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INFRASTRCTURE DEVELOPMENT

FOR DEVELOPMENT OF WATER


RESOURCES
Future Challenges
Eng.Wimalasena Gamage
wimalasenagamage@yahoo.com

Consultant Engineer
Retired Director of Irrigation

Fresh Water resources

Global Overview
While 67% of Earths surface is
covered by water,
only less than 2.7% of global water is
freshwater.
Most of the freshwater (2.05%) are
locked in ice caps and glaciers.
Only less than 0.7% is available for
human use.

Over two thirds of the


earth's surface is covered
with water,
97.2% of which is
contained in the five
oceans. The Antarctic ice
sheet,
containing 90% of all fresh
water on the planet, is
visible at the bottom.
Atmospheric water vapor
can be seen as clouds,
contributing to the earth's
albedo.

Iceberg and Polar cap store most of the fresh water


on Earth

Oceans
97.5%

Glaciers,
Ground
Snow &
water
permafrost 0.075%
1.725%

Lakes,
swamps &
rivers
0.025%

The worlds water


resources

Volume of water stored in


the water cycle's reservoirs
Reservoir

Volume of water Percent


(106 km)
of total

Ocean
Ice caps & glaciers
Groundwater
Lakes
Soil Moisture
Atmosphere
Streams & rivers
Biosphere

1370
29
9.5
0.125
0.065
0.013
0.0017
0.0006

97.25
2.05
0.68
0.01
0.005
0.001
0.0001
0.00004

Hydrologic Cycle

Scarcity of fresh water


On a global basis, fresh water is a
increasingly scarce resource. It is
partially caused by increasing
population coupled by change of
consumption pattern and climate
changes.

Water consumption for food


production (I)
Meat production use a lot of water
when compared to growing food
crops.
A shift in food consumption pattern
toward more meat consumption will
cause a substantial increase in water
consumption.

Water consumption for food


production (II)

Competing water uses (I)

Competing water uses (II)


Industrialized / developed countries
tend to use more water in their
industrial production.
Other countries tend to use more
water for agricultural uses.

Fresh Water supply

Problems related to Water


crisis
Inadequate access to safe drinking
water by over 1.1 billion people
Groundwater overdrafting leading to
diminished agricultural yields
Overuse and pollution of water
resources harming biodiversity
Regional conflicts over scarce water
resources sometimes resulting in
warfare.

Threats to fresh water


resources
Climate change causes change in
frequencies of droughts and floods.
Depletion of aquifers caused by overconsumption as a result of population
growth.
Pollution and contamination by
sewage, agricultural and industrial
runoff.

Distribution of population and


water resources

Pressure of freshwater ecosystem

Fresh Water Outlook


Estimated from existing data, some
countries are going to experience
serious shortage of fresh water
supply in the coming 20 years time.
China, India and South Africa and
Middle East countries may among
the most adversely affected
countries.

Water in China
According to the World Bank forecast, Mainland
China has only a per-capita share of 2700 cubic
meters per annum, one fourth of the world's
average at present.
Half of China's 617 largest cities face water
deficits. Beijing is among the most water-short.
The areas south of the Yangtze River, China's
longest, which account for only 36.5 per cent of
the country's total territory, have 80.9 per cent of
its total water resources. However the areas north
of the Yangtze, which make up 63.5 per cent of
China, possess only 19.1 per cent of total water
resources.

Desalination of sea water as fresh


water supply
Desalination of sea water can be
done either via distillation or
membrane process.
Both process requires large amount
of energy and thus costly, which
means desalination remains an
expensive option for providing
reliable fresh water supply, restricted
to only economically well-off
countries.

River Basin In Sri


lanka
103 River basins
Major River Basins
Kalu Ganga
Kelani Ganga
Gin Ganga
Nilwala Ganga
Mahaweli Ganga
Mahaweli Ganga
Longest River 335 Km
Basin Area 10,448
sq.km

Drought Cycles
Every continent has regions of scarce
rainfall due to topographic effects or
wind currents.
Water shortages have most severe effect
in semiarid zones where moisture
availability is the critical factor in plant
and animal distributions.

