherst
Amherst and
and later
later onon
appointed
appointed asas aa nonfaculty
nonfaculty instructor
instructor of
of
economics
economics at
at Harvard
Harvard University.
University.
Also
Also hehe worked
worked inin the
the department
department of
of
sociology.
sociology.
Background Background • After After leaving leaving the the sociology sociology department, department, hehe would would
Background
Background
• After
After leaving
leaving the
the sociology
sociology department,
department, hehe
would
would work
work with
with Gordon
Gordon Allport,
Allport, Henry
Henry
Murray,
Murray, and
and Clyde
Clyde Kluckhohn,
Kluckhohn, would
would join
join
Parsons
Parsons inin 1945
1945 toto establish
establish the
the Department
Department
of
of Social
Social Relations.
Relations.
• Department
Department would
would become
become famous
famous and
and
Talcott
Talcott worked
worked asas chair
chair of
of the
the department
department
for
for first
first ten
ten years,
years, remained
remained active
active inin the
the
department
department until
until its
its dissolution
dissolution inin 1972.
1972.
• AA year
year later
later hehe retired
retired asas Emeritus
Emeritus Proffesor.
Proffesor.
Background Background • Parsons Parsons Work Work • The The Structure Structure of of Social Social
Background
Background
• Parsons
Parsons Work
Work
The
The Structure
Structure of
of Social
Social Action
Action (1937)
(1937)
The
The Social
Social System
System and
and Toward
Toward aa General
General
Theory
Theory of
of Action
Action (1951)
(1951)
Essay
Essay inin Sociological
Sociological Theory
Theory (1949,
(1949, 1954)
1954)
Working
Working Papers
Papers inin the
the Theory
Theory of
of Acton
Acton
(1953)
(1953)
Structure
Structure and
and Process
Process inin Modern
Modern Society
Society
(1960)
(1960)
Functionalism Functionalism Background Background • InIn 1950s 1950s and and 1960 1960 Functionalism Functionalism reigned reigned
Functionalism
Functionalism
Background
Background
• InIn 1950s
1950s and
and 1960
1960 Functionalism
Functionalism
reigned
reigned asas the
the dominant
dominant theoretical
theoretical
perspective
perspective inin sociology.
sociology.
• IsIs often
often referred
referred toto asas structural
structural
functionalism
functionalism because
because of
of its
its dual
dual
focus
focus onon the
the structural
structural forces
forces that
that
shape
shape human
human behavior
behavior and
and the
the
attention
attention given
given toto system
system needs.
needs.
Functionalism Functionalism Background Background • Two Two leading leading structural structural functionalist functionalist were were Talcott
Functionalism
Functionalism
Background
Background
• Two
Two leading
leading structural
structural functionalist
functionalist
were
were Talcott
Talcott Parsons
Parsons (grand
(grand theory)
theory)
and
and Robert
Robert Merton
Merton (middle
(middle range
range
theory.
theory.
• The
The most
most significant
significant intellectual
intellectual
forerunners
forerunners of
of functionalism
functionalism were
were
Auguste
Auguste Comte,
Comte, Herbert
Herbert Spencer,
Spencer,
Emile
Emile Durkheim,
Durkheim, And
And Max
Max Weber.
Weber.
