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Settling and Floatation

Part 1

and Flotation Settling,


Gravity separation is a physical water and wastewater treatment
processes in which suspended and floating solids are removed
from water by the force of gravity.
Suspended and floating solids are either heavier than water or lighter
than water and accordingly there are two gravity separation
processes, sedimentation and flotation. Some fine solid particles
with densities heavier than water get attached with air bubbles
and are also removed by flotation.
Settling or sedimentation is a unit operation in which solids are
drawn toward a source of attraction.

Settling and Floatation


In gravitational settling, solids are drawn toward gravity; in
centrifugal settling, solids are drawn toward the sides of cyclones
as a result of the centrifugal field; and in electric-field settling, as
in electrostatic precipitators, solids are drawn to charge plates.
Flotation is a unit operation in which solids are made to float to the
surface on account of their adhering to minute bubbles of gases
(air) that rises to the surface.
On account of the solids adhering to the rising bubbles, they are
separated out from the water. This chapter discusses these three
types of unit operations as applied to the physical treatment of
water and wastewater.

Settling or Sedimentation
Settling has been defined as a unit operation in which solids

are drawn toward a source of attraction. The particular type


of settling that will be discussed in this section is
gravitational settling. It should be noted that settling is
different from sedimentation, although some authors
consider settling the same as sedimentation.

Strictly speaking, sedimentation refers to the condition

whereby the solids are already at the bottom and in the


process of sedimenting. Settling is not yet sedimenting, but
the particles are falling down the water column in response
to gravity. Of course, as soon as the solids reach the bottom,
they begin sedimenting. In the physical treatment of water
and wastewater, settling is normally carried out in settling or
sedimentation basins. We will use these two terms
interchangeably.

Settling Tanks, Basins, or


Clarifiers
Generally, two types of sedimentation basins (sometimes called
also tanks, or clarifiers) are used:
rectangular and
circular.
Rectangular settling, basins or clarifiers, as they are also called,
are basins that are rectangular in plans and cross sections. In
plan, the length may vary from two to four times the width.
The length may also vary from ten to 20 times the depth. The
depth of the basin may vary from 2 to 6 M. The influent is
introduced at one end and allowed to flow through the length
of the clarifier toward the other end.

Settling or Sedimentation
Sedimentation or settling is a process in which water is
collected in basins and given proper detention time
during which suspended solids present in water is
allowed to settle.
Sedimentation is a process with low cost and low energy
requirements, however, proper basin design is very
important for proper operation and better efficiency.
In specifying a water and wastewater sedimentation tank
size, the major features to be considered are:
- tank cross sectional area,
- tank depth,
- and type of cleaning mechanism used.

Settling or Sedimentation
In specifying a design basis for water and wastewater
sedimentation tanks; three conditions are commonly
considered:
- solid handling capacity (ton/day),
- overflow rate (gpm/ft2),
- and detention time.

Additional design data required to ascertain


mechanical construction, specific gravity of solids,
size distribution of solids, underflow construction,
operating temperature, and geographical location.
Typical dimensions of sedimentation tanks are given
in Table 1 bellow.

Table 1 Typical Dimensions of


Sedimentation Tanks
______________________________________________________
Description
Dimensions
Range
Typical
______________________________________________________
Rectangular
Depth, m
35
3.5
Length, m
1590
2540
Width, m
324
610
Circular
Diameter, m
460
1245
Depth, m
35
4.5
Bottom Slope, mm/m
60160
80
______________________________________________________

Shapes and Sizes of


sedimentation Tanks
Water and wastewater sedimentation tanks
are mostly
cylindrical or
rectangular in shape (See Figures bellow).
The ratio between width to length in
rectangular sedimentation tanks is ranging
between 1:4 to 1:6 (see Table in slide #5).

Classification of Suspended
Particles
Suspended particles in water and wastewater have been
categorized into three general classes:
1 Discrete particles : Particles that will not
readily flocculate, independent, settling rate is
independent of concentration, and flow rate is critical
(see Figure bellowclass 1). Examples of discrete
particles are sand, gravel washing, and silt.
2 Flocculent particles : Particles with relatively
low concentration, possible aggloromation, and their
settling is highly affected by detention time and flow
rate(see Figure bellowclass 2).
3 Hindered particles : Particles with
high suspended concentrations (as in sludge
thickening), their settling is affected by mixing and the
duration of detention time (see Figure bellowclass 3).

Types of Particle Settling


Type I settling , single or discrete particle,

applies to particles that settle with constant


velocity -- particles will be removed if v > vs
If particles flocculate during settling,
velocity generally increases Type II
settling
As particle concentration increases with
depth, zone settling occurs
At bottom of tank compression settling
occurs

Types Of Sedimentation

Types of sedimentation are dictated by


types of solids to be removed from water,
therefore, for the three types of particles
in aqueous suspensions , three separate
mechanisms and theory of estimating
settling velocities and removal rates
better understanding of the process let us
first define the different settling
properties of.