Water Availability in Sri Lanka

Average annul rainfall


- 1632mm
Average annual volume of rainfall - 96,688 MCM
Average Annual runoff to the sea - 41,272 MCM
Average annual water use
- 9354 MCM
Ratio of average annual runoff into the sea to rainfall-43%
Ratio of average annual runoff into the sea to available
water in river basin- 81.5%
Ratio of average annual flow in rivers to water delivered
for irrigation - 21%
Ratio of average annual water use in all sectors to
available water in river basins 18.5%

Types of Water Use


Withdrawal - Total amount of water
taken from a source.
Consumption - Fraction of withdrawn
water not returned to its source.

Water Resources and Production in


2010

Total Estimated production of water resources 50617 MCM/2,450 Cum


per head of Population. Resources were fairly even divided between
most of the provinces(10% t0 17% of the national Total) Northern
Province 6%,North Western Province 8 % .
Portable water Consumption /usage Estimated at 513.8 MCM Western
Province 39% Central 12% Southern 12% Northern Province 3%
Irrigation Total Usage 8,740 MCM Highest NCP 23% UVA 17% Eastern
15%central 14% Western 2%
Industry/Manufacturing Total 15 MCM 87% was consumed in Western
Province
Hydropower Estimated 9,809 MCM Central 95% Sabaragamuwa 5 %
but water not consumed but used to produce Hydropower.
Livestock 32.4 MCM NWP 19% EP 17% NCP 16% NP 12% Central 6%
Total Estimated Total 19,110 MCM Central 55% in cluding Hydro
Power, NCP 22% UVA 16% EP 15% Central 14% Western 12%
Irrigation Dominated

Types of Water Use


Worldwide, humans withdraw about
10% of total annual renewable
supply.
Many societies have always treated
water as an inexhaustible(That cannot
be exhausted) resource.

Quantities of Water Used


Human water use has been
increasing about twice as fast as
population growth over the past
century.
Average amount of withdrawn worldwide
is about 170,544 gal/person/year.

Global Water Use Growth

DEMAND FOR WATER


Each day a person drinks 2-4 liters of
water
and eats food that requires 2,000
5,000
liters of water in its production.
Hence providing the basic water
needs to people is not a water
problem but a political problem and a
challenge especially in the light of
population increase.
Source: CA, 20071 and Clausen and

WATER WARS

Majority
Minority

12% of population uses 85% of water

By
majority
By
minority

DEMAND

For Drinking

Each day a person drinks 2-4 litres of water and eats food that
requires 2,000 5,000 liters of water in its production. Hence
providing the basic water needs to people is not a water problem
but a political problem and a challenge especially in the light of
population increase.
Availability of Water
Of the total volume of 120,000 MCM rainfall received in Sri Lanka,
70% is used for irrigation, 6% for domestic and industrial
purposes, while about 23% of the total volume escapes to the sea
as runoff through 103 river basins and 54 small drainage basins.
The amount of surface water indirectly available is nearly 36%.
The remainder is lost as evaporate-transpiration (ET).
An increase to 21.7 million by 2025 has been projected by the
Demographic and Health Survey 2000, and World Population
Policies, 2003.

IWRM includes all aspects of water resources development,


management and use, and is central to the key issues of water supply,
sanitation and infrastructure-building. Its role in sustainable
development was recognized at the 2002 World Summit on Sustainable
Development which called for all countries to develop IWRM and water
efficiency strategies or plans. This call was reinforced by the 2005 world
summit

Integrated Water Resource Management in Sri Lanka


The competition for water within a river basin especially
between upstream and downstream users, and dominance of
one over the other will not yield optimal results for the country.
This is true for all the multiple uses that rely on Sri Lankas
water resources along any river basin in the country. The
adoption of Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM)
principles thus offer a widely accepted planning framework for
minimizing the trade-offs between the multiple uses, and has
been suggested and encouraged for Sri Lanka. Sri Lanka is
currently in the process of formulating an IWRM Plan under the

RAINFALL REGIMES IN THE DIFFERENT CLIMATIC ZONES


Due to the location of the central mountains in the island, and the
resultant rain shadow effect, the island is divisible into pronounced Wet
and Dry Zones.
The Wet Zone which covers about a quarter of the island has a high
average annual rainfall that ranges from 2000 - > 5000 mm by the
receipt of rain from both the south-west and the north-east
monsoons, as well as inter-monsoonal rains during March - April and
October - November. The first inter-monsoonal rains are often
accompanied by warm conditions and thunderstorm type rains; the
second is also characterized by thunderstorm type rains and depressions
and cyclones that originate in the Bay of Bengal although Sri Lanka lies
outside the main cyclone belt.
The Intermediate Zone, with a mean annual rainfall between 1750 and
2000 mm, lies between the Wet and Dry Zones.
The Dry Zone, which is spread over much of the lowland plains has a
mean annual rainfall of 1250 mm 1750 mm. It is subjected to several
months of drought as it receives rain only from the northwest monsoon,
which brings in more than two thirds of the annual rainfall to this

