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CHAPTER 4

CHEMICAL
COMPOSITION
OF THE CELL

Elements
-made up all living and
non-living things
- is a substance,
composed of a kind of
atom
-cannot broken down into
simpler substances by
chemical reaction

-There are 25 most


common elements

-Most Essential elements


96% of the body mass
carbon (C)
hydrogen
(H)
oxygen (O)
nitrogen
(N)

-Other essential elements


4% of the body mass

calcium (Ca)
potassium (K)
phosphorus (P)
sulphur (S)
sodium (Na)
magnesium (Mg)
chlorine (Cl)

-Trace elements
0.01% of the body
mass

Compound

-is formed from elements


- two types:
a)Organic compound
- contain the carbon element
- examples: carbohydrates,
proteins,
lipids, nucleic acids,
vitamins
b) Inorganic compound
- example: H20

Organic compounds & its


importance
a)Made up 15% of protoplasm
proteins & lipids
b)Building blocks of proteins amino acids
c)Major source of energy in the
cell carbohydrates
d) store genetic information
nucleic acids

Importance of Water to cell


Universal solvent
Medium for metabolic reaction
Maintain stable internal
environment
Helps in lubrication
Supporting plant cell & soft body
tissues
Has very high cohesion

Importance of Water to cell


Provide moist surface for
gaseous exchange
Provide H atom for
photosynthesis
Maintain thermal balance
Facilitate transportation of
nutrients

Water as Universal solvent


-water is a polar molecule with
unequal distribution of
charges
-polar molecules attract one
another and ions
-water can dissolve many
i) ionic compounds, such as
salt
ii) polar molecules such as
sugar

Water as Medium for


Biochemical reaction
-biochemical reactions can
only take place when there is
water
-Example: In digestion, the
breakdown of proteins, lipids
& carbohydrates needs water

Water maintain Stable


Internal Environment
-Water maintains the osmotic
balance between the blood
and interstitial fluid
-This enable all activities and
life processes in cell.

Water helps in Lubrication


-Mucus composes mostly
water
which assists the movement
of food substances in the
intestinal tract

Water support plant cell &


soft body tissues
-Cell sap in plant contains
water, glucose, mineral salt,
toxic substances and mineral
-This made tha concentration
of cell sap higher and
encourage water to diffuse in
by osmosis
-Plant cell becomes turgid

High cohesion property


-cohesion force exist between
molecules of the same type
-Water molecules tend to stick
to each other and move in
long unbroken columns
through the vascular tissues in
plants.

Nucleic acids

-organic compound
-store genetic infomation
in the form of code
-building blocks of nucleic
acids are called
nucleotides
Phosphat
Nitrogenou
e group

s base
Pentose

Nucleic acids

-Two types:
a)deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
double strand of
polynucleotides which forma a
double helix
is found in nucleus,
chloroplast, mitochondrion
contains genetic infomation of
organism

Nucleic acids

-Two types:
b) ribonucleic acid (RNA)
single strand of
polynucleotides
is found in nucleus,
cytoplasm, ribosome
copies genetic infomation
carry by DNA for the use in
protein synthesis

Carbohydrate
Elements in carbohydrates C, H, O
Monomer of carbohydrates
-monosaccharides
Types of carbohydrates:
a)Monosaccharides
b)Disaccharides
c)Polysaccharides

-Monosaccharides
Examples: glucose, fructose,
galactose
- is known as simple sugar
- main source of energy for many
cells
- combine with protein to form
glycoprotein
- combine with lipids to form
glycolipid

- can be found in
plants and fruits (glucose)
formula:
fruit and honey (fructose)
milk (galactose)
- are reducing sugars which act
as a reducing agent

Disaccharides
- Examples: maltose (malt sugar)
sucrose (cane sugar)
lactose (milk sugar)
- is formed by two combination of
monosaccharides
- involved two processes
a) formation of disaccharides:
condensation
b) breakdown of disaccharides:
hydrolysis

Elements
Carbon, Hydrogen,
Oxygen
Formula
(CH2O)n C6H12O6
General structure

glucose + glucose
Maltose
glucose + fructose
Sucrose
glucose + galactose
-Lactose
maltose and lactose are reducing
sugar
- sucrose is non-reducing sugar

Test for reducing sugar


1)2ml of Benedicts solution are
added to glucose solution in a
test tube
2)Test tube is placed in water bath
of boiling water for 5 min.
Positive result
Brick red precipitate is formed.

