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# 1-phase Transformer

Vita Lystianingrum

References

## 1. Theraja, B. L., Electrical Technology, S.

Chand & Company Ltd., 1978.
2. Schmidt-Walter, H., Kories, R., Electrical
Engineering: A Pocket Reference, Artech
House Inc., 2007.
3. Karady, G., Lecture Notes on Single
Phase Transformers,
4. Chapman, S. J., Electric Machinery
Fundamentals, McGraw-Hill, 2005.
5. Zuhal, Dasar Tenaga Listrik, Penerbit
ITB, 1991.
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Transformers Outlines

13:

.Transformer
.Equivalent circuit of a transformer (1)

14:

## .Equivalent circuit of a transformer (2)

.referred to primary or sec side
.Test for transformers parameters

15:

.Transformers Phasor
.Voltage Regulation

I 2 E1 N 1

a
I1 E2 N 2

E2 = aE2 = E1.
V2 = aV2

jXe
V1

I1

Re

I2 = I2/a

I2= I2 /a
Rc

jXm

aV2

a2ZL

X2 = a2X2

jXe
V1/a

Re
I2

aI1
Rc/a

jXm/a

R2 = a2R2

## Referred to the secondary side

V2

ZL

Transformer Test
Equivalent circuit parameters
.These four main parameters can
be determined by two tests:
.Open-circuit test
.Short-circuit test

jXe
V1

Rc

Re

jXm

aV2

a2ZL

## Referred to the primary side

6

Transformer Test:
Io
Re

jXe
jXm

Rc

HV

Vo

LV

Io

Po

A
open
circuit

V
V

HV

Vo

Rated
voltage

LV

Transformer Test:
Short-circuit or Impedance Test (1)
Isc

Re

Isc sec

jXe

Vsc
HV

Is c

LV

sc

A
R educed
v o lt a g e

sh o rt
c ir c u it

sc

H V

LV

Examples (Review)
p. 54, Nr. 8 (contd)
The result of a 400 V/200 V transformer test is the following:
.Open-circuit test (LV side): V = 200 V; I = 0.7 A; P = 95 W.
.Short-circuit test (HV side): V = 15 V; I = 20 A; P = 130 W.
Find the transformers equivalent circuit referred to low-voltage side!

jXe/a2

Solution

V1/a
.Open-circuit test -> Rc and Xm
R c = V02 2/ P0 = 422 .
Xm

V0
388
Q0

(Q0

S0 P0

Re/a2
I2

aI1
Rc

jXm

V2

102.83 VAR)

## Ze = Vsc / Isc = 0.75 .

Re = Psc / Isc2 = 0.325 .
X e Z e2 Re2 0.675

ZL

10

## A real transformer has series impedance

within it.
Therefore, the output voltage varies with
the load, even if the input voltage remains
constant.
To conveniently compare transformers in
this respect, its customary to define a
quantity called voltage regulation.

11

## Transformer Voltage Regulation (2)

Full-voltage regulation:
V2,nl V2, fl
compares output voltage at
VR
100%
V2, fl

VR

V1
a

V2, fl
V2, fl

100%

VR = 0%
12

## To determine VR, we should understand the

voltage drop within it -> we deal with
current phase angle -> phasor diagram.
jXe

V1/a

Re
I2

aI1
Rc/a

jXm/a

V2

## Phasor voltage V2 is the reference.

Phasor voltage V2 is assumed at an angle 0.

13

jXe
V1/a

Re
I2

aI1
Rc/a

jXm/a

V2

## Applying Kirchoffs voltage law:

V1
a

Re I 2 jX e I 2 V2
V1/a

I2

V2

jXeI2
Re I 2

14

V1/a
V2

I2

jXeI2
ReI2
V1/a
jXeI2

I2

V2

Re I 2

V1/a
jXeI2
I2
V2

Re I 2
15

Rugi Tembaga

Sumber

Kumparan
Primer

Fluks
Bersama

Kumparan
Sekunder

Rugi Besi;
Histerisis dan
Eddy current

Out put

PCu I R
2

1 .6
Ph K h fBmaks
2
Pe K e f 2 Bmaks

Pi Ph Pe

watt
watt

Rugi Histerisi

Efisensi :

daya keluar
daya keluar

rugi rugi
daya masuk

V2Cos
V2Cos I 2 R2ek

Pi
I2

X
X / cos
1
cos X
1 X / cos

19

## A 15-kVA, 2300/230-V transformer is tested (both tests

are done in the primary side!!):
.OC Test
.SC Test
VOC = 2300 V
VSC = 47 V

a.
b.
c.
d.

