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SAFETY AND LOSS

PREVENTION

HAZOP
Used by the process industry for identifying possible
hazards in a system and finding operability
problems likely to lead to non-compliant products
Formal procedure to identify hazards in chemical
process facility.
Information needed :
Process flow diagrams (PFD)
Process and Instrumentation Diagrams (P&IDs)
Detailed equipment specifications
Materials of construction
Mass and energy balances
2

HAZOP PROCEDURE
Set
Set
study
study
nodes
nodes

Select
Select
study
studynode
node
to
to study
study

Select
Select
Guide
Guide
Word
Word

Cause
Cause

Conseque
Consequences
nces

Recommendations

Yes
Another
safeguard
?
No
Yes
Another
guide
word?
No
Yes
New
node?
3

Study Nodes

Study Nodes

Design Intent
Reaction of Ethylene &

R-101 to E-103

Chlorine (Direct
Chlorination)

R-202, HE-206 passing


through HE-201 to HE202
C-502 passing to E.Cond
C-502 and E.Reb C-502

Oxychlorination

Purification of VCM

NODE: R-101 to HE-103


Design Intent: Reaction of Ethylene &
Chlorine (Direct Chlorination)
Parameters: Flow, Temperature,
Pressure

Secti
on

Item

Intention

Paramete
r

Deviatio
n

No

R-101

Designed
for direct
chlorinati
on
reaction.

Flow

Blockage
or leakage
in
pipelines

Consequen
ce
Release of
toxic
chemicals
such as
ethylene and
chlorine to
the
environment
, the pipes
might
explode or
cause
drowsiness
and
dizziness to
the people in
surrounding.

More

Might lead to
explosion;
Increase in
release of
the
toxic
flowrates
chemicals to
in pipes.
environment
.

Less

Release of
toxic
chemicals
(ethylene
and
chlorine) to
environment
, the pipes
might
explode at
the blocking
point.

Cause

Blocking
or leaking
in the
pipes

Safe
guard

Action

Sensor,
alarm; flow
controller
and back
flow
preventive
device
installed.

Check the
conditions of the
inlet pipes when
there is no flow
maximum for 15
minutes

Flow
controller,,
pressure
controller
installed.

Adjust flow
control. In case
failure of the
valve, shut down
the whole
system.

Alarm, flow
controller

Alarm on when
there is less
flow; Flow
controller shut
down the
system if the
flow goes to
15%

Sectio
n

Item

Intention

Paramete
r

Deviatio
n

Reverse

Pressure

R-101

Designed
for direct
chlorinati
on
reaction.

Higher

Lower

Higher

Temperatur
e

Cause
Blocking in
outlet
stream,
failure in
controls.
Less
pressure in
stream.
Leakage in
pipelines
Increase in
inlet
flowrate or
decrease in
outlet
flowrate

Consequenc
Safe guard
e

No reaction
or product;,
possible
release
chemicals to
environment

Explosion
due to the
release of
chemicals to
environment.

Action

Immediately shut
Alarm, flow
down the system.
controller,
Check the pipes
Install
and all the
backflow
equipments.Instal
preventive
l pressure
device.
controller.

Pressure
and level
controller.

Adjust the
controller and
check the
conditions of the
system.

Immediately shut
Alarm, flow
down the system.
controller,
Check the pipes
Install
and all the
backflow
equipments.Instal
preventive
l pressure
device
controller.
Too much
Products'
Temperature
heat
composition
controller. Might
supplied
changes.
consider
Temperatur
into the
Possible
composition
e controller;
reactor;
explosion.
controller. Check
Alarm when
insulation
Destroy the
the system and
temperature
not good;
reactor.
equipments. Shut
more than
not enough
Possible
down if necessary
120 oC.
supply of
leaking of
and wait until
cooling
chemicals to
temperature is
water
environment
unstable.
Adjust the
Composition
Desired
controller, add
Controller
Heat is not product is not
heat to the7
installed
No reaction
Backflow in
or product;,
stream.
possible
Leakage in
release
the
chemicals to
pipelines
environment

R-202, HE-206 passing through HE-201 to HE202

Design Intent: Oxychlorination


Parameters: Flow, Temperature,
Pressure

Section

Intention

Parameter

Deviation

Cause

Blocking or
No

leaking in
the pipes

Consequences

Check the conditions

chemicals to

of the inlet pipes

environment, the

Sensor, alarm,

immediately. Shut

pipes might explode

flow controller

down the system

at the blocking

after 15 min if there

point.

is no flow.

