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What is personality?

Personality is often defined in terms of traits or

individual differences.
Personality should be defined from two
First, there is personality from the inside, which is
called identity. This is the person you think you
are and it is best defined by your hopes, dreams,
aspirations, goals, and intentions-i.e...., values.
Second, there is personality from the outside,
which is called reputation. This is the person
others think you are and is best defined by the
Five-Factor Model-i.e.., in terms of selfconfidence, sociability, integrity, charm, and
creativity, or their opposites

MORAL DEVELOPMENT; Kohlbergs stages
of Moral development
Socialization: parents and peers as social
Erickson's stages of psychosocial






Cognitive or Mental STRUCTURES by which

people intellectually adapt and organize the

*Used to process & ORGANIZE incoming


* Cards in the Brains index file

* Become increasingly COMPLEX and

as development occurs

The cognitive process by which a person
integrates new information into existing
schema, or patterns of behavior.



Occurs when new information cannot be
assimilated into an existing schema..
Must create a 4-LEGGED
new schema or modify an
existing schema.




Formal Operations
(11/13 yrs-adulthood)
Concrete Operations
(5/7 yrs-11/13 yrs)
(2-5/7 yrs)
Sensori-Motor Stage
(birth-2 years)

Sensori-motor stage:
(Birth-2 yrs)
Differentiates self from objects
Recognizes self as agent of action and
begins to act intentionally: e.g. pulls a
string to set mobile in motion or shakes a
rattle to make a noise
Achieves object permanence: realizes
that things continue to exist even when no
longer present to the sense.

(2-7 years)
Learns to use language and to represent objects by
images and words.
Classifies objects by a single feature: e.g. groups
together all the red blocks regardless of shape or all
the square blocks regardless of colour

Thinking is still egocentric: has difficulty

taking the viewpoint of others

Concrete operational
(7-11 years)

The word operations refers to logical operations

or principles we use when solving problems.
By six or seven, most children develop the ability
to conserve number, length, and liquid volume.
Conservation refers to the idea that a quantity
remains the same despite changes in appearance
Achieves conservation of number (age 6):

Conservation of volume:

Conservation of substance is achieved by the age of 8 yrs.

achieves concept of reversibility

Classifies objects according to several features and can

order them in series along a single dimension such as

Formal operational
(11 years and up)

think logically about abstract

propositions and test hypotheses
Becomes concerned with the
hypothetical, the future, and
ideological problems

Kohlbergs stages of moral

The Heinz Dilemma
Scenario 1 A woman was near death from a
unique kind of cancer. There is a drug that might
save her. The drug costs $4,000 per dosage. The
sick woman's husband, Heinz, went to everyone
he knew to borrow the money and tried every
legal means, but he could only get together about
$2,000. He asked the doctor scientist who
discovered the drug for a discount or let him pay
later. But the doctor scientist refused.
Should Heinz break into the laboratory to steal
the drug for his wife? Why or why not?

Level I: Pre-conventional
morality. .

1. We can call this the reward

and punishment stage. Good or
bad depends on the physical
Stage 2. This we can call the
exchange stage. "You scratch my
back, I'll scratch yours". You
recognize that others can help you,
and that you must return the favor!

Level II: Conventional morality

Stage 3. This stage is often called the good
boy/good girl stage. The child tries to live
up to the expectations of others, and to
seek their approval.
Stage 4. This is called the law-and-order
stage. Children now take the point of view
that includes the social system as a whole.
The rules of the society are the bases for
right and wrong, and doing one's duty and
showing respect for authority are important.

Level III: Post-conventional


Stage 5. Fifth stage: The Social Contract.

Recognition that laws exists for the common
good, but that these laws must not be
viewed as applying in every case. There is a
genuine interest in the welfare of others and
the concept of justice.
Stage 6. This stage is referred to as the
stage of universal principles. At this point,
the person makes a personal commitment to
universal principles of equal rights and
respect, and social contract takes a clear
back-seat: If there is a conflict between a
social law or custom and universal principles,
the universal principles take precedence.




The positive bond that develops between a child

and a particular individual.

Strange Situation experiment:

Mother leaves her child (12-18 months of
age) alone in a room of toys
A stranger enters the room for a while
Mother rejoins her child

Mary Ainsworth used this paradigm to assess

attachment in the child

Issue was the reaction of the child to the

mother upon her leaving and return

Types of Attachment:
Secure infants either seek proximity
or contact or else greet the parent at
a distance with a smile or wave.
Avoidant infants avoid the parent.

