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29 vues61 pagesAircraft Control (Frequency response and control stability)

Jan 19, 2016

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Aircraft Control (Frequency response and control stability)

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Aircraft Control (Frequency response and control stability)

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Control System Stability

Frequency Response

In practice the performance of a control system is

more realistically and directly measured by its timedomain response characteristics due to the

performance of most control systems is judged based

on the time response due to certain signal.

This is in contrast to the analysis and design of

communication systems for which the frequency

response is more importance, since it is the case,

most of signals to be processed are either sinusoidal

or composed of sinusoidal components.

Slide 2

Frequency Response

In design problems, the difficulties lie in the fact that

there are no unified methods of arriving at a designed

system given the time-domain performance

specifications, such as maximum over-shoot, rise time,

delay time, setting time and so on.

On the other hand, there is a wealth of graphical

methods available in the frequency domain, all

suitable for the analysis and design of the linear

control system.

Slide 3

Frequency response

The frequency response is a representation of the system's

open loop response to sinusoidal inputs at varying

frequencies.

The output of a linear system to a sinusoidal input is a

sinusoid of the same frequency but with a different

amplitude and phase.

The frequency response is defined as the amplitude and

phase differences between the input and output sinusoids.

The open-loop frequency response of a system can be used

to predict the behaviour of the closed-loop system .

Slide 4

The characteristics of a system can be determined by

measuring the response of the system to sinusoidal

inputs.

The steady-state frequency (or harmonic) response of

a system is defined as the variation with frequency of

the steady-stat& amplitude and phase difference of the

output, corresponding to a forced sinusoidal input of

fixed amplitude.

It should be noted that the frequency response and the

transient response characteristics of a system both

depend on the same factors and when one of the

responses is known, the other can be determined.

School of Engineering (TAFE)

Slide 5

Both methods are used in flight test work to determine

the dynamic stability characteristics of aircraft, though,

in this particular case, the transient technique is

generally employed.

If the amplitude of the sinusoidal input is represented by

i , and the amplitude of the corresponding sinusoidal

output by o , then the relationship between the output

and the input can be expressed in the form

o

Ae i

i

School of Engineering (TAFE)

Slide 6

This equation states that the amplitude of the output is A times the

amplitude of the input (i.e. the system has an amplification factor or

gain of A), but that the output lags behind the input by an angle

(i.e. the system has a phase lag of ).

The input and output are both sinusoidal oscillations of frequency,

say, rads/sec, and they can be represented by two vectors of

length i and o , respectively, rotating at a rate of rads/sec, with

the output vector o lagging behind the input vector i by an angle

as shown in the vector representation diagram.

Slide 7

Slide 8

Frequency response

The frequency response method may be less intuitive

than other methods.

However, it has certain advantages, especially in reallife situations such as modelling transfer functions from

physical data.

The frequency response of a system can be viewed two

different ways: via the Bode plot or via the Nyquist

diagram.

Both methods display the same information; the

difference lies in the way the information is presented.

Slide 9

Frequency response

To plot the frequency response, it is necessary to

create a vector of frequencies (varying between zero

(DC) and infinity) and compute the value of the system

transfer function at those frequencies.

If G(s) is the open loop transfer function of a system

and is the frequency vector, we then plot G(j)

versus .

Slide 10

Frequency response

Since G(j) is a complex number, we can plot both its

magnitude and phase (the Bode plot) or its position in

the complex plane (the Nyquist plot).

Phasor

In discussing sinusoidal signals, a convenient way of

representing such signals is by phasors.

Consider a sinusoidal signal y = Y sin t, i.e amplitude Y

and angular frequency , being produced by a radial

line of length Y rotating with a constant angular velocity

and taking the vertical projection y of the line at any

instant of time to represent the value of the sinusoidal

signal.

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Slide 11

Frequency response

If we have another sinusoidal signal of different

amplitude then the radial line will be of a different length.

If we have a sinusoidal signal with a different phase

then it will start with a different value at time t = 0 and so

the radial line will start at t = 0 at some angle, termed

the phase angle, to the reference axis.

The reference axis is usually taken as the horizontal

axis.

Such lines are termed phasors and the representation is

said to be in the frequency domain.

Slide 12

Frequency response

all we need specify is its magnitude and phase angle.