Objectives of IWRM
To provide training in key principles and themes
of Integrated Water Resources Management
(IWRM).
To show IWRMs key linkages to development and
to addressing poverty reduction, water and
health, and water and food (MDGs).
To train trainers to apply IWRM principles for
awareness raising and capacity building in
advising decision makers and in preparing
curriculum in IWRM training.
To plan implementation strategy and actions for

About Water .
A Single Resource has no
substitute
A Limited Resource
A Scarce Resource (or is it?)
Has Social, Economic, and
Environmental Value (social and
environment are recent)

A Unique Resource
Every organism, individual, and
ecosystem on the planet depends
on water for survival.
Water impacts all aspects of life on
the planet
Poor water management and
water shortages can lead to
disease, malnutrition, reduced
economic growth, social instability,
conflict, and environmental
disaster.

A Challenge to Water Management

The Water Scene


Resources are scarce
Demands are outstripping supplies
Environmental/Ecological issues are
serious
Policy and institutional issues are
complicated
Current approach is sectoral and
fragmented
Financing is poor and options are
expensive

Where Are We Headed?


Decreasing per-capita availability
Degrading water quality
Increasing competition/conflict within sectors and
within society

Urban versus agriculture


Haves versus have nots
Upstream versus downstream
National versus international

Increasing competition/conflict with the


environment

Water as a Global Issue


Water crisis has steadily
moved up the global agenda
The process is driven by
water-related health impacts,
rapid industrialization,
water security, and
awakening environmental
consciousness

The Paradigm Shift


The Dublin principles (1992)
Water is a single, finite resource
Water management and
development should include
stakeholders
Water is an economic good
Women play a central role in
management and conservation of
water
The Dublin Principles have served
as guide for the global water
dialogue

Key Water Challenges and


Needs
Integrated
management of
water
Water resources
economics
Political economy
of water
Water supply and
sanitation services
Irrigation/drainage
Environment

Water pricing and


cost recovery
Water entitlement
and rights
Water users
empowerment
Sharing of water and
its benefits
Cooperation and
conflict resolution
Energy

Approaches to Water
Management

Ad hoc
Economic Analysis -- Single
Project or Basin
Multi-Objective Planning
Comprehensive Multi-Purpose
River Basin Planning and
Management
Strategic Planning and
Implementation through IWRM

The Water Balancing Act


Supply

Quantity (Natural Scarcity,


Groundwater Depletion)

Demand

Quality Degradation
Cost of Options

Increasing in all sectors

Inefficient use

IWRM

Why IWRM?
Globally accepted and makes good
sense.
Key element in national water
policy.
Incorporates social and
environmental considerations
directly into policy and decision
making.
Directly involves the stakeholders.
Is a tool for optimizing investments
under tight financing climate.

Schematic of the IWRM Process


Country
Development
Objectives

Stakeholder Input
Donor Input
Other Input

Key Water &


Water-related
Policies/Inst.

Review &
Evaluation

Resources
Assessment &
Analysis

Use Assessment
& Analysis

Resource
Allocation
Strategy

Implementation
& Monitoring
Resource
Development &
Management
Plan

Dimensions of IWRM

Infrastructure for
management of
floods and
droughts,
multipurpose
storage, water
quality and source
protection
Policy/
Institutional
framework

Integrated Water Resources Management

Water supply
& sanitation

Irrigation &
drainage

Energy

Environmental
services

Other uses
including
industry and
navigation

Management
instruments
Political economy
of water
management

Water Uses

GWP

Ground water
Groundwater is derived largely from direct
rainwater seepage and the recharge from
surface water bodies such as streams, canals
and reservoirs.
There are many different types of aquifers of
groundwater in Sri Lanka is found in the Miocene
limestone deposits in the Dry Zone areas of the
north and north-east, which extend over about 250
km
The coastal sand aquifer area in the north-west is
particularly important for agriculture.
The total groundwater availability in the island
from infiltration, percolation and sub-surface
circulation is estimated to be around 7,250 7,800

