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ARYABHATA

Born: 476 B.C


Died: 550 B.C
Nationality : Indian
Famous for: Early Mathematician who calculated the value of Pi
Major works: Aryabhatiya,Arya-siddanta
Place value system and zero
Theplace-valuesystem, first seen in the 3rd-centuryBakhshali
Manuscript, was clearly in place in his work. While he did not use a
symbol forzero, the French mathematicianGeorges Ifrahexplains
that knowledge of zero was implicit in Aryabhata'splace-value
systemas a place holder for the powers of ten
withnullcoefficient.

Approximation of
Aryabhata worked on the approximation forpi( ), and may have
come to the conclusion that is irrational. In the second part of
theAryabhatiyam , he writes:
"Add four to 100, multiply by eight, and then add 62,000. By this
rule the circumference of a circle with a diameter of 20,000 can be
approached.
This implies that the ratio of the circumference to the diameter is
((4+100)8+62000)/20000 =62832/20000 =3.1416, which
is accurate to fivesignificant figures.

BRAHMAGUPTA

Born: Possibly in 598 in Ujjain, India


Died: 670 AD.
Residence : Bhinmal , present day Rajasthan
Fields: Mathematics, Astronomy
Known for : Zero, Modern number system
Works: Brahmaguptasidhanta, Khandakhadyaka
Brahmasphutasiddhanta (The Opening of the Universe)
which he wrote in 628.
Brahmagupta's understanding of the number systems went
far beyond that of others of the period

He made advances in astronomy and most importantly in


number systems including algorithms for square roots and
the solution of quadratic equation.
In the Brahmasphutasiddhanta he defined zero as the result
of subtracting a number from itself. He gave some
properties as follows:
When zero is added to a number or subtracted from a
number, the number remains unchanged; and a number
multiplied by zero becomes zero.
the positions of the planets. He died in the year 670 AD.

He also gives arithmetical rules in terms of fortunes


(positive numbers) and debts (negative numbers):
A debt minus zero is a debt.

A fortune minus zero is a fortune.

Zero minus zero is a zero.

A debt subtracted from zero is a fortune.

A fortune subtracted from zero is a debt.

The product of zero multiplied by a debt or fortune is zero.

The product of zero multiplied by zero is zero.

The product or quotient of two fortunes is one fortune.

The product or quotient of two debts is one fortune.


He wrote about quadratic equations, lunar eclipses,
planetary conjunctions, and the determination of

SRINIVASA RAMANIUJAN

Born:Dec. 22,1887
Madras
Died :APRIL 26,1920
Nationality: Indian
He sent 120 theorems to professor Hardy of Cambrige. As a
result he invited Ramanujan to England.
Ramanujan showed that any big number can be written as sum of
not more than four prime numbers
Mr Litlewood came to see Ramanujan in taxi number 1729,
Ramanujan said that 1729 is the smallest number which can be
written in the form of sum of cubes of two numbers in two ways,
i.e. 1729 = 93+ 103= 13+ 123since then the number He showed
that how to divide the number into two or more squares or cubes.
1729 is called Ramanujans Number

He investigated the series (1/n) and calculated constant into 15


decimal places.
He began to study the Bernoullis (it was his own independent
discovery )
(Bernoulli equation) x/(ex - 1) = (Bnxn)/n
He worked on hyper geometric series.
He also, Investigated the relation between series and integrals.

BHASKARA1

Born 1114 AD in Bijjada Bida


7th Century Indian Mathematician
Nicknamed Bhaskaracharya Bhaskara the Teacher
First to write numbers in Hindu decimal system with a
circle for the zero ,commentary on Aryabhatas work.
He is probably a Marati Astronomer.
Understood zero and negative numbers,except how to
divide by it

Accomplishments:
First to declare a/0 = *
First to declare + a =
Wrote 6 works including
Lilavati (mathematics)
Bijaganita (algebra)
Siddhantasiromani
Vasanabhasya (commentary on Siddhantasiromani)
Karanakutuhala (astronomy)
Vivarana

