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# Frequency Response

&
Control System Stability

Frequency Response
In practice the performance of a control system is
more realistically and directly measured by its timedomain response characteristics due to the
performance of most control systems is judged based
on the time response due to certain signal.
This is in contrast to the analysis and design of
communication systems for which the frequency
response is more importance, since it is the case,
most of signals to be processed are either sinusoidal
or composed of sinusoidal components.

## School of Engineering (TAFE)

Slide 2

Frequency Response
In design problems, the difficulties lie in the fact that
there are no unified methods of arriving at a designed
system given the time-domain performance
specifications, such as maximum over-shoot, rise time,
delay time, setting time and so on.
On the other hand, there is a wealth of graphical
methods available in the frequency domain, all
suitable for the analysis and design of the linear
control system.

## School of Engineering (TAFE)

Slide 3

Frequency response
The frequency response is a representation of the system's
open loop response to sinusoidal inputs at varying
frequencies.
The output of a linear system to a sinusoidal input is a
sinusoid of the same frequency but with a different
amplitude and phase.
The frequency response is defined as the amplitude and
phase differences between the input and output sinusoids.
The open-loop frequency response of a system can be used
to predict the behaviour of the closed-loop system .

Slide 4

## Definition of frequency response

The characteristics of a system can be determined by
measuring the response of the system to sinusoidal
inputs.
The steady-state frequency (or harmonic) response of
a system is defined as the variation with frequency of
the steady-stat& amplitude and phase difference of the
output, corresponding to a forced sinusoidal input of
fixed amplitude.
It should be noted that the frequency response and the
transient response characteristics of a system both
depend on the same factors and when one of the
responses is known, the other can be determined.
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Slide 5

## Definition of frequency response

Both methods are used in flight test work to determine
the dynamic stability characteristics of aircraft, though,
in this particular case, the transient technique is
generally employed.
If the amplitude of the sinusoidal input is represented by
i , and the amplitude of the corresponding sinusoidal
output by o , then the relationship between the output
and the input can be expressed in the form

o
Ae i
i
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Slide 6

## Definition of frequency response

This equation states that the amplitude of the output is A times the
amplitude of the input (i.e. the system has an amplification factor or
gain of A), but that the output lags behind the input by an angle
(i.e. the system has a phase lag of ).
The input and output are both sinusoidal oscillations of frequency,
say, rads/sec, and they can be represented by two vectors of
length i and o , respectively, rotating at a rate of rads/sec, with
the output vector o lagging behind the input vector i by an angle
as shown in the vector representation diagram.

Slide 7

## School of Engineering (TAFE)

Slide 8

Frequency response
The frequency response method may be less intuitive
than other methods.
However, it has certain advantages, especially in reallife situations such as modelling transfer functions from
physical data.
The frequency response of a system can be viewed two
different ways: via the Bode plot or via the Nyquist
diagram.
Both methods display the same information; the
difference lies in the way the information is presented.

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Slide 9

Frequency response
To plot the frequency response, it is necessary to
create a vector of frequencies (varying between zero
(DC) and infinity) and compute the value of the system
transfer function at those frequencies.
If G(s) is the open loop transfer function of a system
and is the frequency vector, we then plot G(j)
versus .

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Slide 10

Frequency response
Since G(j) is a complex number, we can plot both its
magnitude and phase (the Bode plot) or its position in
the complex plane (the Nyquist plot).
Phasor
In discussing sinusoidal signals, a convenient way of
representing such signals is by phasors.
Consider a sinusoidal signal y = Y sin t, i.e amplitude Y
and angular frequency , being produced by a radial
line of length Y rotating with a constant angular velocity
and taking the vertical projection y of the line at any
instant of time to represent the value of the sinusoidal
signal.
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Frequency response
If we have another sinusoidal signal of different
amplitude then the radial line will be of a different length.
If we have a sinusoidal signal with a different phase
then it will start with a different value at time t = 0 and so
the radial line will start at t = 0 at some angle, termed
the phase angle, to the reference axis.
The reference axis is usually taken as the horizontal
axis.
Such lines are termed phasors and the representation is
said to be in the frequency domain.

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Slide 12

Frequency response

## When we use a phasor to describe a sinusoidal signal

all we need specify is its magnitude and phase angle.