Intellectual Intellectual Influences Influences • American American who who studied studied inin the the United United
Intellectual
Intellectual Influences
Influences
• American
American who
who studied
studied inin the
the United
United States
States
and
and Europe
Europe
– Americans
Americans concerned
concerned with
with specific/limited
specific/limited studies
studies
– Europeans
Europeans focused
focused onon macroanalysis
macroanalysis
• Converted
Converted toto social
social sciences
sciences atat Amherst
Amherst
• Few
Few references
references toto American
American sociologists
sociologists
– Merton,
Merton, Homans,
Homans, Sorokin,
Sorokin, Veblen
Veblen
• Mead
Mead and
and Cooley
Cooley (American)
(American)
– Insight
Insight about
about problems
problems for
for intimate
intimate interaction
interaction
– Criticizes
Criticizes their
their failed
failed development
development of
of solid
solid program
program
of
of detailed
detailed research
research
Intellectual Intellectual Influences Influences • London London School School of of Economics Economics – Hobhouse Hobhouse
Intellectual
Intellectual Influences
Influences
• London
London School
School of
of Economics
Economics
– Hobhouse
Hobhouse
• Evolution
Evolution of
of Morality
Morality
– Ginsberg
Ginsberg
• Economic
Economic institutions
institutions of
of preliterate
preliterate societies
societies
– Malinowski
Malinowski
• Structural-functional
Structural-functional analysis
analysis inin anthropology
anthropology
Parsons’
Parsons’ integration
integration of
of all
all social
social sciences
sciences into
into one
one of
of
human
human action
action
• Strong
Strong European
European influence
influence
– Two
Two particular
particular influences
influences
• Max
Max Weber
Weber
• Emile
Emile Durkheim
Durkheim
Intellectual Intellectual Influences Influences Max Max Weber Weber • Greatest Greatest influence influence onon Parsons Parsons
Intellectual
Intellectual Influences
Influences
Max
Max Weber
Weber
• Greatest
Greatest influence
influence onon Parsons
Parsons
• Dissertation,
Dissertation, “Concept
“Concept of
of Capitalism”,
Capitalism”,
based
based primarily
primarily onon Weber’s
Weber’s work
work
• Marx’s
Marx’s Reductionist
Reductionist Approach
Approach
– Tied
Tied strictly
strictly toto economics
economics
– Overly
Overly simplistic
simplistic and
and unrealistic
unrealistic
• Favored
Favored Weber’s
Weber’s unwillingness
unwillingness toto simplify
simplify
complexity
complexity of
of the
the social
social system
system
– First
First major
major link
link of
of value
value systems
systems and
and social
social
structures
structures
Intellectual Intellectual Influences Influences • Ideas” Ideas” behind behind interpretation interpretation of of “representations” “representations” –
Intellectual
Intellectual Influences
Influences
• Ideas”
Ideas” behind
behind interpretation
interpretation of
of “representations”
“representations”
– Form
Form ultimate
ultimate realities
realities that
that are
are not
not themselves
themselves such
such
realities
realities
– Behavior
Behavior influenced
influenced byby social
social system
system
• Parsons
Parsons concluded
concluded that
that social
social system
system isis made
made
from
from the
the interaction
interaction of
of humans
humans
– Affected
Affected byby social
social environment
environment
• Wanted
Wanted toto describe
describe logical
logical types
types of
of social
social
relations
relations applicable
applicable toto all
all groups
groups (small
(small and
and
large) large)
– System
System created
created based
based onon social
social action
action
– The
The Structure
Structure of
of Social
Social Action
Action (1937)
(1937)
Intellectual Intellectual Influences Influences Emile Emile Durkheim Durkheim • Parsons Parsons valued valued broad broad comparative
Intellectual
Intellectual Influences
Influences
Emile
Emile Durkheim
Durkheim
• Parsons
Parsons valued
valued broad
broad comparative
comparative studies
studies
– Study
Study of
of suicide
suicide rates
rates
– Study
Study of
of aboriginal
aboriginal Australian
Australian society
society
• Suicide
Suicide Rates
Rates Study
Study
““intermediate
intermediate between
between the
the broad
broad comparative
comparative
method
method and
and what
what might
might bebe called
called the
the
‘meticulous’
‘meticulous’ ideal
ideal of
of operational
operational procedure”
procedure”
– Revealed
Revealed suicide
suicide rates
rates
based
based onon religions
religions that
that
held
held upup cross-culturally
cross-culturally
Parsons
Parsons criticized
criticized the
the attempt
attempt atat statistical
statistical
method
method
Parsons
Parsons appreciated
appreciated variety
variety of
of significant
significant
combinations