Test for non-reducing sugar


1)2ml of sucrose solution and 1ml
of dilute hydrochloric acid are
added to a test tube.
2)Test tube is placed in water bath
of boiling water for 5 min.
3)The test tube is then cooled
under a running tap and sodium
hydrogen carbonate is added to
neutralise excess acid.

Test for non-reducing sugar


4) When it stops fizzing, 2ml of
Benedicts solution are added to
the mixture in the test tube
5) The test tube is placed in water
bath of boiling water again for 5
min.
Postive result
Brick-red precipitate is formed

Polysaccharides
- Examples: starch, cellulose,
glycogen
- is formed by combination of many
monosaccharides
- insoluble in water due to large
molecular size
- do not taste sweet and do not
crystallise

- are stored in the form of


a) glycogen in animals (liver and
muscle cells) and yeast
b) starch in plant
- involved two processes
a) formation of polysaccharides:
condensation

b) breakdown of polysaccharides:
hydrolysis
Starch/cellulose/glycogen

glucose

Test for starch


1ml of iodine solution is added to
starch suspension.
Positive result
The iodine solution changed from
brown to blue black.

Protein

Elements in protein: C, H, O, N, P, S
Monomer of proteins: amino acid
Types of proteins:
a) Essential amino acids (1st class
protein)
- cannot be synthesised by
vertebrate cells
- only obtain from the diet
- animal protein contains all essential
amino acids
- example: leucine

b) Non-essential amino acids


(2nd class protein)
- can be synthesised
derived from other amino
acids
plant protein

Formation and Breakdown of


dipeptides and polypeptides

Formation of Dipeptides

Breakdown of Polypeptides

Protein Structure
a) Primary structure

a) Primary structure Peptid


e
bond
amino
acid
- Linear
sequence of
amino acids in
a polypeptide
chain
- Example:

b) Secondary structure

- Polypeptide chains coil to form helix chains or pleat to form pleated sheets
- Example:
keratin, collagen

c) Tertiary structure

- Helix chains and pleated sheets


are folded into a 3-dimentional
shape
- Example:
plasma proteins, enzymes,
myoglobin, antibodies, many
hormones

d) Quarternary
structure
- Many
polypeptide
chains
combine with
non-protein
groups to
form a large - Example:
haemoglobin,
complex
chlorophyll
protein

Protein Test

a)Millon test
A few drops of Millons reagent
are added to food sample
The sample is boiled for 5 min
After cooling, a few drops of 1%
sodium nitrite is added.
Observation (positive)
Brick-red precipitate appears on
the surface of the solution.

Protein Test

b) Biuret test
20% of NaOH solution is added in
excess to food sample.
A few drops of Cu(II)SO4 are
added slowly to the mixture.
The mixture is shaken gently and
allowed to stand
Observation (positive)
Solution turns purple.

Lipids
Elements Carbon, Hydrogen,
Oxygen
Formula
CnH2nOn
Sources
butter,
margarine, olive
oil
Types
fats, oils, waxes,
steroids
phospholipids

Fats and Oils


they are triglycerides
triglyceride is an ester
formed through condensation
of glycerol and three molecules
of fatty acids
triglycerides can also be
broken down into fatty acids
and glycerol by hydrolysis
reactions

Each molecule of fat or oil


consists of one molecule of
glycerol and three molecules
of fatty acids.
Fatty acids
consists of a long chain of
hydrocarbon chain with a
different number of carbon
atoms
are either saturated or
unsaturated

Saturated fats

Fats
containing
saturated
fatty acids

Unsaturated
fats

Fats
containing
unsaturated
fatty acids

Saturated fats

Do not have
double bond
between the C
atom
(All the bond
between the
carbon have
maximum
number of H
atom cannot
form any
chemical bonds

Unsaturated fats

Have at least one


double bond between
C atoms
(the C atoms are not
bonded to the
maximum number of H
atoms)
Unsaturated fat with
one double bond
monounsaturated
fat
Unsaturated fat with

Saturated fats
Solid at room
temperature
Example: butter
(mostly animal
fats)

Unsaturated fats
Liquid at room
temperature
Example: corn oil
(mostly plant oil)

Wax
Found on the cuticles of the
epidermis of leaves, fruits and
seeds
Are waterproof, thus
preventing the entry and
evaporation of water
Sebum
Excreted from oil glands
contain wax that soften our skin

Phospholipid
Important component of
plasma membrane
Steroids
organic compounds which
include cholesterol and
hormones such as
testosterone, oestrogen,
progesterone