3-phase separator
Increase in

malfunction; might

flowrate of

lead to explosion;

the streams

release of toxic
chemicals to

Designed for

environment

oxychlorinatio

Flow

n reaction

Release of toxic

chemicals (ethylene

Blocking or
Less

Actions

Release of toxic

Increase pressure;

More

Safe guard

and chlorine) to

leaking in

environment the

the pipes

pipes might explode

Flow controller
allows the
maximum
capacity of
95%, pressure

Adjust flow control. In


case more flow, shut
down the system.

control

Alarm at 50% of
Alarm, flow
controller

at the blocking

normal flow; Flow


controller shut down
the system if the flow
goes to 15%

point.
Less

Reverse

pressure in

No achievement of

stream,

products, pushing

blocking in

the feed back,

Alarm, flow

down the system.

outlet

possible release

controller

Check the pipes

stream,

chemicals to

failure in

environment.

controls

Immediately shut

and equipments.

Intention

Parameter

Deviation

Cause

Consequences

Safe guard

Actions

Increase in
inlet
flowrate;
More

decrease in
outlet
flowrate

Explosion, release
of chemicals to
environment.

pressure
control,level
control

Adjust the controller,


check the conditions
of the system

(outlet

Pressure

blocking)

Alarm,

Less

Backflow in

No reaction or

stream.

product, possible

Leakage in

release to

the pipelines

environment

Alarm,

pressure

Shut down system,

control, level

check the pipes and

control, install

all the

backflow

equipments.Install

preventive

pressure controller

device
Temperature

Designed for
oxychlorinatio

Too much

reaction

heat

transferred
More

into the
reactor; bad
insulated
walls

Temperature

Products'

controller. Might

composition

Temperature

consider composition

changes. Possible

sensor; Alarm

controller. Check the

explosion. Destroy

when

system and

the reactor. Possible

temperature

equipments. Shut

leaking of chemicals

goes over

down if can not find

to environment;

200 F.

the reason and

Fouling in pipes

temperature is
unstable.

Less

Heat is not

Changing in

provided for

composition of the

the reactor

products.

Composition

Adjust the

controller;

controller, add

Alarm when

heat to the

temperature

reactor. Shut down

goes under

if temperature

70oC

keeps decreasing.

10

C-502 passing to E.Cond C-502 and E.Reb C502

Design Intent: Purification of VCM


Parameters: Flow, Temperature, Pressure

11

Sectio
n

Item

VCM
Colum
n
-C502

Intention

Separate
VCM from
byproduc
ts. Reflux
Ratio =3,
87 psig,
pressure
drop

Paramet
Deviation
er

Flow

Cause

Consequen
ce

More

Outlet
stream
does not
drain, too
much
liquid
coming
back to
column,

Less

Changing in
outlet
conditions.
Failure of
valve
system.

Cannot get
expected
separation.

More heat
added to
reboiler.

Foaming
Entrainmen
t
Weeping/Du
mping;
Flooding.
Reduce
efficiency.

More

Column
malfunction
. Leaking:
VCM and
toxic
organic
compounds
. Harmful to
people.

Safe guard

Action

Flow
controller,
alarm when
output flow
rate goes
under 70%
set point

Lower select
switch. Shut
down if the
outlet stream
does not drain.
Check pipe
conditions for
blocking

Flow
controller

Check with the


controller to
see if there's
anything
wrong.

Compositio
n and flow
controller.

Balance the
heat duty of
condenser
and reboiler.

12

Section

Item

Intention

Parameter

Deviatio
n

Cause

Consequences

Safe guard

Actions

Alarm,

Adjust the

pressure

controller, check

control,level

the conditions of

control

the system

Increase in
inlet
flowrate;
More

decrease in
outlet
flowrate

Explosion, release
of chemicals to
environment.

(outlet
Pressure

blocking)
Alarm,

Backflow in
stream.
Less

VCM
Column
-C502

Separate
VCM from
byproduct
s. Reflux
Ratio =3,
87 psig,
pressure
drop

Leakage in
the
pipelines

pressure
No reaction or

control, level

product, possible

control,

release to

install

environment

backflow
preventive

Shut down system,


check the pipes
and all the
equipments.Install
pressure controller

device
Temperature
Too much
heat
transferred
More

into the
reactor;
bad

Temperatur

insulated

walls

Products'
composition
changes. Possible
explosion.
Destroy the
reactor. Possible
leaking of
chemicals to

controller. Might
Temperature
sensor;
Alarm when
temperature
goes over
200oF.

environment

consider
composition
controller. Check
the system and
equipments. Shut
down if can not
find the reason
and temperature
is unstable.

Heat is not
Less

provided
for the
reactor

Changing in
composition of
the products.

Composition

Adjust the

controller;

controller, add

Alarm when

heat to the

temperature

reactor. Shut down

goes under

if temperature

70 C
o

13
keeps decreasing.