combinations of
of data
data
Intellectual Intellectual Influences Influences Emile Emile Durkheim Durkheim • Aboriginal Aboriginal Australian Australian Study Study –
Intellectual
Intellectual Influences
Influences
Emile
Emile Durkheim
Durkheim
• Aboriginal
Aboriginal Australian
Australian Study
Study
– The
The Elementary
Elementary Forms
Forms of
of the
the Religious
Religious Life
Life (1915)
(1915)
– Documented
Documented “pan-religionism”
“pan-religionism” of
of primitive
primitive societies
societies
• ““Primitive
Primitive societies
societies are
are permeated
permeated with
with religious
religious
sentiments
sentiments and
and activities
activities ruled
ruled byby the
the prominence
prominence of
of
religio-magical
religio-magical belief
belief systems
systems and
and the
the prevalence
prevalence of
of ritual
ritual
activities”
activities” (Delaney,
(Delaney, 238)
238)
– Sociocultural
Sociocultural system
system linked
linked toto kinship
kinship system
system
– Parsons
Parsons saw
saw validity
validity inin aa structural,
structural, functioning
functioning
system
system linked
linked through
through kinship
kinship and
and working
working toward
toward
the
the greater
greater good
good for
for the
the whole
whole of
of society
society
• Functionalism
Functionalism
Intellectual Intellectual Influences Influences of of Functionalism Functionalism • Max Max Weber Weber and and Emile
Intellectual
Intellectual Influences
Influences
of
of Functionalism
Functionalism
• Max
Max Weber
Weber and
and Emile
Emile Durkheim
Durkheim
• Auguste
Auguste Comte
Comte
– Social
Social statics
statics and
and social
social dynamics
dynamics
• Society
Society isis changing,
changing, but
but change
change isis subject
subject toto social
social laws
laws
• Evolutionary
Evolutionary process
process
• Herbert
Herbert Spencer
Spencer
– Requisite Requisite Functionalism Functionalism
Organic
Organic (individual)
(individual) and
and Superorganic
Superorganic (society)
(society) must
must
fulfill
fulfill universal
universal requisites
requisites toto adapt
adapt toto their
their environment
environment
– Differentiation Differentiation
• Increase
Increase inin both
both Organic
Organic and
and social
social aggregates
aggregates directly
directly
related
related toto increase
increase inin complexity
complexity of
of their
their structure
structure
Philosophy- Philosophy- Talcott Talcott Parsons Parsons • Realism Realism v.v. Idealism Idealism – Idealist Idealist --
Philosophy-
Philosophy- Talcott
Talcott
Parsons
Parsons
• Realism
Realism v.v. Idealism
Idealism
– Idealist
Idealist -- AnAn act
act isis always
always aa process
process inin time,
time,
and
and that
that the
the concept
concept “end”
“end” always
always implies
implies aa
future
future reference
reference toto aa state
state oror situation
situation that
that
does
does not
not exist
exist yet
yet
• Realism
Realism v.v. Nominalism
Nominalism
– Realism
Realism –– The
The relations
relations between
between actors
actors are
are
essentially
essentially the
the structure
structure of
of the
the social
social system
system
• Idealism
Idealism v.v. Materialism
Materialism
– Materialist
Materialist –– Interrelated
Interrelated parts
parts contribute
contribute toto
the
the functioning
functioning of
of the
the whole
whole system
system
Concepts Concepts and and Contributions Contributions • Attempted Attempted toto generate generate aa “grand “grand theory”
Concepts
Concepts and
and
Contributions
Contributions
• Attempted
Attempted toto generate
generate aa “grand
“grand
theory”
theory” of
of society
society that
that explained
explained all
all
social
social behavior,
behavior, everywhere,
everywhere,
throughout
throughout history
history and
and the
the end
end
result
result was
was Structure
Structure Functionalism
Functionalism
Functionalism Functionalism • Views Views society society asas having having interrelated interrelated parts parts that that
Functionalism
Functionalism
• Views
Views society
society asas having
having interrelated
interrelated
parts
parts that
that contribute
contribute toto the
the
functioning
functioning of
of the
the whole
whole system
system
• Macrosociological
Macrosociological theory:
theory: focuses
focuses onon
large-scale
large-scale social
social patterns
patterns and
and social
social
systems
systems
Functionalism Functionalism • Functionalism Functionalism has has two two basic basic assumptions: assumptions: 1- 1- Interdependent
Functionalism
Functionalism
• Functionalism
Functionalism has
has two
two basic
basic
assumptions:
assumptions:
1-
1- Interdependent
Interdependent parts:
parts: this
this isis society’s
society’s
institutions
institutions (religion,
(religion, education,
education, politics,
politics,
etc.)