PYTHAGORAS

Born:from about 500 B.C, on the Aegean island of Samos


Eventually ,he settled in the Greek colony in Southern Italy.
He is often described as the first pure mathematician.
There is not much evidence of Pythagoras and his societys work because
they were so secretive and kept no records
One major belief was that all things in nature and all relations could be
reduced to number relations.
Pythagoras found mathematical relationship as the essence of all things
He believed than the earth was spherical and that the sun,moon,and planets
have movements of their own.This contributed to the discovery that the earth
revolved around the sun.
Hes credited with developing the Pythagorean Theorem which is a formula
that is used to determine the lengths of the sides of right triangles
His discoveries laid the foundation for all subsequent developments in
Geometry

Pythagoras made many contributions to the world of math including:


Studies with even/odd numbers
Studies involving Perfect and Prime Numbers
Irrational Numbers
Various theorems/ideas about triangles, parallel lines, circles, etc.
Of course THE PYTHAGOREAN THEOREM
The square of the hypotenuse of a right triangle is equal to the sum of the
squares of the other 2 sides (legs)

a2 + b2 = c2

ITS USES
Determine side length of triangles
Height, distance of objects
The Distance Formula
Range finding

RENE DESCARTES

Born:March31,1596
Died :Feb.11,1650
Nationality :French
Famous for: Developing cartesian coordinate system
RENE DESCARTES is viewed as the inventor of modern day philosophy
He is well known for his philosophical declaration I THINK ,
THEREFORE I AM .

He changed math by dicovering the X and Y axis.


He wrote the book SEEKING THE TRUTH IN THE SCIENCES.
(1637)

Descartes did not revise geometry; he created it.


Descarte was the first mathematician to use the notation where the
letters at the beginning of the alphabet represent data and the letters
at end of the alphabet to represent variables or unknown.
He stated that the numbers of distinct root of an equation is equal to
the degree of the equation.
He developed a rule for determining the number of positive and
negative roots in an equation.
The Rule of Descartes as it is known states An equation can have as
many true [positive] roots as it contains changes of sign, from + to
or from to +; and as many false [negative] roots as the number of
times two + signs or two signs are found in succession.
Descartes established analytic geometry as a way of visualizing
algebraic formulas
He developed the coordinate system as a device to locate points on
a plane.

The coordinate system was developed to locate points on a plane


but it evolved into what we call analytic geometry.
Analytic geometry allows us to graphically express the
relationship between two variables that are functionally related to
each other.
The coordinate system has been described as the a kind of acid
test of the validity of a physical law or theorem.
Through his contributions, Mathematics was being used as a tool
in other disciplines as result of analytic geometry.

BERTRAND RUSSEL

Born:18 May 1872


Died: 2 Feb 1970
His contributions relating to Mathematics include his discovery of
Russel's paradox, his defence of logicism,his introduction of the theory
of types and his refining and popularity of the first order predicate
calculus.
Along with Kurt Godel,he is usually credited with being one of the two
important logicians of the twentieth century.

His most influential contributions include his defense of logicism


(the view that mathematics is in some important sense reducible
to logic), and his theories of definite descriptions and logical
atomism.

Russell states that:


The vocabulary of mathematics is a proper subset of Logic and
The theorums of mathematics are subsets of logical ones.

EUCLID

Born : Unknown, probably in Greece


Died : Unknown
Nationality: Greek
Famous for: Euclidian geometry
Referred to as the Father of Geometry
He was often referred to as The Father Of Geometry
He was the founder of The Thirteen Books Of Elements

Book1 deals with The fundamentals of geometry: theories of triangles,


parallels, and area.
Book 2 deals with Geometric algebra.
Book 3 deals with the Theory of circles.
Book 4 deals with the Constructions for inscribed and circumscribed
figures.
Book 5 deals with the Theory of abstract proportions.
Book 6 deals with Similar figures and proportions in geometry.
Book 7deals with Fundamentals of number theory.
Book 8 deals with Continued proportions in number theory.
Book 9 deals with Number theory.
Book 10 deals with the Classification of incommensurables.
Book 11 deals with Solid geometry.
Book 12 deals with Measurement of figures
Book 13 deals with Regular solids.