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# MK FISIKA DASAR 2

ENGE600004
4 SKS

Rachmat Andika

## Multiferroic Research Group

Departemen Fisika
FMIPA - UI

ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES
POLARIZATION OF LIGHT

MATERI
Maxwells equations and Electromagnetic Waves
Plane Electromagnetic Waves
Energy Carried by Electromagnetic Waves
The Natural Properties of Polarized light
Polarization by Absorption
Polarization by Reflection
Birefringent Polarization
Polarization by Scattering

MAXWELLS EQUATIONS
Maxwell, electromagnetic

Newton, mechanical

Fundamental Law

## Maxwell showed that electromagnetic waves are a natural

consequence of the fundamental laws expressed in the
following four equations
Gausss Law
Gausss Law in magnetism
Ampere-Maxwell Law

## Schematic diagram of Hertzs

apparatus

Hertz demonstrated:

## Sparks were induced across the gap of

the receiving electrodes when the
to match that of the transmitter
Oscillating current induced in the
transmitter

## The properties of electromagnetic waves can be deduced from

Maxwells equations.
Linearly
polarized waves

## If we define a ray as the line along which the wave travels,

the all rays are parallel.

## A surface connecting points of equal phase on all waves is

called as a wave front

## Because this speed is precisely the same as the speed of

light in empty space, that light is an electromagnetic wave

## At every instant the ratio of the magnitude of the electric

field to the magnitude of the magnetic field in an
electromagnetic waves equals the speed of light

## LET US SUMMARIZE THE

PROPERTIES OF
ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES

## The solutions of Maxwells third and fourth equations are

wave-like, with both E and B satisfying a wave equation
Electromagnetic waves travel through empty space at the
speed of light
The component of the electric and magnetic fields of plane
electromagnetic waves are perpendicular to each other and
perpendicular to the direction of wave propagation.
The magnitudes of E and B in empty space are related by the
expression E/B = c
Electromagnetic waves obey the principle of superposition

EXAMPLE 1

## A sinusoidal electromagnetic wave of frequency 40.0 MHz

travels in free space in the x direction

## Determine the wavelength and period of the wave

At some point at some instant, the electric field has its maximum
value of 750 N/C and is along the y axis. Calculate the magnitude
and direction of the magnetic field at this position and time
Write expressions for the space-time variation of the components
of the electric and magnetic fields for this wave

## Determine the wavelength and period of the wave

At some point at some instant, the electric field has its maximum
value of 750 N/C and is along the y axis. Calculate the magnitude
and direction of the magnetic field at this position and time

## Write expressions for the space-time variation of the components

of the electric and magnetic fields for this wave

ENERGY CARRIED BY
ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES

## Electromagnetic waves carry energy and transfer energy

while they propagate through space
The rate of flow energy in an electromagnetic wave is
described by a vector S, called the Poynting Vector

## the magnitude of the S represents power per unit area.

The direction of the vector is along the direction of wave
propagation
SI units : J/s m2 = W/m2.

ENERGY CARRIED BY
ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES

## The greater interest for sinusoidal plane electromagnetic

wave is the time average of S over one or more cycles : Wave
Intensity (I)

## The energy density uE associated with an electric field or

energy density uB associated with a magnetic field are

## Both energy density are equals

ENERGY CARRIED BY
ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES

Electromagnetic wave

Electric field
Magnetic field

## The mechanism of energy transfer from one

point to another point

## Total energy per volume unit of the system that contains of

electric field and magnetic field is

## The intensity of an electromagnetic wave equals the average

density multiplied by the speed of light

MOMENTUM

## Electromagnetic waves transport linear momentum as well

as energy
When the momentum is absorbed by some surface,
pressure is exerted on the surface
Momentum transported to a perfectly
absorbing surface

## The pressure exerted on the surface is defined as force per

unit area F/A.
perfectly absorbing surface

## If the surface is a perfect reflector and the momentum

transported to the surface in a time interval is twice.
perfectly reflecting surface

EXAMPLE 2

## Many people giving presentations use a laser pointer

to direct the attention of the audience to information
on a screen. If a 3.0 mW pointer creates a spot on a
screen that is 2.0 mm in diameter, determine the
radiation pressure on a screen that reflects 70% of the
light that strikes it. The power 3.0 mW is a timeaveraged value.

EXAMPLE3

## Calculate the total power that is incident on a roof of

dimensions 8.00 m x 20.0 m

exerted on the roof, assuming that the roof covering is a
perfect absorber

THE SPECTRUM OF
ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES

## All forms of the various

produced by the same
phenomenon
accelerating charges

POLARIZATION OF LIGHT

CLASSIFICATION OF POLARIZATION

## Light in the form of a plane wave in space is said to be

linearly polarized.
Light is a transverse wave, but natural light is
generally unpolarized.

CLASSIFICATION OF POLARIZATION

Linear Polarization
A

## plane electromagnetic wave is said to be linearly

polarized. The transverse electric field wave is
accompanied by a magnetic field wave

CLASSIFICATION OF POLARIZATION

Circular Polarization
The

## light consists of two perpendicular

electromagnetic plane waves of equal amplitude and
90o difference in phase.

CLASSIFICATION OF POLARIZATION

Elliptical Polarization
The

## light consists of two perpendicular waves of

unequal amplitude which differ in phase by 90o.

POLARIZATION BY SELECTIVE
ABSORPTION

## To use a material that transmits waves whose electric fields vibrate in a

plane parallel to a certain direction and that absorbs waves whose electric
fields vibrate in all other directions.

## IDEAL polarizer, all light with E parallel to the transmission axis

is transmitted, and all light with E perpendicular to the
transmission axis is absorbed

## Maluss law, applies to any two polarizing materials whose

transmission axes are at an angle to each other

## Transmission axes are parallel, the intensity of the transmitted

beam is maximum
Transmission axes are perpendicular, the intensity is zero
(complete absorption by the analyzer)

POLARIZATION BY REFLECTION

## When an unpolarized light beam is reflected from a surface, the

reflected light may be completely polarized, partially polarized, or
unpolarized, depending on the angle of incidence.

Polarizing angle

Brewsters angle