etc.) that
that are
are all
all linked
linked together.
together. AA
change
change inin one
one institution
institution leads
leads toto aa
change
change inin other
other parts.
parts. InIn order
order toto
function
function properly
properly the
the system
system will
will seek
seek
equilibrium,
equilibrium, oror stability.
stability.
Functionalism Functionalism • 2- 2- General General Consensus Consensus onon Values: Values: members members of of
Functionalism
Functionalism
• 2-
2- General
General Consensus
Consensus onon Values:
Values:
members
members of
of society
society must
must have
have aa
general
general agreement
agreement onon issues
issues of
of right
right
and
and wrong,
wrong, basic
basic values,
values, and
and
morality
morality issues
issues inin order
order toto function
function
properly.
properly.
Functionalism Functionalism • Functionalism Functionalism explains explains social social change change asas aa result result of
Functionalism
Functionalism
• Functionalism
Functionalism explains
explains social
social change
change asas
aa result
result of
of such
such variables
variables asas population
population
growth
growth and
and increased
increased technology.
technology.
• Rapid
Rapid change
change within
within the
the system
system isis not
not
something
something the
the functionalist
functionalist approach
approach isis
geared
geared toto handle.
handle.
• Society’s
Society’s institutions
institutions then
then try
try toto restore
restore
themselves
themselves toto aa state
state of
of equilibrium.
equilibrium.
Social Social Action Action Theory Theory • Social Social Action Action Theory Theory begins begins with
Social
Social Action
Action Theory
Theory
• Social
Social Action
Action Theory
Theory begins
begins with
with aa
biological-sociological
biological-sociological conceptualization
conceptualization
of
of the
the basic
basic unit
unit of
of study
study asas the
the “unit
“unit
act”.
act”.
• AnAn “act”
“act” involves
involves the
the following:
following:
– AnAn agent
agent oror actor
actor
– Must
Must have
have anan end
end oror goal
goal
– Must
Must bebe inin aa situation
situation which
which differs
differs from
from
state
state of
of affairs
affairs the
the action
action isis oriented
oriented
– There
There exists
exists alternative
alternative meanings
meanings toto the
the end
end
Social Social Action Action Theory Theory • AnAn act act isis always always aa process process
Social
Social Action
Action Theory
Theory
• AnAn act
act isis always
always aa process
process inin time.
time.
• ““End”
End” implies
implies aa future
future reference
reference oror
state
state that
that does
does not
not exist
exist yet.
yet.
• Actions
Actions consist
consist of
of structures
structures and
and
processes
processes byby which
which humans
humans form
form
meaningful
meaningful intentions
intentions and
and implement
implement
them.
them.
