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Recruitment and Selection

Tejinder Pal Singh

Human Resource Planning

- Reconcile

organisations need for human resource

with available supply of labour

- Complicated
- large organisation need
- specification
- expertise

Human Resource Planning

is a form of supply and demand management,
aiming to minimise the risk of either surplus
(inefficiency) or shortage (ineffectiveness) of
relevant kinds of labour

Forecast demand for each grade/skill

Forecast supply for each grade/or skill


from inside/from outside

Plan to remove discrepancy between demand

and supply

Human Resource Plan

Various elements

Recruitment plan

Training plan

Redeployment plan

Productivity plan

Redundancy plan

Retention plan

HR strategies requires integration of

- pay and conditions of
- promotion
- recruitment
- training
- employees relations

Recruitment & Selection

Core part of the central activities of HRM

Line managers and HR role
Recruitment generating a pool
Selection who is likely to succeed
Two Functions separate skills and
Effective R&S avoid undesirable costs

Reducing cost
Source of competitive advantage
Reduce employee turnover, poor
performance and customer dissatisfaction
CIPD survey shows (half of companies
surveyed) recession impacting on
resourcing budget. 56% focusing on
retaining than recruiting talent. 72% opportunity for culture change

Effective Recruitment
The R & S of employees is fundamental to the
functioning of an organisation, and there are
compelling reasons for getting it right.
Inappropriate selection decisions reduce
organisational effectiveness, invalidate reward
and development strategies, are frequently
unfair on the individual recruit and can be
distressing for the manager who have to deal
with unsuitable employees.
Pilbeam and Corbridge - 2006

Selective perception
Halo effect
Horn effect

Self centred bias

Early information bias

Stages of Recruitment Process

Identifying what jobs need filling. What role & specification
of job is.

Finding possible candidates

Various methods (e.g. advertising) to encourage potential
candidates to apply for job

Interviews and other selection processes to choose best
person for job
Completing contractual employment of that person

Introducing selected candidate to business

Identifying a Need
Why does the organisation need new staff?
Vacancy ?
A process of job analysis is needed
to identify the need for new staff
Strategic & questioning approach may be taken
Somebody left. Alternate way? Flexi-time, Parttime ? staff could just be organised better
If new staff are needed,
then the next stage starts.

Job Analysis

Job description
Person specification
Knowledge, skills and personal qualifications
Traditional approach- matching characteristics of
an ideal person to fill a defined job
Judgement of individual's personality is
subjective and open to errors
These characteristics may be suitable to present
rather than changing curcumstances

Competency model
Current approach is that a flexible worker is
able to contribute to additional and / or
Competencies model seeks to identify abilities
needed to perform a job well. They can be
used in an integrated way for selection,
development, appraisal and reward activities;
and also that from them behavioural
indicators ca be derived against which
assessment can take place (Torrington et al, 208)

Competency model contd

Managers in public sector increasingly
viewed traditional job description and
person specifications as archaic, rigid and
rarely accurate reflection of the job
requirement. (Farnham and Stevens, 2000)
According to CIPD survey (2007) 86% of
organisation surveyed use competencybased approach

Core Competencies

People relationships
skills and
Customer relationships management
Communication and persuasiveness
Business and financial judgement
Knowledge sharing/management
Vision, change and accountability
Drive, motivation, planning and organising
Problem-solving and decision-making
People management capabilities
Role specific technical and specialist capabilities
Professional standards and values

Increasingly employees are working in self
organised teams in which it is difficult to
determine the boundaries between jobholders
responsibilities. The team undertake the task
and members co-operate and work together to
achieve it. Recruitment and selection practices
focus on identifying suitable person for the job,
but isolating a jobs role and responsibilities
may be difficult to so in a fast-changing and
team-based situations. (Searle, 2003)

Recruitment methods
internal: internal vacancy notifications, staff
newsletters. Staff analysis. Promotion, Career
planning, Reorganisation
external: where are the candidates located, in what
type of job? Local, national, overseas. Do they want to
move? Job centres, Schools, colleges, employment

recruitment consultants/agencies, head hunters,

newspapers, journals, radio, Internet
The emergence of on-line recruitment - suitable for all

Becoming the preferred way (75% of the
companies) are using heir corporate
websites for recruitment (CIPD, 2007)
Produces better candidate not sure
It makes it easier for employers to find the
right candidate (Crail, 2007)
89% of graduates search only online jobs
(People management, 2008)

Internal Recruitment
Internal recruitment where a business looks to fill a vacancy
from existing staff
Advantages :

Employee has awareness of a firms culture

Candidates may not need induction training
Provides promotion for workers - reward, expectations
Avoids expensive advertising, quicker
Selection can be easier as know about candidates

Disadvantages :
Limited skill base, limits number of applicants
May not be as high quality as external candidates
especially for senior jobs
No new ideas can be introduced from outside
May cause resentment amongst candidates not appointed
Creates another vacancy which needs to be filled

External Recruitment
Outside people bring in new ideas
Larger pool of workers from which to find best
People have a wider range of experience

Longer process
More expensive process due to advertisements and
interviews required
Selection process may not be effective enough to
reveal best candidate

Recruitment Process

Position is advertised externally / internally

Send out application packs
Receive candidate applications by closing date
Candidates applications are compared against
the person specification / competencies; invited
for interview
At interview the job description is used to form
the basis of the questions

Accurate - job and its requirements
Short - not too long; just the important ground
Honest - does not make claims about the job or
the business that will later prove false to
Positive - gives the potential applicant a positive
feel about joining the business
Relevant - provides details that prospective
applicants need to know at the application stage

Job Application Form

Job Application Form
Business can tailor questions and format to exact needs
An application form forces candidates to answer same
questions and provide information in a consistent format
CVs often come in many different formats, with key
information either missing or presented in different ways
Encourages the applicant to consider the specific needs of
the employer e.g. respond to questions relevant to the
More likely to get up-to-date information from the applicant


Often a mix of presentation, testing

and interview.