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Frequency response

## In order to clearly indicate when we are talking of the

magnitude of a sinusoidal signal we often write IYI for
the magnitude of the sinusoidal signal represented by
the phasor and bold, non-italic, letters for the symbols
for phasors, e.g. Y. Thus, Y implies a phasor with
both magnitude and phase.
A complex number z = a + jb can be represented on
an Argand diagram, i.e. a graph of imaginary part
plotted against real part, by a line (as shown) of length
Izl at an angle .

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Slide 14

Frequency response
The magnitude lzl of a complex number z and its angle
is thus given by: Z a b2 and tan 1 ba
We can describe a phasor used to represent a
sinusoidal quantity by a complex number.
If we have y = Y sin t then this is described by a
phasor (Figure a) consisting of just a real number.
Thus, a unit magnitude phasor with phase angle 0 is
represented by 1 + 0j.
2

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Slide 15

Frequency response

## However, for y = Y sin (t + ) we have a phasor (Figure b) which has, in

general, both a real and imaginary part and so is represented by a + bj.

## If the phase is 90then for y = sin (t + 90 )= cos t the phasor (Figure

c) has only an imaginary part. Thus, such a unit magnitude phasor is
represented by 0 + 1j.

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Slide 16

Frequency response

If we have a phasor of length 1 and phase angle 0 then it will have a complex
representation of 1 + 0j.
The same length phasor with a phase angle of 90 will have a complex
representation of 0 + 1j; rotation of a phasor anticlockwise by 90 corresponds
to multiplication of the phasor by j since j(1 +0j) = 0 + j 1.
If we now rotate this phasor by a further 90, then as j(0+1j) = 0 + 1j we have
the original phasor multiplied by j.
As this phasor is just the original phasor in the opposite direction, it is just the
original phasor multiplied by-1 and so j =-1 and hence j = (-1).

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Slide 17

Frequency response

Rotation of the original phasor through a total of 270i.e. 3 x 90 is equivalent to multiplying the original phasor by j = j(j) = -j.

Example 1:
What magnitude and phase is given the phasors described as (a) 3j, (b) 1 + 2j?

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Slide 18

Frequency response
(a) The magnitude is 3 units and, since we only have
an imaginary component, the phase is 90.
(b) The magnitude is (a + b ) = (1 + 4) = 2.2 units
and the phase is given by tan = b/a = 2/1 and =
63.4 .

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Slide 19

Frequency response
The frequency response of a system is the steady
state response of the system to a sinusoidal input
signal.
The steady state output is a sinusoidal signal of the
same frequency as the input signal differing only in
amplitude and phase angle.
In order to arrive at the principle of the frequency
response function we will consider a simple system
with a sinusoidal input and steady-state sinusoidal
output and recognise that our conclusions can be
applied in a more general way to all systems.

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Slide 20

Frequency response
Consider a system where the input x is related to the
output by y = kx.
If we have an input of a sinusoidal signal x = sin t then
the output is y = k sin t and so a sinusoidal signal with
the same frequency but a different amplitude.
Thus, if we represent the sinusoidal signals by
phasors: Output phasor Y k
Input phasor X
Now consider a system where the input x is related to
the output y by the differential equation:

dy
y kx
dt
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Slide 21

Frequency response

## Thus, since the frequency does not change we can take

x = sin t and y = sin t and so, since dy/dt = cos t =
sin (t +90), the equation can be written as:
sin (t +90)+ sin t =k sin t
We can represent sinusoidal signals by phasors and
describe them by complex numbers.
Thus, the above equation can be written in terms of
phasors as: jY+Y=kX
Hence, Output phasor Y
k

Input phasor X 1 j
This is the definition of a frequency response function as
the output phasor divided by the input phasor.
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Frequency response
We can compare this with the different equation written
in the s-domain as: sY(s) + Y(s)= kX(s)
Y ( s)
k

## And the resulting transfer function: G ( s)

X ( s ) 1 s
The frequency response function equation is of the
same form as the transfer function if we replace s by
j.
Hence the frequency response function is denoted by
G(j).
In general we can state: The frequency response
function is obtained from the transfer function by
replacing s by j.

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Slide 23

Frequency response
Example 2:
Determine the frequency response function for a
system having a transfer function of G(s) = 5/(2 + s).
Replacing s by j gives the frequency response
function of G(j) = 5/(2 + j).