• Social
Social action
action isis preformed
preformed byby anan actor
actor
either
either asas anan individual
individual oror aa group
group
Social Social Action Action Theory Theory • Parsons Parsons theory theory had had four four steps:
Social
Social Action
Action Theory
Theory
• Parsons
Parsons theory
theory had
had four
four steps:
steps:
– Actors
Actors are
are motivated
motivated toto action
action
(education)
(education)
– Actor
Actor must
must find
find the
the means
means toto attain
attain goal
goal
($)
($)
– Actor
Actor must
must deal
deal with
with hindering
hindering
conditions
conditions (crisis)
(crisis)
– Actor
Actor must
must work
work within
within the
the social
social
system
system (rules)
(rules)
Social Social System System • Parson’s Parson’s described described aa system system asas aa “complex “complex
Social
Social System
System
• Parson’s
Parson’s described
described aa system
system asas aa
“complex
“complex unit
unit of
of some
some kind
kind with
with
boundaries,
boundaries, within
within which
which parts
parts are
are
connected,
connected, and
and within
within which
which
something
something takes
takes place.
place.
• The
The social
social system
system isis anan arrangement
arrangement
between
between parts
parts and
and elements
elements that
that exist
exist
over
over time,
time, even
even while
while some
some elements
elements
change.
change.
Social Social System System • Parson’s Parson’s general general assumptions: assumptions: – Systems Systems are are
Social
Social System
System
• Parson’s
Parson’s general
general assumptions:
assumptions:
– Systems
Systems are
are made
made of
of order
order and
and the
the
interdependence
interdependence of
of parts
parts
– The
The system,
system, and
and all
all the
the sub-systems,
sub-systems, strive
strive for
for
equilibrium
equilibrium
– Systems
Systems are
are generally
generally static,
static, oror move
move inin aa
deliberate
deliberate manner
manner
– AA disruption
disruption inin the
the normal
normal flow
flow of
of one
one
subsystem
subsystem can
can cause
cause aa disturbance
disturbance throughout
throughout
the
the whole
whole system.
system.
– Systems
Systems have
have boundaries,
boundaries, which
which may
may involve
involve
actual
actual physical
physical space,
space, oror time
time and
and distance.
distance.
Sociobiology Sociobiology • Differences Differences between between biological biological systems systems and and social social systems:
Sociobiology
Sociobiology
• Differences
Differences between
between biological
biological
systems
systems and
and social
social systems:
systems:
– Growth
Growth:: biologically
biologically anan individual
individual grows
grows
toto aa certain
certain point
point and
and stops.
stops. AA social
social
system
system may
may bebe static
static for
for some
some time
time and
and
then
then grow,
grow, oror itit may
may simply
simply continue
continue toto
grow grow
– Spatial:
Spatial: Biological
Biological systems
systems are
are bounded.
bounded.
Social
Social systems
systems boundaries
boundaries are
are not
not asas
fixed
fixed oror limited.
limited.
Sociobiology Sociobiology – Time: Time: AA biological biological unit unit has has limits, limits, mortality. mortality.
Sociobiology
Sociobiology
– Time:
Time: AA biological
biological unit
unit has
has limits,
limits,
mortality.
mortality. Social
Social units
units can
can survive
survive for
for
centuries. centuries.
– Parts/subparts:
Parts/subparts: Biological
Biological systems
systems are
are
often
often specialized
specialized and
and dependent
dependent onon the
the
whole
whole for
for its
its survival.
survival. Within
Within social
social
systems
systems parts
parts are
are easily
easily replaceable
replaceable
and
and the
the systems
systems moves
moves on.
on.
Sociobiology Sociobiology • The The roles roles of of the the actor actor allowed allowed Parsons
Sociobiology
Sociobiology
• The
The roles
roles of
of the
the actor
actor allowed
allowed Parsons
Parsons
toto create
create three
three distinct
distinct units
units within
within the
the
social
social system
system
– The
The act
act isis aa unit
unit inin the
the social
social system
system asas itit
interacts
interacts with
with its
its author
author and
and other
other actors
actors
– Status
Status roles
roles are
are units
units of
of the
the social
social system.
system.
