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To Reduce BER by using LDPC

codes.
Submitted by:MEGHA SHARMA
M.Tech(ECE)
2K13-MRCE-MT(ECE)-008

Contents

Objective

Introduction

Regular and irregular LDPC codes

Block diagram of LDPC codes

Progress till date

Result

Objective

To reduce BER of a channel so that we can send the signal


with minimal noise through the communication path of a
channel.

To achieve the speed enhancement.

Introduction

LDPC codes are a class of linear block code.

Invented by Robert Gallager in 1960.

It approaches the Shannon capacity.

It introduced the concept of parity check matrix.

Parity check matrix contains a few 1s as compared to 0s.

Representation of LDPC codes:

a)

Matrix representation.

b)

Graphical representation

Matrix representation of (8,4) code

Wc represent the no.


of 1s in each column.
Wr represent the no. of
1s in each row.
H is a parity check
matrix.

Graphical representation

It is a tanner graph.
Tanner graph are bipartite
graph.
Two types of nodes:
a) Variable node(V nodes)
b) check nodes(C nodes)

Regular and irregular LDPC codes

Regular LDPC codes:-

a)

Wc is constant for every column.

b)

Wr = Wc.

c)

n/m is also constant for every row.

) Irregular

LDPC codes:-

a) No. of 1s in each row and column are not constant.

Block diagram of LDPC codes


Blocks
Original
Message Bit

LDPC
Encoder

Modulator

of
Message +
Parity Bit =
Code word
AWGN
Channel

Original
Message

Iterative
decoder
Demodula
tor

Work done completed till now


Steps involve are as follows:

Generating parity check matrix

Encoding

Modulation

Progress till date

First, message is originated.

It breaks down into k message block.

For encoding, add (n-k) parity bit at the end of message block.

It forms a codeword.

Modulate the codeword.

Resulted graph of LDPC


encoding and BPSK modulation

bw

dw

Carrier
1
0
-1

1
0
-1

1
0
-1

1
0
-1

0.5

1.5

2.5
3
time
message signal

3.5

4.5

0.5

1.5

2.5
time
Carrier

3.5

4.5

0.5

1.5

2.5
time
bpsk

3.5

4.5

0.5

1.5

2.5
t

3.5

4.5

References

Amin Shokrollahi, Digital Fountain, Inc. 39141 Civic Center Drive,


Fremont, CA 94538, amin@digitalfountain.com, April 2, 2003.
Iterative Decoding of Low-Density Parity Check Codes,
Venkatesan Guruswami, Department of Computer Science and
Engineering University of Washington Seattle, WA 98195, September
2006.
http://www.csee.wvu.edu/wcrl/ldpc.htm A collection of links to sites
about LDPC codes and a list of papers about the topic.
LDPC Codesa brief Tutorial, Bernhard M.J. Leiner, Stud.ID.:
53418L, bleiner@gmail.com, April 8, 2005.
Forouzon (data communication and networking).
John G. proakis (digital communication).