Slide 13

Frequency response

magnitude of a sinusoidal signal we often write IYI for

the magnitude of the sinusoidal signal represented by

the phasor and bold, non-italic, letters for the symbols

for phasors, e.g. Y. Thus, Y implies a phasor with

both magnitude and phase.

A complex number z = a + jb can be represented on

an Argand diagram, i.e. a graph of imaginary part

plotted against real part, by a line (as shown) of length

Izl at an angle .

Slide 14

Frequency response

The magnitude lzl of a complex number z and its angle

is thus given by: Z a b2 and tan 1 ba

We can describe a phasor used to represent a

sinusoidal quantity by a complex number.

If we have y = Y sin t then this is described by a

phasor (Figure a) consisting of just a real number.

Thus, a unit magnitude phasor with phase angle 0 is

represented by 1 + 0j.

2

Slide 15

Frequency response

general, both a real and imaginary part and so is represented by a + bj.

c) has only an imaginary part. Thus, such a unit magnitude phasor is

represented by 0 + 1j.

Slide 16

Frequency response

If we have a phasor of length 1 and phase angle 0 then it will have a complex

representation of 1 + 0j.

The same length phasor with a phase angle of 90 will have a complex

representation of 0 + 1j; rotation of a phasor anticlockwise by 90 corresponds

to multiplication of the phasor by j since j(1 +0j) = 0 + j 1.

If we now rotate this phasor by a further 90, then as j(0+1j) = 0 + 1j we have

the original phasor multiplied by j.

As this phasor is just the original phasor in the opposite direction, it is just the

original phasor multiplied by-1 and so j =-1 and hence j = (-1).

Slide 17

Frequency response

Rotation of the original phasor through a total of 270i.e. 3 x 90 is equivalent to multiplying the original phasor by j = j(j) = -j.

Example 1:

What magnitude and phase is given the phasors described as (a) 3j, (b) 1 + 2j?

Slide 18

Frequency response

(a) The magnitude is 3 units and, since we only have

an imaginary component, the phase is 90.

(b) The magnitude is (a + b ) = (1 + 4) = 2.2 units

and the phase is given by tan = b/a = 2/1 and =

63.4 .

Slide 19

Frequency response

The frequency response of a system is the steady

state response of the system to a sinusoidal input

signal.

The steady state output is a sinusoidal signal of the

same frequency as the input signal differing only in

amplitude and phase angle.

In order to arrive at the principle of the frequency

response function we will consider a simple system

with a sinusoidal input and steady-state sinusoidal

output and recognise that our conclusions can be

applied in a more general way to all systems.

Slide 20

Frequency response

Consider a system where the input x is related to the

output by y = kx.

If we have an input of a sinusoidal signal x = sin t then

the output is y = k sin t and so a sinusoidal signal with

the same frequency but a different amplitude.

Thus, if we represent the sinusoidal signals by

phasors: Output phasor Y k

Input phasor X

Now consider a system where the input x is related to

the output y by the differential equation:

dy

y kx

dt

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Slide 21

Frequency response

x = sin t and y = sin t and so, since dy/dt = cos t =

sin (t +90), the equation can be written as:

sin (t +90)+ sin t =k sin t

We can represent sinusoidal signals by phasors and

describe them by complex numbers.

Thus, the above equation can be written in terms of

phasors as: jY+Y=kX

Hence, Output phasor Y

k

Input phasor X 1 j

This is the definition of a frequency response function as

the output phasor divided by the input phasor.

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Slide 22

Frequency response

We can compare this with the different equation written

in the s-domain as: sY(s) + Y(s)= kX(s)

Y ( s)

k

X ( s ) 1 s

The frequency response function equation is of the

same form as the transfer function if we replace s by

j.

Hence the frequency response function is denoted by

G(j).

In general we can state: The frequency response

function is obtained from the transfer function by

replacing s by j.

Slide 23

Frequency response

Example 2:

Determine the frequency response function for a

system having a transfer function of G(s) = 5/(2 + s).

Replacing s by j gives the frequency response

function of G(j) = 5/(2 + j).