– The
The actor
actor himself
himself isis aa unit.
unit. ItIt isis the
the actor
actor
that
that holds
holds aa status
status and
and performs
performs aa role
role
Systems Systems Levels Levels • Social Social systems systems must must bebe structured structured inin aa
Systems
Systems Levels
Levels
• Social
Social systems
systems must
must bebe structured
structured inin aa
way
way asas not
not toto impede
impede the
the action
action
• Parsons
Parsons organized
organized four
four distinct
distinct system
system
levels:
levels:
– Social
Social Systems:
Systems: interaction
interaction between
between actors
actors
– Personality
Personality Systems:
Systems: optimization
optimization of
of
gratification
gratification
– Cultural
Cultural Systems:
Systems: value
value and
and meaning
meaning toto actor
actor
– Behavioral
Behavioral Systems:
Systems: physical
physical aspect
aspect
Pattern Pattern Variables Variables • Categorize Categorize expectations expectations and and the the structure structure of
Pattern
Pattern Variables
Variables
• Categorize
Categorize expectations
expectations and
and the
the
structure
structure of
of relationships
relationships
• Allows
Allows for
for comparison
comparison between
between
relationships
relationships
• Three
Three primary
primary thoughts
thoughts when
when
developing
developing these
these variables:
variables:
– General
General enough
enough toto permit
permit comparison
comparison
– Should
Should show
show relevance
relevance toto action
action
– Categorizations
Categorizations of
of decisions
decisions
Pattern Pattern Variables Variables • Affectivity-Affectivity Affectivity-Affectivity Neutrality Neutrality – Expectation Expectation of of emotional emotional
Pattern
Pattern Variables
Variables
• Affectivity-Affectivity
Affectivity-Affectivity Neutrality
Neutrality
– Expectation
Expectation of
of emotional
emotional component
component
• Diffuseness-
Diffuseness- Specificity
Specificity
– Range
Range of
of demands
demands expected
expected inin aa
relationship
relationship
• Universalism-
Universalism- Particularism
Particularism
– Fair
Fair Treatment
Treatment oror priority
priority status?
status?
Pattern Pattern Variables Variables • Achievement- Achievement- Ascription Ascription – Interactions Interactions based based inin who
Pattern
Pattern Variables
Variables
• Achievement-
Achievement- Ascription
Ascription
– Interactions
Interactions based
based inin who
who they
they are
are oror
inborn
inborn quality
quality
• Collectivity-
Collectivity- Self
Self Orientation
Orientation
– Motivation:
Motivation: actions
actions directed
directed atat aa person
person
oror collectivity
collectivity
AGIL AGIL • Parsons’ Parsons’ hypothesis hypothesis that that process process inin any any social social
AGIL
AGIL
• Parsons’
Parsons’ hypothesis
hypothesis that
that process
process inin
any
any social
social system
system isis subject
subject toto four
four
independent
independent functional
functional imperatives
imperatives
oror problems
problems which
which must
must bebe met
met
adequately
adequately ifif equilibrium
equilibrium oror
existence
existence of
of the
the system
system isis toto bebe
maitained
maitained
AGIL AGIL • Adaptation: Adaptation: – Secure Secure && distribute distribute sufficient sufficient resources resources oror
AGIL
AGIL
• Adaptation:
Adaptation:
– Secure
Secure && distribute
distribute sufficient
sufficient resources
resources
oror adapt
adapt toto changes
changes
• Goal
Goal Attainment:
Attainment:
– Must
Must establish
establish clear
clear goals.
goals. This
This isis
primary
primary toto political
political system
system
AGIL AGIL • Integration: Integration: – Regulation Regulation and and coordination coordination of of actors actors
AGIL
AGIL
• Integration:
Integration:
– Regulation
Regulation and
and coordination
coordination of
of actors
actors and
and
systems
systems
• Latency:
Latency:
– Tension
Tension maintenance
maintenance and
and pattern
pattern
maintenance
maintenance
– Sufficient
Sufficient motivation
motivation for
for actors
actors
– Social
Social institutions
institutions are
are key
key (family,
(family, peers,
peers,
education)
education)
The The Social Social Structure Structure of of Systems Systems • The The social social system
The
The Social
Social Structure
Structure of
of
Systems
Systems
• The
The social
social system
system isis aa differentiated
differentiated
system
system inin terms
terms of
of roles
roles and
and the
the
distribution
distribution process.
process.
