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TIME

TIME
DAY - INTERVAL BETWEEN TWO SUCCESSIVE

MERIDIAN PASSAGES OF A HEAVENLY BODY


OVER SAME MERIDIAN.
SIDEREAL DAY INTERVAL BETWEEN TWO
SUCCESSIVE MERIDIAN PASSAGE OF FIRST
POINT OF ARIES OVER SAME MERIDIAN.
= 23 HOURS 56 MIN 04.1 OF MEAN SOLAR
TIME.

TIME
APPARENT SOLAR DAY INTERVAL

BETWEEN TWO SUCCESSIVE TRANSITS OF


TRUE SUN ACROSS SAME MERIDIAN.
NOT CONSTANT DURATION DUE TO
ECCENTRICITY OF EARTH ORBIT.
AND OBLIQUITY OF ECLIPTIC.

DYNAMIC MEAN SUN


An imaginary body (SUN), which moves along

the ECLIPTIC at a constant angular velocity


throughout the year.
This is called the DYNAMIC MEAN SUN.
The DMS would move ahead of the True sun
from perihelion to aphelion and slower from
aphelion to perihelion.
At perihelion and aphelion they are assumed
to coincide.

ASTRONOMICAL MEAN
SUN
Even though the DYNAMIC MEAN SUN would

eradicate the problem of varying speed, therell still


be variation in the suns movement due to the
obliquity of the ecliptic.
To smoothen out this deformity the sun should be
made to travel along the EQUINOCTIAL so that all
hour angles and longitudes correspond to each other.
This imaginary sun that moves at a constant speed
corresponding to that of the DMS is known as the
ASTRONOMICAL MEAN SUN (AMS) or just THE MEAN
SUN.

Mean solar day


The Mean Sun is an imaginary body that is

assumed to move at a constant angular


velocity along the equinoctial.
Mean solar day is the interval of time
between two successive meridian passages of
the Mean Sun across the same meridian.

MEAN, APPARENT AND


SIDEREAL TIME
MEAN SUN
LMT Local mean Time.

Is the westerly Hour


Sun measured

Angle of the Mean


from the observers inferior
SMT Ships Mean Time } or anti meridian.
GMT Greenwich Mean Time : Is the westerly
hour angle of the mean sun measured from the
inferior or anti
meridian of Greenwich.

TRUE SUN
LAT Local apparent Time }

Is the

westerly
hour angle of
the True sun
measured from the
Observers
ATS Apparent Time Ship }
inferior
meridian.
GAT -- Greenwich Apparent Time. Is the westerly

hour
angle of the True sun
from the
inferior or anti
meridian of Greenwich.

measured

FIRST POINT OF ARIES

LST Local
Sidereal Time: Is the westerly hour angle of the FPA
measured from the Observers meridian.
GST Greenwich Sidereal Time:
Is the Westerly hour angle of the FPA measured
from the Greenwich meridian.
As has been seen earlier the sidereal day
gains 3 56 against the each solar day.

RELATION BETWEEN LONGITUDE


AND TIME
ARC & TIME : The mean sun completes one apparent

revolution of any single point on the earth in 24 hours.


The Mean Sun, in effect, would move at a uniform rate of 15 0 of
arc per hour or 15 of arc in one minute of time or 1 of arc in 4
seconds of time.
ARC
TIME
150
10
15 minutes
1 minute

1 hour
4 minutes
1 minute or 60 seconds
4 seconds

NOTE: Thus the longitude may be converted to arc or arc can be

converted to time.
Expressing longitude in to time is called Longitude in-Time (LIT)

RELATION BETWEEN DLONG


&TIME
The DLong between any two meridians will be the

time difference between them provided both have


the same reference....LMT or LAT or LST.
Local Mean Time
LHA Mean Sun +/- 12
hours
Local Apparent Time
LHA True Sun +/- 12
hours
Greenwich Mean Time
GHA Mean Sun +/- 12
hours
Greenwich Apparent Time GHA True Sun +/- 12
hours

GMT & LMT


Comparing the time at any place with that of Greenwich its longitude

can be obtained.
Since time is always a westerly measurement (being Hour Angle) time
in the eastern longitudes will precede the Greenwich and in the west
will follow the Greenwich by 15 0each hour.
The local time can be obtained by converting the longitude in to time
and adding to the GMT in the east longitudes or subtracting in the west
longitudes.
LMT
=
GMT + east longitude-in-time
LMT
=
GMT west longitude-in-time
LAT
=
GAT+ east longitude-in-time
LAT
=
GAT- west longitude-in-time

STANDARD TIME
It is not possible for the observer at any given point to calculate his

time depending on the anti- meridian alone.


If this is done every place on the earth would have different time,
more so with in a country, state, city and street.
Also it is not possible to have a single time reference
So STANDARD TIME system has been adopted by each country of
the world.
Each land mass and oceans are divided in to various local areas and a
meridian passing through a place (nearly its centre) is taken as the
standard reference for that area.
Each such area is called a TIME ZONE.
Each time zone maintains its STANDARD TIME with respect to the
chosen longitude for that area.
A place ahead of GMT is listed as +T hours and that follows GMT is
listed as -T hours.

