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1-phase Transformer

Vita Lystianingrum

References

1. Theraja, B. L., Electrical Technology, S.


Chand & Company Ltd., 1978.
2. Schmidt-Walter, H., Kories, R., Electrical
Engineering: A Pocket Reference, Artech
House Inc., 2007.
3. Karady, G., Lecture Notes on Single
Phase Transformers,
www.eas.asu.edu/~karady/360_pp.html.
4. Chapman, S. J., Electric Machinery
Fundamentals, McGraw-Hill, 2005.
5. Zuhal, Dasar Tenaga Listrik, Penerbit
ITB, 1991.
2

Transformers Outlines

13:

.Transformer
.Equivalent circuit of a transformer (1)

14:

.Equivalent circuit of a transformer (2)


.referred to primary or sec side
.Test for transformers parameters

15:

.Transformers Phasor
.Loaded Transformer
.Voltage Regulation

Equivalent circuit (4)


I 2 E1 N 1

a
I1 E2 N 2

E2 = aE2 = E1.
V2 = aV2

jXe
V1

I1

Re

I2 = I2/a

I2= I2 /a
Rc

jXm

aV2

a2ZL

X2 = a2X2

Referred to the primary side

jXe
V1/a

Re
I2

aI1
Rc/a

jXm/a

R2 = a2R2

Referred to the secondary side

V2

ZL

Transformer Test
Equivalent circuit parameters
.These four main parameters can
be determined by two tests:
.Open-circuit test
.Short-circuit test

jXe
V1

Rc

Re

jXm

aV2

a2ZL

Referred to the primary side


6

Transformer Test:
Open-circuit or No-load Test (1)
Io
Re

jXe
jXm

Rc

HV

Vo

LV

Io

Po

A
open
circuit

V
V

HV

Vo

Rated
voltage

LV

Transformer Test:
Short-circuit or Impedance Test (1)
Isc

Re

Isc sec

jXe

Vsc
HV

Is c

LV

sc

A
R educed
v o lt a g e

sh o rt
c ir c u it

sc

H V

LV

Examples (Review)
p. 54, Nr. 8 (contd)
The result of a 400 V/200 V transformer test is the following:
.Open-circuit test (LV side): V = 200 V; I = 0.7 A; P = 95 W.
.Short-circuit test (HV side): V = 15 V; I = 20 A; P = 130 W.
Find the transformers equivalent circuit referred to low-voltage side!

jXe/a2

Solution

V1/a
.Open-circuit test -> Rc and Xm
R c = V02 2/ P0 = 422 .
Xm

V0
388
Q0

(Q0

S0 P0

.Short-circuit test -> Xe and Re

Re/a2
I2

aI1
Rc

jXm

V2

102.83 VAR)

-> this test was done at 400-V side

Ze = Vsc / Isc = 0.75 .


Re = Psc / Isc2 = 0.325 .
X e Z e2 Re2 0.675

!!Then calculate the parameters to LVside referred (Re/a2 and Xe/a2)

ZL

10

Transformer Voltage Regulation (1)

A real transformer has series impedance


within it.
Therefore, the output voltage varies with
the load, even if the input voltage remains
constant.
To conveniently compare transformers in
this respect, its customary to define a
quantity called voltage regulation.

11

Transformer Voltage Regulation (2)

Full-voltage regulation:
V2,nl V2, fl
compares output voltage at
VR
100%
V2, fl
no-load with output voltage at
full-load

At no-load, V2 = V1/a

VR

V1
a

V2, fl
V2, fl

100%

For an ideal transformer,


VR = 0%
12

The Transformer Phasor Diagram (1)

To determine VR, we should understand the


voltage drop within it -> we deal with
current phase angle -> phasor diagram.
jXe

V1/a

Re
I2

aI1
Rc/a

jXm/a

V2

Phasor voltage V2 is the reference.


Phasor voltage V2 is assumed at an angle 0.

13

The Transformer Phasor Diagram (2)


jXe
V1/a

Re
I2

aI1
Rc/a

jXm/a

V2

Applying Kirchoffs voltage law:


V1
a

Re I 2 jX e I 2 V2
V1/a

I2

V2

jXeI2
Re I 2

14

The Transformer Phasor Diagram (3)


V1/a
V2

I2

jXeI2
ReI2
V1/a
jXeI2

I2

V2

Re I 2

V1/a
jXeI2
I2
V2

Re I 2
15

Rugi-rugi dan efisiensi :


Rugi Tembaga

Sumber

Kumparan
Primer

Fluks
Bersama

Kumparan
Sekunder

Rugi Fluks Bocor


Rugi Besi;
Histerisis dan
Eddy current

Out put

Rugi Tembaga (PCu) :

PCu I R
2

Rugi Besi (Pi) :


1 .6
Ph K h fBmaks
2
Pe K e f 2 Bmaks

Pi Ph Pe

watt
watt

Rugi Histerisi

Rugi eddy current

Efisensi :

daya keluar
daya keluar

daya masuk daya keluar rugi rugi

rugi rugi
daya masuk

rugi rugi PCu Pi


Perubahan efisiensi terhadap beban :

V2Cos
V2Cos I 2 R2ek

Pi
I2

Perubahan efisiensi terhadap faktor kerja cos beban :

X
X / cos
1
cos X
1 X / cos

19

Examples: 2-5 (Chapman)

A 15-kVA, 2300/230-V transformer is tested (both tests


are done in the primary side!!):
.OC Test
.SC Test
VOC = 2300 V
VSC = 47 V

a.
b.
c.
d.