• Parsons
Parsons classifications
classifications of
of internal
internal
differentiation
differentiation of
of social
social systems:
systems:
– Relational
Relational Institutions
Institutions
– Regulative
Regulative Institutions
Institutions
– Cultural
Cultural Institutions
Institutions
– Relational
Relational and
and Regulative
Regulative Institutions
Institutions
Structure Structure of of Systems Systems • Principle Principle Types Types of of Social Social Structure:
Structure
Structure of
of Systems
Systems
• Principle
Principle Types
Types of
of Social
Social Structure:
Structure:
– Universalistic-
Universalistic- Achievement
Achievement Patterns
Patterns
– Universalistic-
Universalistic- Ascription
Ascription Patterns
Patterns
– Participation-
Participation- Achievement
Achievement Patterns
Patterns
– Particularistic-
Particularistic- Ascriptive
Ascriptive Patterns
Patterns
Social Social Structure Structure of of Systems Systems • Structural Structural Components Components – Kinship Kinship
Social
Social Structure
Structure of
of
Systems
Systems
• Structural
Structural Components
Components
– Kinship
Kinship systems
systems
– Instrumental
Instrumental Achievement
Achievement Structures
Structures
and
and Stratifications
Stratifications
– Territoriality,
Territoriality, Force,
Force, and
and the
the Integration
Integration
of
of the
the Power
Power System
System
– Religion
Religion and
and Value-integration
Value-integration
Organizations Organizations • Parsons Parsons defines defines the the term term asas aa broad broad type
Organizations
Organizations
• Parsons
Parsons defines
defines the
the term
term asas aa broad
broad
type
type of
of collectivity
collectivity which
which has
has
assumed
assumed aa particular
particular important
important
place
place inin modern
modern society
society
• Goal
Goal attainment
attainment isis the
the defining
defining
characteristic
characteristic of
of and
and organization
organization
Organizations Organizations • Types Types of of Organizations: Organizations: – Oriented Oriented toward toward economic economic
Organizations
Organizations
• Types
Types of
of Organizations:
Organizations:
– Oriented
Oriented toward
toward economic
economic production
production
• Business
Business and
and production
production
– Oriented
Oriented toward
toward political
political goals
goals
• Refers
Refers toto government
government and
and banking
banking
– Integrative
Integrative organizations
organizations
• Legal
Legal system
system and
and courts,
courts, goal
goal toto ease
ease conflicts
conflicts
– Pattern-maintenance
Pattern-maintenance organizations
organizations
• Informing
Informing of
of basic
basic moral
moral beliefs
beliefs
Evolutionary Evolutionary Theory Theory • Parsons Parsons model model of of evolutionary evolutionary theory: theory: –
Evolutionary
Evolutionary Theory
Theory
• Parsons
Parsons model
model of
of evolutionary
evolutionary theory:
theory:
– Differentiation
Differentiation
• Many
Many sub-systems
sub-systems
• Change
Change inin one
one affects
affects many
many others
others
• New
New parts
parts develop
develop toto take
take onon those
those roles
roles
– Integration
Integration
• Inclusion
Inclusion
• Growing
Growing complexity
complexity demands
demands larger
larger supplies
supplies of
of people
people
• Mobilization
Mobilization and
and coordination
coordination are
are critical
critical
– Value
Value Generalization
Generalization
• Adaptation
Adaptation of
of value
value system
system
Race, Race, Class Class and and Gender Gender • Race: Race: – Parsons Parsons suggested suggested
Race,
Race, Class
Class and
and Gender
Gender
• Race:
Race:
– Parsons
Parsons suggested
suggested that
that the
the survival
survival of
of the
the
system
system was
was dependent
dependent onon aa new
new level
level of
of
institutionalization
institutionalization of
of values
values of
of equality.
equality.