Slide 24

first-order system

In general, a first-order system has a transfer function

of the form: G ( s) 1 1s

Where is the time constant of the system. The

frequency response function G(j) can be obtained by

replacing s by j. Hence: G ( j ) 1 1j

To obtain the real and complex parts of the plane,

rationalize the equation becomes:

1

1 j

1 j

1 j 1 j 1 j 2 2 2

1

But j 2 1, G ( j )

j

1 2 2 1 2 2

G ( j )

Slide 25

first-order system

element of 1/(1 + ) and an imaginary element of

-/(1 + ).

Since G(j) is the output phasor divided by the input

phasor, then the output phasor has a magnitude

bigger than that of the input phasor by a factor IG(j)l

given by (a + b ) as:

2

2 2

2 2

1

1

1

1 2 2

G ( j ) is referred to as the gain of the system.

G ( j )

Slide 26

first-order system

The phase difference between the output phasor and

the input phasor is given by tan = b/a as: tan = - .

The negative sign indicates that the output phasor lags

behind the input phasor by this angle. Thus:

The gain and phase of a system when subject to a

sinusoidal input is obtained by putting the frequency

response function in the form a + jb and then the gain

1

tan

(b / a ).

is (a + b ) and the phase is

Slide 27

first-order system

Example 3:

Determine the magnitude and phase of the output from a

system when subject to a sinusoidal input of 2 sin 3t if it

has a transfer function of G(s) = 2/(s + 1).

Slide 28

first-order system

Slide 29

second-order system

In general, a second-order system has a transfer function of the

form:

n2

G(s) 2

s 2 n s n2

where n is the natural frequency and

is the damping ratio. The frequency

response function is obtained by replacing

s by j. Thus :

n2

n2

G(j )

2 2 n j n2 n2 2 2 j n

1

2 j

n

n

Slide 30

second-order system

Rationalizes the equation gives:

1

n

1

2

1

2 j

1

n

n

n

gives G(j )

1

n

2

1

n

2 j

2 j

2 j

2

2 j

n

phasor divided by the input phasor, the magnitude of

output phasor is bigger than that of input phasor, i.e, the

gain, by a factor;

G(j )

1

n

2 j

n

Slide 31

second-order system

Then the phase difference between the input and

2

the output is given by : tan -

1-

the input phasor.

Slide 32

Graphical Representations of

the Frequency Response of a

System

The characteristics of a system, or of an element of a

system, are determined by the way in which the

amplification or gain A and the phase lag vary with

the frequency of the input signal.

i= A sin t and o= A sin (t+)

There are a number of ways of presenting this

information, each of the various methods having its

own advantages and disadvantages.

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Slide 33

Graphical Representations of

the Frequency Response of a

System

If the loop or open-loop response of a system is known,

the corresponding closed-loop response can easily be

determined.

For the reason, most of the graphical presentations for

closed-loop system plot the open-loop characteristics

and not the actual closed-loop ones.

In this way, it is possible to check the stability

characteristic of a proposed closed-loop system, before

it is actually connected up as a closed-loop system.

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Slide 34

Frequency Diagrams

One of the most straightforward methods of presenting

the necessary information is a graphical presentation

of the values of A and plotted against the frequency .

This representation is unsatisfactory, and however,

and the same information can be plotted more usefully

in the form of log10A against log10 and against

log10.

One advantage of these logarithmic plots is that the

information corresponding to very low frequencies (a

few cycles per second) and to very high frequencies

(hundreds of thousands of cycles per second) can all

be conveniently presented on the one graph.

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Slide 35

Frequency Diagrams

In this logarithmic presentation, the vertical scale of

log10A (i.e. log10 o/i) is usually calibrated in terms of a

unit called a decibel.

The gain in decibels is defined as:

Example:

1. Find the gain for o/i=100

2. When the gain=60 decible, what is the value of o/i.

Slide 36

Plots

Another convenient representation of the frequency

response characteristics of a system is obtained by

combining together the gain and phase characteristics

into a single curve, often called the Nyquist diagram of

the system.

The relationship between o and i is given by equation

It can be represented by a vector on what is known as

an Argand Diagram.

Slide 37

Nyquist Diagram

The ordinate corresponding to any point on the

diagram are the real and imaginary parts, respectively,

of the particular function being represented.

Since

represented by a vector of the length proportional to

the gain A, at an angle below the positive real axis.

It should be noted that, whenever the vector lies in the

lower half of the Argand Diagram, the output lags

behind the input; whenever it lies in the upper half of

the diagram, the output leads the input.

