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MK FISIKA DASAR 2

ENGE600004
4 SKS

Rachmat Andika

Multiferroic Research Group


Departemen Fisika
FMIPA - UI

ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES
POLARIZATION OF LIGHT

MATERI
Maxwells equations and Electromagnetic Waves
Plane Electromagnetic Waves
Energy Carried by Electromagnetic Waves
Momentum and Radiation Pressure
The Natural Properties of Polarized light
Polarization by Absorption
Polarization by Reflection
Birefringent Polarization
Polarization by Scattering

MAXWELLS EQUATIONS
Maxwell, electromagnetic

Newton, mechanical

Fundamental Law

Maxwell showed that electromagnetic waves are a natural


consequence of the fundamental laws expressed in the
following four equations
Gausss Law
Gausss Law in magnetism
Faradays Law
Ampere-Maxwell Law

Schematic diagram of Hertzs


apparatus

Hertz demonstrated:

Sparks were induced across the gap of


the receiving electrodes when the
frequency of the receiver was adjusted
to match that of the transmitter
Oscillating current induced in the
receiver was produced by
electromagnetic waves radiated by the
transmitter

PLANE ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES

The properties of electromagnetic waves can be deduced from


Maxwells equations.
Linearly
polarized waves

If we define a ray as the line along which the wave travels,


the all rays are parallel.

This is called a Plane Wave

A surface connecting points of equal phase on all waves is


called as a wave front

PLANE ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES

Because this speed is precisely the same as the speed of


light in empty space, that light is an electromagnetic wave

At every instant the ratio of the magnitude of the electric


field to the magnitude of the magnetic field in an
electromagnetic waves equals the speed of light

LET US SUMMARIZE THE


PROPERTIES OF
ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES

The solutions of Maxwells third and fourth equations are


wave-like, with both E and B satisfying a wave equation
Electromagnetic waves travel through empty space at the
speed of light
The component of the electric and magnetic fields of plane
electromagnetic waves are perpendicular to each other and
perpendicular to the direction of wave propagation.
The magnitudes of E and B in empty space are related by the
expression E/B = c
Electromagnetic waves obey the principle of superposition

EXAMPLE 1

A sinusoidal electromagnetic wave of frequency 40.0 MHz


travels in free space in the x direction

Determine the wavelength and period of the wave


At some point at some instant, the electric field has its maximum
value of 750 N/C and is along the y axis. Calculate the magnitude
and direction of the magnetic field at this position and time
Write expressions for the space-time variation of the components
of the electric and magnetic fields for this wave

Determine the wavelength and period of the wave

At some point at some instant, the electric field has its maximum
value of 750 N/C and is along the y axis. Calculate the magnitude
and direction of the magnetic field at this position and time

Write expressions for the space-time variation of the components


of the electric and magnetic fields for this wave

ENERGY CARRIED BY
ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES

Electromagnetic waves carry energy and transfer energy


while they propagate through space
The rate of flow energy in an electromagnetic wave is
described by a vector S, called the Poynting Vector

the magnitude of the S represents power per unit area.


The direction of the vector is along the direction of wave
propagation
SI units : J/s m2 = W/m2.

ENERGY CARRIED BY
ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES

The greater interest for sinusoidal plane electromagnetic


wave is the time average of S over one or more cycles : Wave
Intensity (I)

The energy density uE associated with an electric field or


energy density uB associated with a magnetic field are

Both energy density are equals

ENERGY CARRIED BY
ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES

Electromagnetic wave

Electric field
Magnetic field

The mechanism of energy transfer from one


point to another point

Total energy per volume unit of the system that contains of


electric field and magnetic field is

The intensity of an electromagnetic wave equals the average


density multiplied by the speed of light

MOMENTUM

Electromagnetic waves transport linear momentum as well


as energy
When the momentum is absorbed by some surface,
pressure is exerted on the surface
Momentum transported to a perfectly
absorbing surface

The pressure exerted on the surface is defined as force per


unit area F/A.
Radiation pressure exerted on a
perfectly absorbing surface

If the surface is a perfect reflector and the momentum


transported to the surface in a time interval is twice.
Radiation pressure exerted on a
perfectly reflecting surface

EXAMPLE 2

Many people giving presentations use a laser pointer


to direct the attention of the audience to information
on a screen. If a 3.0 mW pointer creates a spot on a
screen that is 2.0 mm in diameter, determine the
radiation pressure on a screen that reflects 70% of the
light that strikes it. The power 3.0 mW is a timeaveraged value.

EXAMPLE3

The Sun delivers about 103 W/m2 of energy to the


Earths surface via electromagnetic radiation.

Calculate the total power that is incident on a roof of


dimensions 8.00 m x 20.0 m

Determine the radiation pressure and the radiation force


exerted on the roof, assuming that the roof covering is a
perfect absorber

THE SPECTRUM OF
ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES

All forms of the various


types of radiation are
produced by the same
phenomenon
accelerating charges

POLARIZATION OF LIGHT

CLASSIFICATION OF POLARIZATION

Light in the form of a plane wave in space is said to be


linearly polarized.
Light is a transverse wave, but natural light is
generally unpolarized.

CLASSIFICATION OF POLARIZATION

Linear Polarization
A

plane electromagnetic wave is said to be linearly


polarized. The transverse electric field wave is
accompanied by a magnetic field wave

CLASSIFICATION OF POLARIZATION

Circular Polarization
The

light consists of two perpendicular


electromagnetic plane waves of equal amplitude and
90o difference in phase.

CLASSIFICATION OF POLARIZATION

Elliptical Polarization
The

light consists of two perpendicular waves of


unequal amplitude which differ in phase by 90o.

POLARIZATION BY SELECTIVE
ABSORPTION

The most common technique for producing polarized light

To use a material that transmits waves whose electric fields vibrate in a


plane parallel to a certain direction and that absorbs waves whose electric
fields vibrate in all other directions.

IDEAL polarizer, all light with E parallel to the transmission axis


is transmitted, and all light with E perpendicular to the
transmission axis is absorbed

Maluss law, applies to any two polarizing materials whose


transmission axes are at an angle to each other

Transmission axes are parallel, the intensity of the transmitted


beam is maximum
Transmission axes are perpendicular, the intensity is zero
(complete absorption by the analyzer)

POLARIZATION BY REFLECTION

When an unpolarized light beam is reflected from a surface, the


reflected light may be completely polarized, partially polarized, or
unpolarized, depending on the angle of incidence.

Polarizing angle

Brewsters angle