ZONE TIME
There are 24 zones of 150 each around the globe. The meridian passing through

the centre of each zone, in multiples of 15 0 is taken as the reference to decide


the zone number. The zone number is always a whole number.
EAST
0 to 7
7 to 22
22 to 37
172 to 180

EAST
0
-1
-2
-12

WEST
0 to 7
7 to 22
22 to 37
172 to 180

WEST
0
+1
+2
+12

NOTE: ZONE TIME at any position will differ from GMT by a whole number whereas

the TIME ZONE may differ by a fraction of the hour because it is based on a
conveniently chosen longitude.

INTERNATIONAL DATE
LINE
The anti-meridian of the Greenwich meridian.
If a ship crosses IDL from east to west it retards

the date by one day or lose one day.


If a ship crosses from west to east then it
advances the clock by one day or gains one day.

The IDL is not a continuous line.


It has been broken conveniently to accommodate

land mass or group of islands to fall on the same


side of the line.

KEEPING TIME AT SEA


As the ship travels east or west at sea and passes

between one zone and the next, it is convenient to


adjust the ships clocks to the zone where you are
actually located.
As you pass from one zone to the next, Zone Time
changes by 1 hour.
The rule is:
If travelling towardsthe west, the new Zone Time will be

1 hour earlier; set the ships clocksback by 1 hour or


RETARD.
If traveling towards the east, the new Zone Time will
be 1 hour later ; set the ships clocks ahead 1 hour or
ADVANCE.

The rule for changing date when crossing

the International Date Line is:


When travelling east and crossing the

International Date Line, you compensate


byretardingthe date 1 day.
When travelling west and crossing the
International Date Line you compensate by
advancing the date 1 day.
Changing the date should take place at a
convenient time that is least disruptive to the
operation of your ship.

Why stars rise four minutes


earlier each day?
Sidereal day is 23h 56m04s and the earth has to rotate an

additional angle of 10 to have the sun on the same meridian


i.e., for zero LHA.
In other words the sun has to rotate 3610 to complete a
day or 24h.
Thus the solar day is 04m longer than the sidereal day.
The FPA and all other stars follow the sidereal clock for
their rise, culmination and setting being at infinite distance.
Since our reference for calculation of time is SUN, our
clocks show the rise , culmination or set of the FPA or any
other star appears to be 4 minutes earlier from the
previous day.

Equation of time
Is defined as the difference between the MEAN

time and the APPARENT time at any instant,


measured from same meridian.
OR the angle (dlong) between the meridian of
mean sun and the meridian of true sun.
OR Mean Time Apparent time
OR GHA(MS) - GHA(TS)
OR LHA(MS) - LHA(TS)
OR SHA(MS) - SHA(TS)
OR RA(TS )
- RA(MS ) As RA is measured
Easterly.

Two reasons for such difference in the meridian

of true sun and the mean sun are:


1. Rate of change of speed of the true sun on
ecliptic (decreases from perihelion to aphelion
and increases from aphelion to perihelion)
whereas the mean sun moves at a constant
speed throughout the year on the equinoctial.
( E 1)
2. The obliquity of the ecliptic, because the true
sun moves along the ecliptic and the mean sun
moves along the equinoctial. (E 2)

E1
We know that the DMS moves on the ecliptic at a

constant speed where as the TS moves at varying rates


through the year.
The difference between their meridians, at any instant,
would be
RA (TS) RA (DMS) -------------------- E 1
At perihelion the rate of TS is the highest and the DMS
is constant. Therefore, RA of TS increases faster than
the DMS.
The E1 will be +ve till both reach aphelion, when it
becomes NIL, because both suns coincide.
Here the movement of the TS is least.

E1
After this both suns separate and TS starts lagging

behind the DMS because it moves at a uniform


rate.
Thus the RA(DMS) is greater than RA(TS) till they
once again coincide at perihelion, hence E 1 will be
ve.
At perihelion E1 becomes NIL as both sun coincide.
The E1 remains +ve for the first half year with a
maximum value of 07m in early April and ve for
the second half year attaining the same maximum
value of 07m in early October.

E2
The DMS moves on the ecliptic at a constant speed and AMS

moves on the equinoctial at a constant speed.


They would coincide at both equinoxes and solstices.
RA (DMS) RA (MS) -------------------- E 2
At vernal equinox they coincide after which they move at their
rates on their own path till summer solstice but their meridians
will not match.
RA (DMS) will be behind the RA (MS) and E 2 will be ve.
On reaching summer solstice their meridian are same as they
have moved by 900.
From summer solstice to autumnal equinox RA(DMS) is greater
than RA(MS) and E2 is + ve.
At autumnal equinox the suns coincide once again.

E2
For the next two quarters they are again ve

and + ve in a similar fashion.


Thus the values of E2 would be NIL at equinoxes
and solstices and maximum ve and + ve, up to
about 10m mid way between these points.
Algebraic sum of E1 + E2 = RA (TS) RA(DMS ) +
RA(DMS)-RA(MS) = RA(TS)-RA(MS)
If values of E1 and E2 are plotted in a graph
against months of the year they appear to be a
sinusoidal curve.

Also the algebraic sum E at any instant is:


NIL value during mid April, June, early

September and December.


The maximum values as below :

Mid February
+ 14m 21s

Mid May
- 3m 45s

End July
+ 6m 22s

Early November
- 16m 22s

Nautical almanac entry for equation of

time. 1)Tabulated for 00h and 12h of each


day. Interpolate for intermediate time.
2) SIGN: +ve if merpass time is more than
1200h and - ve if merpass time is less than
1200h
3) Merpass - 12 gives equation of time
nearest to the minute.