Slide 24

## Frequency response for

first-order system
In general, a first-order system has a transfer function
of the form: G ( s) 1 1s
Where is the time constant of the system. The
frequency response function G(j) can be obtained by
replacing s by j. Hence: G ( j ) 1 1j
To obtain the real and complex parts of the plane,
rationalize the equation becomes:
1
1 j
1 j

1 j 1 j 1 j 2 2 2
1

But j 2 1, G ( j )

j
1 2 2 1 2 2

G ( j )

Slide 25

## Frequency response for

first-order system

## The frequency response function has thus a real

element of 1/(1 + ) and an imaginary element of
-/(1 + ).
Since G(j) is the output phasor divided by the input
phasor, then the output phasor has a magnitude
bigger than that of the input phasor by a factor IG(j)l
given by (a + b ) as:
2

2 2
2 2
1
1
1

1 2 2
G ( j ) is referred to as the gain of the system.
G ( j )

Slide 26

## Frequency response for

first-order system
The phase difference between the output phasor and
the input phasor is given by tan = b/a as: tan = - .
behind the input phasor by this angle. Thus:
The gain and phase of a system when subject to a
sinusoidal input is obtained by putting the frequency
response function in the form a + jb and then the gain
1
tan
(b / a ).
is (a + b ) and the phase is

Slide 27

## Frequency response for

first-order system
Example 3:
Determine the magnitude and phase of the output from a
system when subject to a sinusoidal input of 2 sin 3t if it
has a transfer function of G(s) = 2/(s + 1).

Slide 28

## Frequency response for

first-order system

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## Frequency response for

second-order system
In general, a second-order system has a transfer function of the
form:
n2
G(s) 2
s 2 n s n2
where n is the natural frequency and
is the damping ratio. The frequency
response function is obtained by replacing
s by j. Thus :
n2
n2
G(j )

2 2 n j n2 n2 2 2 j n
1

2 j

n
n

Slide 30

## Frequency response for

second-order system
Rationalizes the equation gives:

1
n
1

2

1
2 j
1

n
n
n

gives G(j )

1
n

2

1

n

2 j

2 j

2 j
2

2 j

n

## This is the form a jb and so, since G(j ) is the output

phasor divided by the input phasor, the magnitude of
output phasor is bigger than that of input phasor, i.e, the
gain, by a factor;
G(j )

1
n

2 j

n

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## Frequency response for

second-order system
Then the phase difference between the input and

2
the output is given by : tan -

1-

the input phasor.

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Graphical Representations of
the Frequency Response of a
System
The characteristics of a system, or of an element of a
system, are determined by the way in which the
amplification or gain A and the phase lag vary with
the frequency of the input signal.
i= A sin t and o= A sin (t+)
There are a number of ways of presenting this
information, each of the various methods having its
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Slide 33

Graphical Representations of
the Frequency Response of a
System
If the loop or open-loop response of a system is known,
the corresponding closed-loop response can easily be
determined.
For the reason, most of the graphical presentations for
closed-loop system plot the open-loop characteristics
and not the actual closed-loop ones.
In this way, it is possible to check the stability
characteristic of a proposed closed-loop system, before
it is actually connected up as a closed-loop system.
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Slide 34

Frequency Diagrams
One of the most straightforward methods of presenting
the necessary information is a graphical presentation
of the values of A and plotted against the frequency .
This representation is unsatisfactory, and however,
and the same information can be plotted more usefully
in the form of log10A against log10 and against
log10.
One advantage of these logarithmic plots is that the
information corresponding to very low frequencies (a
few cycles per second) and to very high frequencies
(hundreds of thousands of cycles per second) can all
be conveniently presented on the one graph.
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Slide 35

Frequency Diagrams
In this logarithmic presentation, the vertical scale of
log10A (i.e. log10 o/i) is usually calibrated in terms of a
unit called a decibel.
The gain in decibels is defined as:
Example:
1. Find the gain for o/i=100
2. When the gain=60 decible, what is the value of o/i.

Slide 36

## Frequency Response Locus

Plots
Another convenient representation of the frequency
response characteristics of a system is obtained by
combining together the gain and phase characteristics
into a single curve, often called the Nyquist diagram of
the system.
The relationship between o and i is given by equation
It can be represented by a vector on what is known as
an Argand Diagram.

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Nyquist Diagram
The ordinate corresponding to any point on the
diagram are the real and imaginary parts, respectively,
of the particular function being represented.
Since

## In Argand diagram, the o/i relationship is

represented by a vector of the length proportional to
the gain A, at an angle below the positive real axis.
It should be noted that, whenever the vector lies in the
lower half of the Argand Diagram, the output lags
behind the input; whenever it lies in the upper half of
the diagram, the output leads the input.
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Slide 38

Nyquist Diagram
As the frequency of the input is varied from = 0 to
= , the values of A (i.e. the length of the vector)
and (i.e. the angle of the vector to the real axis)
vary and the end of the vector sweeps out a curve or
a locus plot.
This curve is the Nyquist diagram of the system.