IOC = 0.21 A

ISC = 6 A

POC = 50 W

PSC = 160 W

## Find the equivalent circuit referred to high-voltage side!

Find the equivalent circuit referred to low-voltage side!
Calculate full-load VR at 0.8 lagging power factor!
What is the efficiency of the transformer at full load
with a power factor of 0.8 lagging?

20

## Examples: 2-5 (Chapman) Solution (1)

SC test
Re = Psc / Isc2 = 4.44 .

a. OC test
R c = V02 / P0 = 105800 .
Xm

Xe = 6.45

V0 2

11011
Q0

Because both tests are done in the primary side, these parameters
are also referred to the primary side.

jXe
V1

I1

Re
I2= I2 /a

Rc

jXm

aV2

21

## Examples: 2-5 (Chapman) Solution (2)

b. To obtain the equivalent circuit referred to sec side, we divide the
impedance by a2.
Rc = 1058 .
Re = 0.044 .
Xm = 110

Xe = 0.065
jXe/a2

V1/a

Re/a2
I2

aI1
Rc/a

jXm/a

V2

22

## Examples: 2-5 (Chapman) Solution (3)

VR

V2, fl

V1
a

V2, fl

100%
V1/a
V2

I2
V1
a

jXeI2
Re I 2

I 2Re jI 2 X e V2

## Full-load current in the secondary:

Srated
I 2,rated
65.2 A
V2,rated
At pf = 0.8 lagging, current I2 = 65.2<-36.9 A.
Then V1/a = 234.84<0.40 V
VR

100 % 2.1%
230

23

## Examples: 2-5 (Chapman) Solution (4)

d. To find efficiency, first find its losses.
The copper losses are:
Pcu = (I2)2 x Re = (65.2)2 x 0.045 = 189 W
The core losses are:

Pcore

V1
a

RC

234.85 2
1050

52.5W

## The output power of the transformer at this power factor is:

Pout = V2I2cos
= (230V)(65.2A)cos 36.9 = 12000W.
The efficiency:
P
Pout
out 100%
100% 98.03%
Pin
Pcopper Pcore Pout
24

Contoh 1 :
Pengukuran hubungan singkat transformator fasa tunggal 15 kVA yang
mempunyai perabandingan tegangan 2400 volt / 240 volt, f = 50 Hz,
menghasilkan data pengukuran sebagai berikut :
Arus hubung singkat Ihs = 6.25 A
Tegangan yg dipasang Vhs = 131 V
Daya masuk Phs = 214 W
Hitung prosentase pengaturan untuk beban dengan cos = 0.8 lagging

Is c

sc

A
R educed
v o lt a g e

sh o rt
c irc u it

sc

H V

LV

Penyelesaian contoh 1 :
Cos

Phs
214

0.261 70054'
Vhs I hs 131 6.25

( Tertinggal )

Vhs
13100
0
'
Z ek

20
.
96

74
54
I hs 6.25 74054'

## Rek 20.90 Cos 74054 ' 5.49

X ek 20.90 Sin74054' 19.97
V1 2400(0.8 j 0.6) 6.25(5.49 j19.97)
1920 j1440 34.3 j124.8
1954.3 j1564.8
2502.2 volt

% pengaturan

2502.2 2400
x100% 4.26%
2400

-Ende-

27

Transformer
Questions to ponder.

## Why the discovery of the transformer accelerated the development

of the use of electricity ?

Why the iron or magnetization losses are more important than the
losses caused by the winding resistance ?

## What is the connection of the transformer that supplies your

house and where is it ?

28

Transformer
A 25 kVA, 2400 V / 240 V single phase transformer was tested.
In the short-circuit tests, the HV side was shorted and the
parameters were measured at the LV side.
In the open-circuit test, the LV side was opened and the
parameters were measured at the HV side.
The results of the tests are :
Short-circuit test (HV shorted) Vs = 80 volt,
Is = 400 amp,
PS = 800 watt
Open-circuit test (LV open)
Vo = 2400 volt, Io = 2 amp,
Po = 300 watt

29

Transformer
a) Calculate the transformer parameters.
b) Draw the simplified equivalent circuit
c) Calculate and plot the transformer voltage regulation vs. load
and determine the load when the regulation is 5%
when the efficiency is maximum and the maximum efficiency
Assume: power factor 0.8 lagging and load voltage = rated
voltage

30

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core.
Iron core

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