Types of Particle Settling


Type I settling applies to particles that
settle with constant velocity -particles will be removed if v > vs
If particles flocculate during settling,
velocity generally increases Type II
settling
As particle concentration increases
with depth, zone settling occurs
At bottom of tank compression
settling occurs

a. Discrete Particles
Settling
For discrete particles in aqueous suspensions and
which have density greater than water, it will
accelerate downward under the force of gravity
until the resistance of the liquid equals the
effective weight of the particle. According to its
weight, shape, and specific weight or density,
discrete particle is affected by the gravity, drag,
and buoyancy force (see Figure bellow).
Settling velocity for a discrete particle is
approximately constant and its magnitude depend
on shape, size, and density of the article, and
density and viscosity of the liquid. The force
balance on the particle;
FG = FD + FB

Sedimentation:
Particle Terminal Fall
Velocity

where
s = settling velocity
s = density of particle (kg/m3)
= density of fluid (kg/m3)
g = gravitational constant
(m/s2)
d = particle diameter (m)
= dynamic viscosity (Pas)

Particle Terminal Fall


Velocity (continued)
Force balance (zero acceleration)

Fd W Fb
C D AP w
Vt 2

Vt 2

p ( p w )g

2
2 p ( p w ) g
C D AP w

d
Ap 3

Vt
2

We havent yet assumed a shape

4 gd p w
3 CD

p r
3

Ap r 2

sphere
Assume a _______

4 gd ( r p - r w )
Vt =
3 CD
rw

Drag Coefficient:
Equations
Vt

General Equation

Vt d

4 gd p w
3 CD

24
Laminar flow R < 1 C D
R

w
Vt

Transitional flow 1 < R < 10

24
3
C D 1/ 2 0.34
R R

Fully turbulent flow R > 10

C D 0.4

Vt

d 2 g p w
18

gd p w
0.3

Sedimentation of Small
Particles?
How could we increase the

sedimentation rate of small


particles?
Increase
d (stick
particles together)

d g p w Increase density difference


Vt
(dissolved air flotation)
18
2

Increase g (centrifuge)

Decrease viscosity
(increase temperature)

Graphical Solution to Settling Velocity

Overflow Rate, Qovr = Q/A

Area

Solids Loading Rate, SLR = (Q*C)/A

Q*C
Area

vl
vs

h
vl
vs

Rectangular clarifiers
In horizontal tank some percentage
of
particles with vs < vo will be
P
= 100 (vs/vo) =
removed
percentage of
particles removed
with a settling
velocity of vs in a
h
rectangular
sedimentation
basin designed with
an overflow

vl
vl

vs

vs

Removal Efficiency

Example (1)

Example(2)

Solution:

Item

Range

Typical

Range

Typical

Detention time(hr)

1.5-2.5

1.5-2.5

Average Overflow
rate(mt3/mt2 . d)

32-48

40

24-32

28

Peak hourly Overflow


rate(mt3/mt2 . d)

80-120

100

49-99

59

Weir loading (mt3/mt.d)

125500

250

125-500

250

Rectangular
Item

Range

Typical

Range

Typical

Depth(mt)

3-4.5

3.6

--

--

Length(mt)

15-90

24-39

--

--

Width(mt)

3-24

4.8-9.6

--

--

0.6-1.2

0.9

--

--

Length:width

3:1

4:1

--

--

Length:depth

15:1

--

--

--

6.3-17

8.5

--

--

Flight
speed(mt/
min)

Bottom
Slope(cm/
mt)

Circular/Cylindrical

Item

Range

Typical

Range

Typical

Depth(mt)

3-4.5

3.6

--

--

Diameter(mt)

3-60

12-45

--

--

BottomSlope(
cm/mt)

6.3-17

8.5

--

--

Flight travel
speed(r/m
in)

0.02-0.05

0.03

--

--

FLOW-THROUGH VELOCITY AND


OVERFLOW RATEOF SETTLINC
BASINS

Inlet
zone

Design Criteria
Sludge zone
for
Sedimentation
_______________________________
Minimal turbulence
Tanks
Uniform velocity
_______________________________
No scour of settled particles
_______________________________
Slow moving particle collection system
_______________________________
Q/As must be small (to capture small particles)
_______________________________
This will be one of the ways you can improve the
performance of your water filtration plant.

Outlet
zone

Settling zone

Non-Idealities in Settling

Example (3)
For the water
quality data given
in the following
table, determine
the overall removal
efficiency and the
change in
fractional
removal ?

Example (4)
A settling basin is designed to have a surface overflowrate of 32.6
m/d. Determine the overall removal efficiency for a suspension
with particle size distribution given bellow:
____________________________________________________________________
dp, mm
0.15
0.12
0.10 0.08
0.06
0.04
0.02
0.01
____________________________________________________________________
Mass
Fraction
5
10
35
60
80
90
95
100
Less Than
____________________________________________________________________
Also given the characteristics of water and solid particles:
Particle
Water
____________________________________________________________________
Density, kg/l
1.350
0.999
Kin. Viscosity

1.027 x 103
kgsec/m2
Temperature, oC

20oC
____________________________________________________________________

Example (5)
Settling velocity of a solid particle
is 0.0044 m/s in water at 15 oC.
Compute the overflowrate in
gpd/ft2. What is the minimum
detention time in hours to
settle out this flocc if the depth
of the sedimentation tank is 15
feet ?

Example (6)
A rectangular sedimentation tank
is to be designed for a flow of 1
mgd using a 6:1 length/width
ratio, an overflowrate of
0.00077 fps, and a detention
time of 3 hours. What are the
dimensions of the basin ?

Example (7)
A 120 feet in diameter 15 feet deep
cylindrical sedimentation tank has
an influent flow of 10 mgd.
Compute the overflowrate and
detention time? Is the estimated
overflowrate and detention time are
within the acceptable range? With
influent suspended solids
concentration of 1500 mg/l.
estimate the solid loading rate?

Example (8)
A sedimentation tank 25 m in
diameter and 4.5 deep treating
15 mgd of surface water. With
suspended solids of 1500 mg/l.
Estimate the detention time, the
overflow rate and the solid
loading rate?