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Slide 39

Response of First-Order
Systems to Sinusoidal Inputs
When a sinusoidal input is fed to a first-order system,
a sinusoidal output is produced.
At low frequencies the signals are transmitted
with little change of amplitude (unless the system has
a steady-state gain represented by K, in which case
the amplitude is approximately K times the input) or
phase.
At the higher frequencies the amplitude is reduced and
the output lags behind the input and as follow
,
A
0,
90.
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Slide 40

Response of Second-Order
Systems to Sinusoidal Inputs
The response of a second-order system to sinusoidal
oscillations of varying frequency is shown in the
frequency response curves.

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Slide 41

Response of Second-Order
Systems to Sinusoidal Inputs

## The gain and phase lag of the system depend on both

the frequency of the input and the relative damping of the
system.
For low values of damping, as the input frequency is
increased the gain increases up to a maximum at a
frequency just less than the natural frequency n of the
system.
This peak amplification frequency is given by n(1- 2).
For values of > I/ 2 no peak exists in the amplification
curve and at the higher values of , the amplification
decreases continuously with increase of frequency.
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Slide 42

Response of Second-Order
Systems to Sinusoidal Inputs
The corresponding phase lag increases with
increasing frequency, being higher for the higher
values of up to = n, and smaller at the higher
values of > n.
Irrespective of the amount of damping ip the system,
the phase difference is always -90 when = n
(when the applied frequency is equal to the natural
frequency of the system).
When = 0 the gain of the system is K (i.e. the
steady-state gain) and the phase is zero.
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Slide 43

Response of Second-Order
Systems to Sinusoidal Inputs
As the frequency increases the gain and phase vary,
until at = n, = -90 and the gain = l/2.
With further increase in , the phase increases from
-90 to - 180 , and the gain decreases steadily until,
when = -180, the gain is zero.

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Slide 44

Stability Characteristics of
Closed-loop Control Systems
Ideally, the output of a control system should follow
exactly any variations of the input signal.
In practice this is not possible, but, it is desirable that
the system should respond quickly, that steady-state
errors should be eliminated, and that the system
should be a stable one.
The various errors involved depend upon the type of
system and the type of input being considered.

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Slide 45

Stability Characteristics of
Closed-loop Control Systems
Various feedback signals can be used to improve the
performance of a particular system, e.g. signals
proportional to the error, to the derivative of the output
(velocity feedback), to the derivative of the error, to
the integral of the output, to the integral of the error,
etc., or any desired combination of these.
A compromise is always necessary in the design of any
system; a high gain produces good response, but may
lead to instability, whereas a large amount of damping
improves the stability but increases the response time
and the magnitude of the steady-state errors.
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Slide 46

Stability Characteristics of
Closed-loop Control Systems

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Slide 47

Stability Criteria
The closed-loop transfer function is given by equation

o
G

i 1 GH

## where G is the forward-path transfer function and GH the

loop transfer function.
From this equation it can be seen that, when the
denominator is zero, the output would be theoretically
infinite and the system would be unstable.
Thus the condition of instability can be stated in the form
GH=-1 i.e. the system is unstable when the loop gain
becomes equal to -1 (i.e. when the loop gain has an
amplitude of unity and a phase lag of 180).
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Slide 48

Nyquist Criterion
The critical can be represented on the Nyqist diagram
by the (-1, 0) point and if the locus of the loop transfer
function passes through, or to the left of this point, the
corresponding closed-loop system is unstable one.

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Slide 49

Nyquist Criterion
More generally, the Nyquist criterion can be stated by
saying that the locus, when travelled in the direction
from = 0 to = , must pass the (-1, 0) point in
such a way that the point lies to the left of the locus.
The Nyquist diagram of the loop transfer function can
also be used to determine the amount of stability that
would be possessed by the corresponding closed loop
system.

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Slide 50

Nyquist Criterion
This stability is expressed in terms of
(a) the gain margin, which is the amount by which the
gain differs from unity when = 180,
(b) the phase margin, which is the amount by which
the phase angle differs from 180 when the gain is
unity.