IOC = 0.21 A

ISC = 6 A

POC = 50 W

PSC = 160 W

Find the equivalent circuit referred to high-voltage side!


Find the equivalent circuit referred to low-voltage side!
Calculate full-load VR at 0.8 lagging power factor!
What is the efficiency of the transformer at full load
with a power factor of 0.8 lagging?

20

Examples: 2-5 (Chapman) Solution (1)


SC test
Re = Psc / Isc2 = 4.44 .

a. OC test
R c = V02 / P0 = 105800 .
Xm

Xe = 6.45

V0 2

11011
Q0

Because both tests are done in the primary side, these parameters
are also referred to the primary side.

jXe
V1

I1

Re
I2= I2 /a

Rc

jXm

aV2

21

Examples: 2-5 (Chapman) Solution (2)


b. To obtain the equivalent circuit referred to sec side, we divide the
impedance by a2.
Rc = 1058 .
Re = 0.044 .
Xm = 110

Xe = 0.065
jXe/a2

V1/a

Re/a2
I2

aI1
Rc/a

jXm/a

V2

22

Examples: 2-5 (Chapman) Solution (3)


c. Full-load VR:

VR

V2, fl

V1
a

V2, fl

100%
V1/a
V2

I2
V1
a

jXeI2
Re I 2

I 2Re jI 2 X e V2

Full-load current in the secondary:


Srated
I 2,rated
65.2 A
V2,rated
At pf = 0.8 lagging, current I2 = 65.2<-36.9 A.
Then V1/a = 234.84<0.40 V
VR

234 .85 230


100 % 2.1%
230

23

Examples: 2-5 (Chapman) Solution (4)


d. To find efficiency, first find its losses.
The copper losses are:
Pcu = (I2)2 x Re = (65.2)2 x 0.045 = 189 W
The core losses are:

Pcore

V1
a

RC

234.85 2
1050

52.5W

The output power of the transformer at this power factor is:


Pout = V2I2cos
= (230V)(65.2A)cos 36.9 = 12000W.
The efficiency:
P
Pout
out 100%
100% 98.03%
Pin
Pcopper Pcore Pout
24

Contoh 1 :
Pengukuran hubungan singkat transformator fasa tunggal 15 kVA yang
mempunyai perabandingan tegangan 2400 volt / 240 volt, f = 50 Hz,
menghasilkan data pengukuran sebagai berikut :
Arus hubung singkat Ihs = 6.25 A
Tegangan yg dipasang Vhs = 131 V
Daya masuk Phs = 214 W
Hitung prosentase pengaturan untuk beban dengan cos = 0.8 lagging

Is c

sc

A
R educed
v o lt a g e

sh o rt
c irc u it

sc

H V

LV

Penyelesaian contoh 1 :
Cos

Phs
214

0.261 70054'
Vhs I hs 131 6.25

( Tertinggal )

Vhs
13100
0
'
Z ek

20
.
96

74
54
I hs 6.25 74054'

Rek 20.90 Cos 74054 ' 5.49


X ek 20.90 Sin74054' 19.97
V1 2400(0.8 j 0.6) 6.25(5.49 j19.97)
1920 j1440 34.3 j124.8
1954.3 j1564.8
2502.2 volt

% pengaturan

2502.2 2400
x100% 4.26%
2400

-Ende-

27

Transformer
Questions to ponder.

Why the discovery of the transformer accelerated the development


of the use of electricity ?

Why the iron or magnetization losses are more important than the
losses caused by the winding resistance ?

Why the transformer has to be cooled ? How it is done ?

What is the connection of the transformer that supplies your


house and where is it ?

28

Transformer
A 25 kVA, 2400 V / 240 V single phase transformer was tested.
In the short-circuit tests, the HV side was shorted and the
parameters were measured at the LV side.
In the open-circuit test, the LV side was opened and the
parameters were measured at the HV side.
The results of the tests are :
Short-circuit test (HV shorted) Vs = 80 volt,
Is = 400 amp,
PS = 800 watt
Open-circuit test (LV open)
Vo = 2400 volt, Io = 2 amp,
Po = 300 watt

29

Transformer
a) Calculate the transformer parameters.
b) Draw the simplified equivalent circuit
c) Calculate and plot the transformer voltage regulation vs. load
and determine the load when the regulation is 5%
d) Calculate and plot the efficiency vs. load. Determine the load
when the efficiency is maximum and the maximum efficiency
Assume: power factor 0.8 lagging and load voltage = rated
voltage

30

31

The use of iron core and magnetic


core.
Iron core

32