Essential that interviewers/assessors

are trained for the task, and that they
follow an agreed procedure.

Selection Tools
Application form
Biodata analysis


one-to-one, panel
formal and informal settings
Most popular and relatively cheap

References/security screening
Ability tests
paper-based, practical/trade, social

Psychometric tests - Aptitude, intelligence and

Group methods & assessment centres
Work experience/short term contracts

Reliability and validity

Temporal- at different times re-test stability
Consistency test to measure what it is set o
measure to

Face validity acceptability
Content validity nature of measure and its
adequacy as a tool
Predictive validity linkage of results with job

Predictive Validity of Selection tests

(Pilbeam & Corbridge, 2006)
0.7 assessment centres for development
0.6 skilful and structured interviews
0.5 work sampling; ability tests
0.4 assessment centres for job performance; Bio data; Personality assessment
0.3 Unstructured interviews
0.1 - References
0.0 - Graphology

Recruitment Interview
Interview is a crucial part of the recruitment process
Chance for an employer to meet applicant face to
Can obtain much more information on:
What person is like
Whether they are suitable for job
Whether they will fit into the business

Interview is also an important for the candidate

Obtain information about job
Assess the working culture of a possible new employer

Recruitment interviewing is a hard skill often it is

done very poorly!

Recruitment Interview
Information obtained
By the employer:
Information that cannot be obtained on paper from a CV or
application form
Conversational ability- often known as people skills
Natural enthusiasm or manner of applicant
See how applicant reacts under pressure
Queries or extra details missing from CV or application form

By the employee
Whether job or business is right for them
What is culture of company like
What are exact details of job that may be omitted from job

Interview Strategies
Frank and friendly
Problem-solving - imaging yourself in the job...what
would you do if...?
Behavioural event - critical experiences - what, why,
how, options, plans, outcomes
Simulate stress. Put on the spot? Validity? Spurious
Strengths and weaknesses of
individual interviews
sequential interviews
panel interviews

Assessment Centre
Programme (battery) of different tests
Systematic job analysis: performance criteria,
skills & behaviours
Select valid, reliable, cost effective exercises
Validate the exercises on a sample of subjects
Train tester-assessors to observe and rate
Feedback to candidates
Evaluate the techniques and process outcomes

Psychometric-objective model vs social process

Assessment Centre Methods

Group work:
Problem-solving in team situations, interpersonal skills, listening,
thinking on feet, influencing and coordinating. Realistic/unrealistic
scenarios. Organising/prioritising. Emotional resilience.

Competence of observer-testers
verbal/non-verbal skills, use of media, presentation content. Analysis
- differentiation of higher/lower order issues, ability to construct a
case. Influencing and argument. Awareness of wider issues and

Work Demo or Simulation - news reader, drivers, bricklayers, chair meetings, computer programming, counselling,


Importance/value of references?
Reciprocity, validation and reliability.
Consequences for employee
Legal issues? Where could it go wrong?
defamation (false statement & reputation), deceit
(intention that receiver will act on the reference)
negligence - duty of reasonable care in compiling the
reference, accuracy
Organisational policy on giving references?
Right to see what is written about you?

Selection long term prediction of the new
employees capability
Probationary period employees performance
and future potential
Induction period - constitute critically important
period for integration and development as a
functioning worker.
Education of the new employees may involve
learning about the way the business works

It helps to:
Reduce turnover
Increase understanding of culture
Increase motivation
Mean employees contribute to organisation more

May involve:
Training activities
Presentations from key areas of organisation
Technical training in use of ICT systems, policies
and procedures used in organisation
History, products, strategy

Recruitment Cost
Direct cost and opportunity cost
Investment lost in training
Average direct cost of recruitment per
individual in UK 4,000 (6,125 including
labour turnover cost) CIPD Survey, 2009
Managerial and professional category 7,750 - 11,000
Implicit cost include
Poor performance, reduced productivity, low
quality, dissatisfied customers, low morale

Applicants are concerned with (Gilliland, 1993)
Procedural justice how equitably they felt they
were treated
Distributive justice -whether outcome of the selection
was perceived to be fair

Fairness can be linked to actual selection methods

Extends to discrimination and equal opportunities.
Beyond legislation managing diversity
Headhunting - E&HRC indirect discrimination may

R & S Contingency Approach

Different culture emphasises different attributes
when recruiting and selecting (French, 2010)
Individualistic cultures preoccupied with
selection methods which emphasises individual
differences (Perkin & Shortland, 2006)
Collectivist culture personal connections may
assume more prominent role (Bjorkman & Yuan, 1999)
Graphology widespread and common in some
countries (CIPD, 2004)

R & S and Organisational Culture

Organisational Culture influences selection
Selectors consciously or unconsciously select
individuals who will best fit that culture.
Job seekers may actively seek a good personorganisation fit when considering prospective
Still there are ethical issues to consider in terms
of rejection.
Group think