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Slide 51

Routh Criterion
Another criterion which can be used to determine
whether a particular system is stable or not is the
Routh criterion.
This criterion is based on the signs of the coefficients
of the characteristic equation of the system and the
sign of the Routhian Discriminant and, for stability, the
signs must all be positive.
Although it indicates whether a system is a stable or
an unstable one, it does not, unfortunately, give an
exact measure of the amount of stability possessed by
the system.

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Slide 52

Routh Criterion
The characteristic equation of a system is obtained from
the expression for the closed loop transfer function
by equating the denominator (i.e. I + GH) to zero.
The solution of the equation
(1 + GH)o = 0
And represents the transient (i.e. free) response of the
system and this is indicative of the overall stability of the
system.
In order that this equation should have no solutions
involving real roots (i.e. no divergent motions), the
coefficients of the equation must satisfy the Routh
criterion.
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Slide 53

Root-Locus Plots

## A more exact measure of the stability of the system can be

obtained by determining the actual roots of the
characteristic equation (i.e. by actually solving equation
given (1 + GH)o = 0 rather than just checking that the
coefficients obey certain rules).
These roots may be either real or complex and they can
then be represented graphically on an Argand diagram,
with the real axis representing the damping and the
imaginary axis representing the frequency of the particular
mode being considered.
The roots of the equation will depend on the value of the
loop transfer function and the root locus plot can be used to
show how the values of the roots vary for different values of
gain in the system.
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Slide 54

Root-Locus Plots
The characteristic equation of the closed-loop system is
given by 1 + GH = 0.
As the transfer function can be represented in its most
general form as KF(p) where K is the steady- state gain and
F(p) represents the frequency-dependent part of the gain.
Replacing the loop gain GH in 1+GH=0 by KF(p) we have
the characteristic equation expressed in the form 1+ KF(p)
=0.

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Slide 55

Root-Locus Plots
The frequency-dependent part of the gain usually consists of a
numerator and a denominator, both of which are, in general,
functions of p. Thus 1+ KF(p) =0 can be written as:
FN ( P )
FN ( P )
1 K
0
(OR)
K
1
The startingFDpoint
of
the
root
locus
plot
can
be
( P)
FD ( P ) considered to be

## the condition of zero steady-state loop gain (i.e. zero feedback).

If K = 0, the equation
can only be satisfied if FD(p) = 0.
F ( P)
K N
1
FD ( P)

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Slide 56

Root-Locus Plots
The values of p which satisfy this equation represent the basic
dynamic stability characteristics of the system; they are usually
referred to as the poles of the root locus plot.
When feedback is introduced the values of the roots of the
characteristic equation are changed and as the value of K is
increased the roots sweep out the root locus plot. The ends of the
root locus plot correspond to K =.
In order to satisfy, the equation
, FN(p) = 0 which is the ends
of the root locus plot correspond to the solution of the equation with
the numerator of the loop transfer function equated to zero.
F ( P)
K N
1
FD ( P )

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Slide 57

Root-Locus Plots
These points are referred to as the zeros of the root locus plot.
The system is a stable one if the roots lie in the left hand half
of the Argand diagram (i.e. if the real parts of the roots have
negative values), and any points in the right hand half indicate
instability.
The root locus plot technique is particularly useful for
representing the effects on the dynamic characteristics of an
aircraft of moving the C.G (i.e. changing the static stability), or
of changing the gain in an autostabilization system.

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## Methods of Improving the

Stability of a System

## The stability characteristics of a system can be

improved by modifying the basic characteristics of the
system, by the addition of extra feedback signals, or
The stability can be improved by reducing the gain of
the system, but this has the disadvantage of reducing
the performance as well.
The damping can be increased by using velocity
feedback, i.e. feedback of a signal proportional to the
derivative of the output.

Slide 59

## Methods of Improving the

Stability of a System

## This has the disadvantage of producing a lag in some

systems, and this method can be improved by using
transient velocity feedback so that a feedback signal
is produced only when the output is changing.
It is desirable to have a high gain in the system, as
long as it does not result in instability. To achieve this it
is possible to add electrical circuits which either
increase the gain at low frequencies leaving the
high frequency gain unchanged, or reduce the gain at
high frequencies leaving the low frequency gain
unchanged.
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Slide 60

## Methods of Improving the

Stability of a System
These phase-lag and phase-advance circuits are
made up of different combinations of resistances and
capacitances and their effects are illustrated as below.

Slide 61