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Food Resources

Renganathan.R AP/RAC

Food Resources
Among all the living organisms, only green plants
are autotrophs, i.e., they make their own food.
In contrast to green plants, animals and human
beings are heterotrophs, i.e., they depend on
plants and other animals for food.
All the parts of one or other plant are consumed
by humans in the form of cereals, vegetables,
spices and fruits.
Animals produce milk, butter, egg, meat, etc.,
which also supplement our food requirements
Crops are plants grown in community on larger
Agriculture is an applied science which deals

Food Production
Nutrients for plants
The food required by plants is composed of
certain elements, which are known as nutrients
along with the functions of the solar energy.
16 nutrient sources are: Carbon, Oxygen,
Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium,
Calcium, Magnesium, Sulphur, Iron, Manganese,
Boron, Zinc, Copper, Molybdenum, Chlorine.
Sources of the nutrients are the air, water and
Macro Nutrients: Nitrogen, Phosphorus,
Potassium, Calcium, Magnesium, Sulphur.
Micro Nutrients: Iron, Manganese, Boron, Zinc,

Food Production
Manure: Manures are natural fertilizers. They are
bulky sources of organic matter which supply
Fertilizers: Fertilizers are the sources of plant
nutrients, manufactured commercially from
chemicals. Chemicals can be organic compounds
and inorganic compounds.

Food Production
manure is a natural substance. It is obtained by
the decomposition of animal wastes such as dung
(gobar) of cattle and buffaloes and plant
A manure contains small amounts of essential
plant nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus and
A manure adds a great amount of organic matter
in the form of humus in the soil.
Nutrients present in the manure are absorbed
slowly by the crop plants since manure is not
soluble in water. Nutrients exist locked inside the

Food Production
A manure is voluminous and bulky so it is
inconvenient to store, transport, handle and
apply to the crop.
A manure is cheap and is prepared in rural
homes or fields.
A fertilizer is a human made substance. It is an
inorganic salt or an organic compound.
Fertilizers are very rich in plant nutrients such
as nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium.
A fertilizer does not add any humus to the soil.
Being soluble in water, a fertilizer is readily
absorbed by the crop plants.

Food Production
A fertilizer is nutrient specific. It can provide
specifically nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium
to the soil according to the need.
A fertilizer is compact and concentrated so it is
easy to store, transport and apply to the corp.
A fertilizer is costly and is prepared in factories.
High doses of these chemicals greatly increase
crop yield but then chemicals get washed off
through irrigation, rain fall as drainage and
reach rivers, lakes, streams and pollute them.

Food Production
Importance of water
Crop plants are irrigated with freshwater to
supply two essential elements to them,
hydrogen and oxygen.
Irrigation of crop fields is necessary to provide
sufficient moisture for the germination of
Irrigation of crop plants is essential for the
growth and elongation of the roots of the crop
Irrigation of crops is necessary to increase the
number of aerial branches .
Irrigation is essential for the absorption of

Food Production
Nature of crop
Nature of soil
Canals, tanks, wells(dug wells, tube wells),check
Protection of crops
Pest control
Mechanical methods
Cultural methods
Chemical methods
Biological methods

Weed control
Disease control

Food Security
Access for poor and improvement in their
Increasing population and increasing incomes
increase the demand.
More need high quality produces.
Meeting the demands with increase in supply
A stress on water and land as they are the basic
resources required for agriculture.

Food Production in India

Agriculture sector contributes one-fourth of the
countrys GDP.
India is the largest producer of milk, fruits,
pulses, cashew nuts, coconuts and tea in world
and accounts for 10 % of the world fruit
Indias food grain production is expected to rise
to 208.5 million tones by March 2006, from
204.6 million tones in 2005.
Horticulture sector contributes 30 % of the
agriculture GDP and accounts for 8.5 % of
cultivated area.
Cotton production for FY 2005-06 has increased

Food Production in India

Non-Basmati rice exports grew to USD 880.0
million in FY 2005 from USD 483.8 million in
previous year.
Agriculture output expected to grow by 3% in
2005-06, compared with 1% in 2004, as per a
Confederation of Indian Industries (CII) study.
Joining the list of biotech mega countries, India
now has 14 biotech crops under consideration
CII has estimated that the food processing sector
has potential of attracting USD 33 billion
(Rs.150, 000 Crores) of investment in next ten
It is estimated that the total food production in

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