• Class:
Class:
– Parsons
Parsons saw
saw class
class inequality
inequality
asas failure
failure of
of aa social
social
system
system toto properly
properly integrate
integrate all
all members.
members. Class
Class
struggle
struggle creates
creates motivation
motivation
• Gender:
Gender:
– Traced
Traced differences
differences inin gender
gender roles
roles toto the
the family
family
– Predicted
Predicted that
that the
the greater
greater number
number of
of women
women
seeking
seeking careers
careers outside
outside the
the family
family would
would alter
alter
the
the structure
structure of
of the
the family
family
Relevancy Relevancy • Although Although Functionalism Functionalism has has come come under under attack attack itit
Relevancy
Relevancy
• Although
Although Functionalism
Functionalism has
has come
come under
under
attack
attack itit still
still remains
remains inin the
the “Big
“Big Three”
Three”
• Society
Society and
and social
social systems
systems are
are
comprised
comprised of
of interdependent
interdependent parts,
parts, aa
major
major failure
failure oror breakdown
breakdown inin one
one part
part
can
can cause
cause harm
harm toto the
the entire
entire system.
system.
– Ex:
Ex: Enron
Enron caused
caused major
major effects
effects throughout
throughout
the
the financial
financial industry.
industry. Thus
Thus the
the social
social system
system
had
had toto react
react toto Enron
Enron toto find
find equilibrium.
equilibrium.
Relevancy Relevancy • 9-11 9-11 isis another another example example • AnAn example example of of
Relevancy
Relevancy
• 9-11
9-11 isis another
another example
example
• AnAn example
example of
of Parsons
Parsons Evolution
Evolution
Theory
Theory isis the
the technological
technological
advancement
advancement of
of the
the cell
cell phone.
phone. They
They
change
change the
the aspects
aspects of
of everyday
everyday life
life
and
and society
society has
has toto adapt
adapt
Additional Additional Information Information • The The most most significant significant intellectual intellectual forerunners forerunners of
Additional
Additional Information
Information
• The
The most
most significant
significant intellectual
intellectual
forerunners
forerunners of
of functionalism
functionalism were
were
Auguste
Auguste Comte,
Comte, Herbert
Herbert Spencer,
Spencer,
Emile
Emile Durkheim,
Durkheim, and
and Max
Max Weber.
Weber.
• Robert
Robert Merton
Merton also
also had
had aa
functionalistic
functionalistic approach.
approach.
Robert Robert Merton Merton • Merton’s Merton’s Theories Theories were were Functionalistic Functionalistic inin perspective. perspective.
Robert
Robert Merton
Merton
• Merton’s
Merton’s Theories
Theories were
were Functionalistic
Functionalistic inin
perspective.
perspective.
• His
His best
best known
known theories
theories were:
were:
– Theories
Theories of
of Middle
Middle Range
Range
• Roles
Roles sets,
sets, function,
function, codification
codification
– Anomie
Anomie Thoery
Thoery
• Condition
Condition of
of normalness
normalness
– Manifest
Manifest and
and Latent
Latent Functions
Functions
• Too
Too much
much attention
attention toto intended
intended and
and not
not unintended
unintended
consequences
consequences
– Dysfunctions
Dysfunctions
• System
System disrupting
disrupting consequences
consequences
Additional Additional Contributors Contributors toto Functionalism Functionalism • Niklas Niklas Luhmann Luhmann – Systems Systems Theory
Additional
Additional Contributors
Contributors toto
Functionalism
Functionalism
• Niklas
Niklas Luhmann
Luhmann
– Systems
Systems Theory
Theory
• Anthony
Anthony Giddens
Giddens
– Theory
Theory onon Structuration
Structuration
• Jeffery
Jeffery Alexander
Alexander
– Coined
Coined the
the term
term neofunctionalism
neofunctionalism
• Neil
Neil Smelser
Smelser
– Top
Top theorist
theorist inin neofunctionalism
neofunctionalism