Resistant / ambivalent infants either

passively or actively show hostility
toward the parent.

Long-term Correlates of Attachment Quality
Securely attached toddlers and preschoolers tend to be:
1. Better problem solvers at age 2
2. More creative
3. More attractive playmates
4. Initiate play activities
5. Sensitive to others
6. Curious
7. Self-directed
8. Eager to learn

Caregiver characteristics hindering


Maternal depression
Abused mother
Mother doesnt want baby
Mother unable to take lead
Mother insensitive to infant
Maternal deprivation or adoption.


stages of psychosocial
Socialization: parents and peers
as social agents


Stage 1: Infancy -- Age 0 to 1

Crisis: Trust vs. Mistrust
Description: In the first year of life, infants depend on others
for food, warmth, and affection, and therefore must be able to
blindly trust the parents (or caregivers) for providing those.
Positive outcome: If their needs are met consistently and
responsively by the parents, infants not only will develop a
secure attachment with the parents, but will learn to trust their
environment in general as well.
Negative outcome: If not, infant will develop mistrust
towards people and things in their environment, even towards

Stage 2: Toddler -- Age 1 to 2

Crisis: Autonomy (Independence) vs. Doubt (or

Description: Toddlers learn to walk, talk, use toilets,
and do things for themselves. Their self-control and
self-confidence begin to develop at this stage.

Positive outcome: If parents encourage their child's

use of initiative and reassure her when she makes
mistakes, the child will develop the confidence needed
to cope with future situations that require choice,
control, and independence.

Negative outcome: If parents are overprotective, or

disapproving of the child's acts of independence, she
may begin to feel ashamed of her behavior, or have
too much doubt of her abilities.

Stage 3: Early Childhood -- Age 2 to 6

Crisis: Initiative vs. Guilt

Description: School is the important event at

this stage. Children learn to make things, use
tools, and acquire the skills to be a worker and a
potential provider. And they do all these while
making the transition from the world of home into
the world of peers.

Positive outcome: If children can discover

pleasure in intellectual stimulation, being
productive, seeking success, they will develop a
sense of competence.

Negative outcome: If not, they will develop a

sense of inferiority.

Stage 4: Elementary and Middle School

Years -- Age 6 to 12

Crisis: Competence, "Industry vs. Inferiority

Description:School is the important event at

this stage. Children learn to make things,
use tools, and acquire the skills to be a
worker and a potential provider. And they do
all these while making the transition from
the world of home into the world of peers.

Positive outcome: If children can discover

pleasure in intellectual stimulation, being
productive, seeking success, they will
develop a sense of competence.

Negative outcome: If not, they will develop

a sense of inferiority. .

Stage 5: Adolescence -- Age 12 to 18

Crisis: Identity vs. Role Confusion

Description: This is the time when we ask the

question "Who am I?" To successfully answer this
question, Erikson suggests, the adolescent must
integrate the healthy resolution of all earlier
conflicts. Did we develop the basic sense of trust?
Do we have a strong sense of independence,
competence, and feel in control of our lives?
Adolescents who have successfully dealt with
earlier conflicts are ready for the "Identity Crisis",
which is considered by Erikson as the single most
significant conflict a person must face.

Positive outcome: If the adolescent

solves this conflict successfully, he will
come out of this stage with a strong
identity, and ready to plan for the future.

Negative outcome: If not, the

adolescent will sink into confusion, unable
to make decisions and choices, especially
about vocation, sexual orientation, and his
role in life in general.

Stage 6: Young Adulthood -- Age 19 to 40

Crisis: Intimacy vs. Isolation

Description: In this stage, the most important

events are love relationships. No matter how
successful you are with your work, said Erikson, you
are not developmentally complete until you are
capable of intimacy. An individual who has not
developed a sense of identity usually will fear a
committed relationship and may retreat into isolation.

Positive outcome: Adult individuals can form close

relationships and share with others if they have
achieved a sense of identity.

Negative outcome: If not, they will fear

commitment, feel isolated and unable to depend on
anybody in the world.

Stage 7: Middle Adulthood -- Age 40 to 65

Crisis: Generativity vs. Stagnation

Description: By "generativity" Erikson refers to

the adult's ability to look outside oneself and care
for others, through parenting, for instance.
Erikson suggested that adults need children as
much as children need adults, and that this stage
reflects the need to create a living legacy.

Positive outcome: People can solve this crisis

by having and nurturing children, or helping the
next generation in other ways.

Negative outcome: If this crisis is not

successfully resolved, the person will remain selfcentered and experience stagnation later in life.