IRRIGATION
At the global level, irrigation has
ensured the global food supply and raised
millions out of povertyespecially in Asia.
For many developing countries investments
in irrigation will continue to represent a
significant proportion of investments in
Agriculture. However, it has been
documented that new investments will
focus more on enhancing productivity of
existing systems by upgrading
infrastructure and forming management
processes.
The major irrigation systems in place
provide water for around 60% of the

Drinking and other Domestic Needs


The government views access to safe drinking water as a basic
human need and a preliminary indicator of human development.
There is a target for 100% of Sri Lankas population to have safe
drinking water provided to them in the medium-term by the
National Water Supply and Drainage Board (NWS&DB) by 2025.
Sri Lanka depends solely on its surface and groundwater
resources for domestic use. At the time Sri Lanka received
independence in 1948 only a segment of the urban population in
Colombo and Kandy had piped water, while the main sources of
drinking water at the time were unprotected wells, rivers, tanks
and canals. Interestingly the share of water used by the urban
population in Sri Lanka is projected to increase to 45% by 2015
and to 65% by 2030, which is bound to increase the pressure
to meet the national targets for drinking water.

The Water Scene


Resources are scarce
Demands are outstripping supplies
Environmental/Ecological issues are
serious
Policy and institutional issues are
complicated
Current approach is sectoral and
fragmented
Financing is poor and options are
expensive

Approaches to Water Management

Ad hoc
Economic Analysis -- Single
Project or Basin
Multi-Objective Planning
Comprehensive Multi-Purpose
River Basin Planning and
Management
Strategic Planning and
Implementation through IWRM

Application of Integrated Water


Resources Management In Sri Lanka
Project Management Committees in
Irrigation Schemes
Mahaweli Water Pannel
District Development Commitees

New Challenges
New Hydropower Projects in
sustainable development manner
Augmentation of Existing Irrigation
Projects
Rehabilitation & Improvement of
existing Reservoirs
Rehabilitation of Irrigation Net works
Rehabilitation of Existing Water
Supply schemes

Dam Safety and water Resources


Planning Project (DSWRPP)
Improvement of selected existing
Dams
Improvement & rehabilitation of
Hydrological Networks
Automation of Operating Systems
Rehabilitation of Existing Reservoirs
for water supply

Challenges to the Water Sector

Over 350 Large/Medium Dams, Head works and TransBasin canals of the country are aging and suffering from
various structural deficiencies and shortcomings in
operation and monitoring facilities.
The National Hydrological and Hydro-meteorological data
collection network and its Information System (HMIS) are
grossly outdated, inadequate and need upgrading &
modernization.

Challenges to the Water Sector


Weak

institutional
arrangements
and
coordination
for
efficient
management
of
water
infrastructure
and
hydrometrological
information
system in the water sector
institutions
need
new
knowledge, skills and modern
management practices.
Competition among different
sectors
and
users
are
increasing
dramatically
resulting in disputes and
conflicts which need reexamining the development
potential and feasibility of the

Mitigation of Environmental
Impacts
32 Large Dams of the country
identified as high risk to the public
safety , will be fully rehabilitated.
80 Large Dams ( including above 32
Dams) will be provided Basic Safety
Facilities .
Critical issues of Senanayaka
Samudraya, Samanalawewa, Polgolla
Tunnel, Minipe Trans basin canal and
Victoria Dam will be studied and make
recommendation for remedial actions
Training Staff for Institutional
strengthening of dam owning
organizations

Mitigation of Environmental Impacts


The
project
has
developed
an
Environmental
Assessment
&
Management Framework (EAMF) to be
used for Environmental assessment of
each dam to be rehabilitated under the
project.
This framework was submitted to the CEA
& got the clearance. The same document
was published in the Newspapers for the
public opinions & finalized.
This EAMF is currently being used to
prepare Environmental Assessment of
each dam.
Protection of Sensitive Zones of all
Rehabilitated Reservoirs

Cultural Property Preservation


In the case of ancient dams,
certain structures
such as
sluices
with
High
Archeological
Value, project
will preserve them as a

Cultural Property
Project will not have any
intention to replace such
valuable properties by new
structures
During this effort, project
seek
technical
assistances
from
Archeological
Department.

