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Modern day durable goods manufacturing have
begun to embrace the concepts of digitization as
a means to improve productivity and quality.
This is the area where machine vision based
tools start to excel.
Machine vision in general has been used for
everything from guiding the insertion of
electronic chips on circuit boards to inspecting
bottles at several per second in bottling lines.


A machine vision system consists of computer hardware and software
working together with cameras and lighting to capture images of objects for
the purpose of making a quality control decision.
When the image is captured and stored in memory, it is algorithmically
compared to a predefined image or quality standard in an effort to detect
defects or anomalies.
Using machine vision technology for purposes of inspection and quality
control enables manufacturing companies to prevent defective products from
being shipped to customers and to improve their manufacturing processes
and reduce costs.
Machine vision systems at that time were complex in programming and
maintaining, difficult to install, limited in performance and not cost-effective.


Vision based smart camera solutions are primarily targeted at
providing manufacturers with 100% inspection in high speed,
discrete part manufacturing applications.
This typically replaces older off-line random sampling
techniques or human vision inspection techniques as a means
of monitoring quality.
Therefore, our IMPACT machine vision based smart cameras
are a key technology in enabling manufacturers to achieve
zero defect production.

Image Acquisitions
(by cameras,
scanners etc)

Image Processing
Image Restoration
Image Enhancement

Image segmentation

Image Analysis
(Binary Image

Modern Matching
Pattern Recognition


Analog to digital conversion.

Remove noise/patterns, improve contrast.

Find Regions (objects) in the image.

Take measurements of object/relationship.

Match the above description with similar

description of known objects.

There are currently three basic approaches to threedimensional machine vision:
Range finding including structured lighting
Stereo or binocular vision
Gray scale or range finding methods

1.Range finding including structured lighting

Triangulation Method

Figure 1. A triangulation based system using a point of light to

obtain distance.
The effects that may be seen from a laser beam reflecting off a
rough surface
Directional reflection due to surface ridge
Expansion of the incident laser spot due to micro surface

A synchronized scanning system, limited the

range of view

Active triangulation system, seeking laser

point, providing extended range.


2D Machine Vision
2D vision systems use area scan or line scan cameras and
appropriate lighting to measure the visible characteristics of
an object such as:
quality of surface appearance
edge based measurements
presence and location of features
2D Applications include:
food sorting of color, shape, and size
automotive parts needing location and presence

3D Machine Vision
3D vision systems use a specialized high speed camera and a
projected laser line to measure the physical deviations of an
objects surface such as:
Flatness or shape
3D Applications include:
Volume, size and shape measurements of baked goods or
Completeness of molded parts
Flatness of stamped washers


Adhesive Bead Inspection

High resolution, continuous inspection of height, width and volume of

adhesive beads.
Control of shape and position of glue bead on the carrier part
Delivers robust, process-sure, reproducible measured data
independent of ambient light effects and of exact positioning of carrier
Color/glance of adhesive or carrier surface has no influence on the

Weld Seam Inspection

3D high resolution, continuous inspection of height, width and position

of weld seams
Control of shape and position of seam
Delivers robust, process-sure, reproducible measured data
independent of ambient light effects and of exact positioning of seam
Color/glance of seam has no influence on the measurement
Can be combined with an IR inspection system for extensive detection
of faulty areas

Component Inspection

3D machine vision cameras for automatic quality control during the

assembly steps in the production line.

Surface Inspection

3D Inspection of wood surfaces

Wood knot detection

Inspection of wood geometry
Texture control

Character recognition on
railway rails

Tire and Rubber Inspection Using 3D Machine Vision

Industrial 3D machine vision on "difficult" materials such as tires and

Simultaneous acquisition of intensity and height data
Uniform illumination of the measurement surface
Structures and patterns are clearly recognizable

These multi-camera vision systems are able to be customized and

feature Vision Gauge On Line machine vision software which includes
many tools to produce an inspection program that yields reliable

Object Counting and Sizing / Blob Analysis

Part Identification
Defect / Flaw Detection
Presence / Absence Detection
Image Processing and Analysis
Automated Measurements
Optical Character Recognition and Verification
Pattern Matching and Part Location
Alignment and Registration
Color Verification

As with any technology of this nature, the performance
changes with the component technology.
The primary advance that has made machine vision systems
feasible for shop floor gauging applications has been the
speed up in computing power.
The other technologies that are influencing performance
today include lower cost, digital cameras than provide better
light range and pixel resolution with lower noise, and better
light sources such as higher power laser diodes well as high

ASME Journal of Machine Design
"Machine Vision Based Gaging of Manufactured Parts," K.
Harding, Proc. SME Gaging '95, Detroit, Nov. 1995.
The Promise of Machine Vision, K. Harding, Optics and
Photonics News, p. 30 May 1996 Optical Society of America
"Light Source Design for Machine Vision", Eric J. Sieczka and
Kevin G. Harding, SPIE Proceedings Vol. 1614, Optics,
Illumination and Image Sensing for Machine Vision VI,
Boston, Nov. 1991.
L. Bieman, "Three-Dimensional Machine Vision," Photonics
Spectra, May 1988, p. 81.