Stage 8: Late Adulthood -- Age 65 to death

Crisis: Integrity vs. Despair Important

Description: Old age is a time for reflecting upon
one's own life and its role in the big scheme of
things, and seeing it filled with pleasure and
satisfaction or disappointments and failures.

Positive outcome:If the adult has achieved a sense

of fulfillment about life and a sense of unity within
himself and with others, he will accept death with a
sense of integrity. Just as the healthy child will not
fear life, said Erikson, the healthy adult will not fear

Negative outcome: If not, the individual will

despair and fear death.


Socialization refers to the process by

which children learn the beliefs, values,
skills, and behavior patterns of their
Issues in socialization:

Socialization is interactive
Socialization is a life-long process
Children are biologically prepared for
Socialization is both explicit and implicit

Parents as Socialization Agents:


of parenting:

Authoritarian: Place a high value on

obedience and respect for authority
Permissive: Impose minimal controls on
their children
Authoritative: Enforce standards, but
encourage verbal give-and-take

Peers as Socializing Agents

Childhood friendship is mostly with samesex person
Meaning of friendship changes with age
Gratification from friends is important for
young children
Older children focus on intimacy with

Self-disclosure and mutual understanding

Time spent with peers increases with age

while time spent with parents decreases
into the teen years

Psychological tests are written, visual, or
verbal evaluations administered to assess
the cognitive and emotional functioning of
children and adults.
Psychological tests are used to assess a
variety of mental abilities and attributes,
including achievement and ability,
personality, and neurological functioning.


test. A measure of
knowledge or proficiency. The term is
usually applied to an examination on
outcomes of school instruction.
Aptitude test. A measure of the
ability to profit from additional
training or experience, that is,
become proficient in a skill or other

How we measure personality?

There are a number of methods to assess

one's personality. The major categories are
interviews, observations, objective tests,
and projective tests.
Interviews: First ask about their lifestyle,
including job, family, and hobbies. Used for
diagnosing psychological problems and
disclose personality characteristics.
Observation: It's not just "watching
people", actually it is extremely
sophisticated. The psychologists are looking
for very specific examples that follow strict
guidlines. From a psychologist's
observations, they can gather much
information about one's personality.

Objective tests: They are also known as
inventories, that are standardized
questionnaires that require written
responses, usually true-false or multiple
choice. Can be administered to a large
group of people. They are the most widely
used method.
Projective tests: They use ambiguous,
unstructured stimuli, such as inkblots or
pictures. These projective tests are
suppossed to reveal one's unconscious


A personality disorder is identified by a pervasive pattern

of experience and behavior that is abnormal with respect
to any two of the following: thinking, mood, personal
relations, and the control of impulses.


Antisocial Personality Disorder: Lack of regard for the

moral or legal standards in the local culture, marked inability
to get along with others or abide by societal rules. Sometimes
called psychopaths or sociopaths.

Avoidant Personality Disorder: Marked social inhibition,

feelings of inadequacy, and extremely sensitive to criticism.

Borderline Personality Disorder: Lack of one's own identity,

with rapid changes in mood, intense unstable interpersonal
relationships, marked impulsively, instability in affect and in self

Dependent Personality Disorder: Extreme need of other people,

to a point where the person is unable to make any decisions or
take an independent stand on his or her own. Fear of separation
and submissive behavior. Marked lack of decisiveness and selfconfidence.

Histrionic Personality Disorder: Exaggerated and often

inappropriate displays of emotional reactions, approaching
theatricality, in everyday behavior. Sudden and rapidly shifting
emotion expressions.

Narcissistic Personality Disorder: Behavior or a fantasy of

grandiosity, a lack of empathy, a need to be admired by others, an
inability to see the viewpoints of others, and hypersensitive to the
opinions of others.

Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder: Characterized by

perfectionism and inflexibility; preoccupation with uncontrollable
patterns of thought and action.

Paranoid Personality Disorder: Marked distrust of others,

including the belief, without reason, that others are exploiting,
harming, or trying to deceive him or her; lack of trust; belief of
others' betrayal; belief in hidden meanings; unforgiving and
grudge holding.

Schizoid Personality Disorder: Primarily characterized by a

very limited range of emotion, both in expression of and
experiencing; indifferent to social relationships.

Schizotypal Personality Disorder: Peculiarities of thinking, odd

beliefs, and eccentricities of appearance, behavior, interpersonal
style, and thought (e.g., belief in psychic phenomena and having
magical powers).