Expected Project Outputs


A
safe,
operationally-efficient
and
risk-minimized
reservoir/head-works system with a safety monitoring
system in place inclusive that of Mahaweli;
A
modernized
and
efficient
Hydro-meteorological
Information System;
A National Water Use Master Plan addressing both surface
and ground water; which could support
to find out
effective solutions for National Water related Issues.
Updated Mahaweli Master Plan to identify and develop
potential Water Resources .
A skilled and competent staff to manage the water
resources assets in a sustainable manner and to meet the
emerging challenges in the water sector.
Increase
Agricultural
Production
and
improve
the
livelihood of Rural Community.

General view of the sluice Tower Ampara Senanayaka Samudraya

Front side wall over trash


rack

History of
Water
First water supply scheme Labugama in 1881 ; supplied
raw water to Colombo city.

In 1914 filtration and

chlorination was introduced


Total Production
45,000m3/day
Source Labugama Reservoir

Suppl in Sr Lank
y
i a

Jewel Filters
(Labugama)

KALATUWAW WATER TREATMENT PLANT (1958) Productio 90,000m3/da


A
Total
n
y
Sourc - Kalatuwaw Reservoi
e
a
r

AMBATALE WATER TREATMENT


(1976) PLANT
525,000m3/d Total
ay
Source Kelani
River

Productio
n

NWSDB OPERATIONAL
SCHEMES
Total pipe
born
SOURCE
coverage 30%
CONTRIBUTION
Surface
94%
Water
Ground
6%
Water

HAND PUMP TUBE


WELLS
Usage of HPTWs in Sri Lanka,
specially

in dry
zone

have been vastly increased in past two decades.

Population served is over one


million.
Following
agencies involved in tube
well
constructio work.
n DANID
- Matale & Polonnaruwa
A
FINIDA
GTZ

UNICEF

AD
B

District
s
-- Kandy
District & Vavunia Districts
Kurunegala
- Anuradhapura,
Monaragala &
Hambantota Districts
- Anuradhapura, Puttalam, Hambantota,
Monaragala, Kalutara & Kegalle Districts

area
s

Most Important three constraints


in the
Project
Financing

current efforts on water infrastructure

Capital
Investment
Tariff Structure

resource
s

Availability of
water
Conflicts
among different

water
Pollution free
water
Pollution
Policy onPrevention
siting of
Industries
Soil erosion
Salinity

user
s

The 3 water schemes that need


improvements
1. Ambatale water treatment
Sludge treatment &
plant

backwash
Intercept sewe for BEP
or
r
Z

Carrousal Oxidation
Ditch

Aerated
Lagoon

recover
y

The 3 water schemes that


need
3

Ampar WSS Presenc of Alga & colou


improvements
a
e
e
r

Floatatio
n

Centrifug
e

Challenging issues for ecoefficient


Policy on sludge
water
infrastructure
management
Catchment preservation
Policy on siting of industries
Construction of interceptor
sewer

Main barriers &


Lack of financing
constraints
Salinity barrier
Interceptor sewer

Establishment of industries
independently
catchment preservation
Resettlement

Threats of climate
change
Salinity

intrusion
Water scarcity

3. Priority for regional


corporation for

Regional
Establishment
of mechanism to
Framework
share

Sharing R&D works

developme
nt
idea
s

Criteria of
Development

Priority of water usage


Elevations/land
Prohibition
of deforestation
use
Conservation
Avoiding
location
of catchments
heavy
industrie at any
of upper
polluting
s
cost

Expected role and structure of the


regional
Establishment
of National

corporation
framework
Planning
Authority to guide developme
the
nt
Irrigation

Urban
development
Forestry
Residential
Industries
etc.

Recommendatio
nsRecommendable good practices &

lesions

Catchment preservation
learned
Avoiding location of heavy polluting
industries
Monitoring river water quality
Creating awareness

Any good suggestions for the promotion


of eco

Implementation of policy on siting of


efficient water infrastructure development
industries
Heavy penalties for industries that do not
comply
Educating industries on 3R principal and to
separate
heavy polluting streams prior to mixing

Domestic water treatment units to remove Fe,


Mn & Fl
Provision of rainwater
for area having suspected water quality
For the areas difficult to connect to portable supply

Educating school children on effects of


pollution and water conservation Practices

Wate Ever Dro is Precious


r
y
p

Let not a
drop of water that falls on
land
single
go in to thethe
sea without serving the
people
Parakrama
Bahu I
King of Sri Lanka (1153