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Slide 38

Nyquist Diagram

As the frequency of the input is varied from = 0 to

= , the values of A (i.e. the length of the vector)

and (i.e. the angle of the vector to the real axis)

vary and the end of the vector sweeps out a curve or

a locus plot.

This curve is the Nyquist diagram of the system.

Slide 39

Response of First-Order

Systems to Sinusoidal Inputs

When a sinusoidal input is fed to a first-order system,

a sinusoidal output is produced.

At low frequencies the signals are transmitted

with little change of amplitude (unless the system has

a steady-state gain represented by K, in which case

the amplitude is approximately K times the input) or

phase.

At the higher frequencies the amplitude is reduced and

the output lags behind the input and as follow

,

A

0,

90.

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Slide 40

Response of Second-Order

Systems to Sinusoidal Inputs

The response of a second-order system to sinusoidal

oscillations of varying frequency is shown in the

frequency response curves.

Slide 41

Response of Second-Order

Systems to Sinusoidal Inputs

the frequency of the input and the relative damping of the

system.

For low values of damping, as the input frequency is

increased the gain increases up to a maximum at a

frequency just less than the natural frequency n of the

system.

This peak amplification frequency is given by n(1- 2).

For values of > I/ 2 no peak exists in the amplification

curve and at the higher values of , the amplification

decreases continuously with increase of frequency.

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Slide 42

Response of Second-Order

Systems to Sinusoidal Inputs

The corresponding phase lag increases with

increasing frequency, being higher for the higher

values of up to = n, and smaller at the higher

values of > n.

Irrespective of the amount of damping ip the system,

the phase difference is always -90 when = n

(when the applied frequency is equal to the natural

frequency of the system).

When = 0 the gain of the system is K (i.e. the

steady-state gain) and the phase is zero.

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Slide 43

Response of Second-Order

Systems to Sinusoidal Inputs

As the frequency increases the gain and phase vary,

until at = n, = -90 and the gain = l/2.

With further increase in , the phase increases from

-90 to - 180 , and the gain decreases steadily until,

when = -180, the gain is zero.

Slide 44

Stability Characteristics of

Closed-loop Control Systems

Ideally, the output of a control system should follow

exactly any variations of the input signal.

In practice this is not possible, but, it is desirable that

the system should respond quickly, that steady-state

errors should be eliminated, and that the system

should be a stable one.

The various errors involved depend upon the type of

system and the type of input being considered.

Slide 45

Stability Characteristics of

Closed-loop Control Systems

Various feedback signals can be used to improve the

performance of a particular system, e.g. signals

proportional to the error, to the derivative of the output

(velocity feedback), to the derivative of the error, to

the integral of the output, to the integral of the error,

etc., or any desired combination of these.

A compromise is always necessary in the design of any

system; a high gain produces good response, but may

lead to instability, whereas a large amount of damping

improves the stability but increases the response time

and the magnitude of the steady-state errors.

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Slide 46

Stability Characteristics of

Closed-loop Control Systems

Slide 47

Stability Criteria

The closed-loop transfer function is given by equation

o

G

i 1 GH

loop transfer function.

From this equation it can be seen that, when the

denominator is zero, the output would be theoretically

infinite and the system would be unstable.

Thus the condition of instability can be stated in the form

GH=-1 i.e. the system is unstable when the loop gain

becomes equal to -1 (i.e. when the loop gain has an

amplitude of unity and a phase lag of 180).

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Slide 48

Nyquist Criterion

The critical can be represented on the Nyqist diagram

by the (-1, 0) point and if the locus of the loop transfer

function passes through, or to the left of this point, the

corresponding closed-loop system is unstable one.

Slide 49

Nyquist Criterion

More generally, the Nyquist criterion can be stated by

saying that the locus, when travelled in the direction

from = 0 to = , must pass the (-1, 0) point in

such a way that the point lies to the left of the locus.

The Nyquist diagram of the loop transfer function can

also be used to determine the amount of stability that

would be possessed by the corresponding closed loop

system.

Slide 50

Nyquist Criterion

This stability is expressed in terms of

(a) the gain margin, which is the amount by which the

gain differs from unity when = 180,

(b) the phase margin, which is the amount by which

the phase angle differs from 180 when the gain is

unity.

