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First Aid

Training
aims of first aid

Preserve Life

Prevent Worsening

Promote Recovery
the airway
emergency action plan
DANGER?
Make sure it is
safe for you to YES Remove
give help.
NO Danger

History Response? Make the scene

Find out what has happened.


YES Shout and gently
safe.
shake or tap the Do not take
casualty. risks.
NO

Signs and Help!


Symptoms Shout for help, but
How does the patient feel or don’t leave the
look? casualty yet.
Try to work out what’s wrong.
Airway
Open the
airway by
Treatment tilting the head
Remember – If you’re not sure, back
always seek and lifting the
professional medical advice. chin.
Normal Secondary Survey
Breathing? YES Check for bleeding, injuries and
clues
Look, listen and (see your first aid book).
feel
for no more than
10 seconds.

If you’re not sure if Recovery Position


breathing is
normal, treat it as •Recovery Position (see book).
thoughNOit is not. •Dial 999 if not already done.
•Monitor Airway and Breathing.
•Keep the casualty Warm.

Dial 999
Now
(If not already
done)

Resuscitation
• Give 30 chest compressions, then 2 rescue breaths.

30 to 2 • Continue giving cycles of 30 compressions to 2 rescue breaths.


• Only stop to recheck the patient if they start breathing normally
– otherwise do not interrupt resuscitation.
• If there is more than one rescuer, change over every 2 minutes
to prevent fatigue.
priorities of treatment

Primary Survey

A B
Airway Breathing

B Secondary Survey
Bleeding (or
burns)

B
Bones
resuscitation

D anger
R esponse
A irway
B reathing
Causes of unconsciousness

F ainting
I mbalance of heat
Shock
H ead Injury
Stroke

Heart Attack

A sphyxia

Poisoning

E pilepsy

Diabetes
levels of consciousness

A lert
Confused
Inappropriate words
oice
V Utters sounds
No verbal response

ain Localises pain


Responds only

P
nresponsive

U
secondary survey

Primary Survey First! – D.R.A.B.

Bleeding or Burns

Head and Neck

Shoulders and Chest

Abdomen and Pelvis

Legs and Arms

Pockets and Clues

Recovery Position
head injuries

Concussion Compression

Unconsciousness for a short Could have a history of


period, followed by an recent head injury with
increase in levels of apparent recovery, but then
response and recovery. deteriorates
Short term memory loss Levels of response become
(particularly of the incident). worse as condition develops
Confusion, irritability.
Mild, general headache. Intense headache.

Pale, clammy skin. Flushed, dry skin.

Shallow / normal breathing. Deep, noisy, slow breathing.


(Pressure on the respiratory
control area of the brain)
Rapid, weak pulse. Slow, strong pulse.
(Blood diverts away from the (Caused by raised blood
extremities) pressure)
Normal pupils, reacting to One or both pupils dilate as
light. pressure increases on the
brain.
Possible nausea or vomiting Condition becomes worse.
on recovery. Fits may occur. No recovery.
compression
pupils
pupils
pupils
the respiratory system
the respiratory system

Alveoli
collapsed lung
hypoxia – the causes

External Suffocation,Drowning,
High Altitude

Airway Tongue, Vomit, Choking,


Strangulation, Hanging, Burns,
Anaphylaxis, Disease.

Breathing Crushing, Collapsed Lung, Chest


Injury, Poisons, Asthma, Disease,
Illness.

Circulation Heart Attack, Angina, Bleeding,


Poisons, Anaemia.

Control Stroke, Head Injury, Drug


Centre Overdose/Poisons, Spinal Injury,
Electric Shock.
hypoxia – signs and symptoms

Pale, Cold, Clammy / Cyanosis

Nausea / Vomiting

Increase In Pulse Rate

Weak Pulse

Increase in Breathing Rate /


Short of Breath

Dizziness / Confusion
Lowered Levels of Response
the circulatory system
the heart – blood flow

From To the
the Body
Body

To the
Lungs
From
the
Lungs

Left
Right Atrium
Atrium

Right Left
Ventricle Ventricle
the heart
a typical heart attack
electrical impulses of the heart
Shock –normal circulation
Hypovolaemic Shock
cardiogenic shock
fainting

Handbrake!!
anaphylactic shock
anaphylaxis

Picture: Many Thanks to the Anaphylaxis Campaign.


types of wound

C ontusion
A brasion
L aceration
I ncision
P uncture
G un Shot
A mputation
D egloved
fractured wrist
eye / face laceration
finger laceration
Fingertip amputation
puncture wound
blood loss

Dilate
Blood
Vessels

Constrict

140
Heart 120
Rate
100
80

Blood
Pressure

10% 20% 30% 40%

Blood Loss
treatment of bleeding

S it or Lay
E xamine
E levate
P ressure
severity of burns

S ize
C ause
A ge
L ocation
Depth
burns – estimating the area
laceration
dislocated kneecap
burns
burns treatment

1 COOL!

2 REMOVE

3 DRESS
the skeleton
the spine

7 Cervical

12 Thoracic

5 Lumbar

5 Fused
Sacral
types of fracture

Closed

Open

Complicated

Green Stick
types of wound

P ain
L oss of power
U natural movement
S welling or bruising
Deformity
I rregularity
C repitus
T enderness
open fracture
open fracture

Note the poor aseptic technique!


open fractured wrist
sprains and strains

R est
Ice
C ompression
E levation
body temperature

0
F 0
C
109.4 43
Unconsciousness / fitting.
Heat 107.6 42 Confused / restless.

Stroke 105.8 41 Headache, dizzy, uncomfortable.