Slide 51

Routh Criterion

Another criterion which can be used to determine

whether a particular system is stable or not is the

Routh criterion.

This criterion is based on the signs of the coefficients

of the characteristic equation of the system and the

sign of the Routhian Discriminant and, for stability, the

signs must all be positive.

Although it indicates whether a system is a stable or

an unstable one, it does not, unfortunately, give an

exact measure of the amount of stability possessed by

the system.

Slide 52

Routh Criterion

The characteristic equation of a system is obtained from

the expression for the closed loop transfer function

by equating the denominator (i.e. I + GH) to zero.

The solution of the equation

(1 + GH)o = 0

And represents the transient (i.e. free) response of the

system and this is indicative of the overall stability of the

system.

In order that this equation should have no solutions

involving real roots (i.e. no divergent motions), the

coefficients of the equation must satisfy the Routh

criterion.

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Slide 53

Root-Locus Plots

obtained by determining the actual roots of the

characteristic equation (i.e. by actually solving equation

given (1 + GH)o = 0 rather than just checking that the

coefficients obey certain rules).

These roots may be either real or complex and they can

then be represented graphically on an Argand diagram,

with the real axis representing the damping and the

imaginary axis representing the frequency of the particular

mode being considered.

The roots of the equation will depend on the value of the

loop transfer function and the root locus plot can be used to

show how the values of the roots vary for different values of

gain in the system.

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Slide 54

Root-Locus Plots

The characteristic equation of the closed-loop system is

given by 1 + GH = 0.

As the transfer function can be represented in its most

general form as KF(p) where K is the steady- state gain and

F(p) represents the frequency-dependent part of the gain.

Replacing the loop gain GH in 1+GH=0 by KF(p) we have

the characteristic equation expressed in the form 1+ KF(p)

=0.

Slide 55

Root-Locus Plots

The frequency-dependent part of the gain usually consists of a

numerator and a denominator, both of which are, in general,

functions of p. Thus 1+ KF(p) =0 can be written as:

FN ( P )

FN ( P )

1 K

0

(OR)

K

1

The startingFDpoint

of

the

root

locus

plot

can

be

( P)

FD ( P ) considered to be

If K = 0, the equation

can only be satisfied if FD(p) = 0.

F ( P)

K N

1

FD ( P)

Slide 56

Root-Locus Plots

The values of p which satisfy this equation represent the basic

dynamic stability characteristics of the system; they are usually

referred to as the poles of the root locus plot.

When feedback is introduced the values of the roots of the

characteristic equation are changed and as the value of K is

increased the roots sweep out the root locus plot. The ends of the

root locus plot correspond to K =.

In order to satisfy, the equation

, FN(p) = 0 which is the ends

of the root locus plot correspond to the solution of the equation with

the numerator of the loop transfer function equated to zero.

F ( P)

K N

1

FD ( P )

Slide 57

Root-Locus Plots

These points are referred to as the zeros of the root locus plot.

The system is a stable one if the roots lie in the left hand half

of the Argand diagram (i.e. if the real parts of the roots have

negative values), and any points in the right hand half indicate

instability.

The root locus plot technique is particularly useful for

representing the effects on the dynamic characteristics of an

aircraft of moving the C.G (i.e. changing the static stability), or

of changing the gain in an autostabilization system.

Slide 58

Stability of a System

improved by modifying the basic characteristics of the

system, by the addition of extra feedback signals, or

by incorporating additional electronic circuits.

The stability can be improved by reducing the gain of

the system, but this has the disadvantage of reducing

the performance as well.

The damping can be increased by using velocity

feedback, i.e. feedback of a signal proportional to the

derivative of the output.

Slide 59

Stability of a System

systems, and this method can be improved by using

transient velocity feedback so that a feedback signal

is produced only when the output is changing.

It is desirable to have a high gain in the system, as

long as it does not result in instability. To achieve this it

is possible to add electrical circuits which either

increase the gain at low frequencies leaving the

high frequency gain unchanged, or reduce the gain at

high frequencies leaving the low frequency gain

unchanged.

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Slide 60

Stability of a System

These phase-lag and phase-advance circuits are

made up of different combinations of resistances and

capacitances and their effects are illustrated as below.

Slide 61

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