Strong bounding pulse.
104 40 Flushed dry skin, hot to touch.
Heat 102.2 39 Cramps in stomach / arms / legs.
Pale sweaty skin.
Exhaustion 100.4 38 Nausea / loss of appetite.
98.6 37 Normal Body Temperature
Normal
96.8 36
95 35 Shivering
Mild 93.2 34 Fatigue, Slurred speech
Confusion, forgetfulness
Hypothermia 91.4 33
Shivering stops, muscle rigidity
89.6 32 Very slow, very weak pulse
87.8 31 Noticeable drowsiness
86 30 Severe reduction in response levels
Unconsciousness
84.2 29 Dilated pupils
Severe 82.4 28 Pulse undetectable
Hypothermia 80.6 27 Appearance of death
78.8 26
77 25 Death
75.2 24
body temperature

0
F 0
C
109.4 43
Unconsciousness / fitting.
Heat 107.6 42 Confused / restless.

Stroke 105.8 41 Headache, dizzy, uncomfortable.


Strong bounding pulse.
104 40 Flushed dry skin, hot to touch.
Heat 102.2 39 Cramps in stomach / arms / legs.
Pale sweaty skin.
Exhaustion 100.4 38 Nausea / loss of appetite.
98.6 37 Normal Body Temperature
Normal
96.8 36
95 35 Shivering
Mild 93.2 34 Fatigue, Slurred speech
Confusion, forgetfulness
Hypothermia 91.4 33
Shivering stops, muscle rigidity
89.6 32 Very slow, very weak pulse
87.8 31 Noticeable drowsiness
86 30 Severe reduction in response levels
Unconsciousness
84.2 29 Dilated pupils
Severe 82.4 28 Pulse undetectable
Hypothermia 80.6 27 Appearance of death
78.8 26
77 25 Death
75.2 24
body temperature

0
F 0
C
109.4 43
Unconsciousness / fitting.
Heat 107.6 42 Confused / restless.

Stroke 105.8 41 Headache, dizzy, uncomfortable.


Strong bounding pulse.
104 40 Flushed dry skin, hot to touch.
Heat 102.2 39 Cramps in stomach / arms / legs.
Pale sweaty skin.
Exhaustion 100.4 38 Nausea / loss of appetite.
98.6 37 Normal Body Temperature
Normal
96.8 36
95 35 Shivering
Mild 93.2 34 Fatigue, Slurred speech
Confusion, forgetfulness
Hypothermia 91.4 33
Shivering stops, muscle rigidity
89.6 32 Very slow, very weak pulse
87.8 31 Noticeable drowsiness
86 30 Severe reduction in response levels
Unconsciousness
84.2 29 Dilated pupils
Severe 82.4 28 Pulse undetectable
Hypothermia 80.6 27 Appearance of death
78.8 26
77 25 Death
75.2 24
body temperature

0
F 0
C
109.4 43
Unconsciousness / fitting.
Heat 107.6 42 Confused / restless.

Stroke 105.8 41 Headache, dizzy, uncomfortable.


Strong bounding pulse.
104 40 Flushed dry skin, hot to touch.
Heat 102.2 39 Cramps in stomach / arms / legs.
Pale sweaty skin.
Exhaustion 100.4 38 Nausea / loss of appetite.
98.6 37 Normal Body Temperature
Normal
96.8 36
95 35 Shivering
Mild 93.2 34 Fatigue, Slurred speech
Confusion, forgetfulness
Hypothermia 91.4 33
Shivering stops, muscle rigidity
89.6 32 Very slow, very weak pulse
87.8 31 Noticeable drowsiness
86 30 Severe reduction in response levels
Unconsciousness
84.2 29 Dilated pupils
Severe 82.4 28 Pulse undetectable
Hypothermia 80.6 27 Appearance of death
78.8 26
77 25 Death
75.2 24
body temperature

0
F 0
C
109.4 43
Unconsciousness / fitting.
Heat 107.6 42 Confused / restless.

Stroke 105.8 41 Headache, dizzy, uncomfortable.


Strong bounding pulse.
104 40 Flushed dry skin, hot to touch.
Heat 102.2 39 Cramps in stomach / arms / legs.
Pale sweaty skin.
Exhaustion 100.4 38 Nausea / loss of appetite.
98.6 37 Normal Body Temperature
Normal
96.8 36
95 35 Shivering
Mild 93.2 34 Fatigue, Slurred speech
Confusion, forgetfulness
Hypothermia 91.4 33
Shivering stops, muscle rigidity
89.6 32 Very slow, very weak pulse
87.8 31 Noticeable drowsiness
86 30 Severe reduction in response levels
Unconsciousness
84.2 29 Dilated pupils
Severe 82.4 28 Pulse undetectable
Hypothermia 80.6 27 Appearance of death
78.8 26
77 25 Death
75.2 24
the digestive system
diabetes

High Blood Sugar Low Blood Sugar

Onset Slow Fast

Levels of
Deteriorate slowly Deteriorate rapidly
response

Skin Dry and Warm Pale, cold, sweaty

Deep sighing
Breathing Shallow and rapid
breaths

Pulse Rapid Rapid

Excessive urination
Other
Very thirsty May be confused
symptoms
Hunger for drunkenness
Fruity smell on breath
moving and handling

An average adult weighs 60 to 70kg!


For most women, reduce weight by one third
Reduce weight by 10% for twisting 45o
Reduce weight by 20% for twisting 90 o

Assumptions:
The load is grasped in both hands.
The handler is in a stable body position
The lift takes place in reasonable working conditions
moving and handling

Chin up as Keep your


you lift back upright

Bend with
your knees
not your
back

Keep the
load as close Feet apart to
to your body give you
as possible balance