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Manhattan Project, Holocaust, Effects of WWII

H A 2 28/29 JA N U A R Y

Bellw ork
Prepare to take your Greatest

Generations quiz

Todays O bjectives
Recall key facts and figures relating

to the Manhattan Project


Assess how the US response to the
Holocaust has affected the US
Predict and understand the effects of
WWII on the US and world

The M anhattan Project


Albert Einstein
1942 FDR initiates atomic research with

codename Manhattan Project


Leaders
J. Robert Oppenheimer
General Leslie Groves

1945 Harry Truman decides to use

atomic bombs against Japan because:


End WWII quickly
Avoid massive loss of life with invasion of

Japan

Predict!
How do you think the Manhattan

Project affected the US post-WWII?

Predict!
How do you think the Manhattan

Project affected the US post-WWII?


Soviet Union gets ahold of the

science and creates there own


War / competition between nations
with nuclear capabilities

The H olocaust
Nuremburg Laws put restrictions on

Jews in Germany
Hitlers Final Solution = genocide of
Jews and other undesirables
Concentration Camps (2 kinds)
Labor camps (slave labor / work camps)
Death camps (experimentation /

execution)

The H olocaust
Early US response: weak
1944 War Refugee Board works with

the Red Cross to save thousands of


Eastern European Jews
What could the US have done?
Pressured Axis-controlled sending victims
Bombed rail lines transporting victims

Nuremburg Trials international trials of

Nazis for war crimes and the Holocaust

The H olocaust
US opens up immigration for refugees
1948 Jewish community of Palestine

declares itself the State of Israel


US immediately recognizes its legitimacy

Predict!
How do you think the USs responses

to the Holocaust late/after the war


would affect the US?

Predict!
How do you think the USs responses

to the Holocaust late/after the war


would affect the US?
Immigration of Eastern European

Jews increased
Long-lasting, strong relationship with
Israel

Creating a N ew W orld
Yalta Conference Feb 1945 BIG

THREE (Stalin, Roosevelt, Churchill)


Agree that some of the Eastern European

countries will have free elections after


the war

Potsdam July 1945 BIG THREE

(Stalin, Truman, Atlee)


Agree to divide post-war Germany into 4

zones: Soviet, American, French, British

Post-w ar Profi
les
Germany
Leaders put on trial for

war crimes
Split into 4 zones
Made to pay reparations
to Allied nations
De-industrialize and demilitarized, but over time
helped to rebuild a stable
and productive Germany

Post-w ar Profi
les
Japan
Leaders put on trial for war crimes
US occupies Japan + supervises writing of a

new constitution
Abolishes armed forces except for defense
Gave women suffrage
Established a plan for economic recovery

Italy
Paid war reparations, monarchy abolished,

Republic with constitution established

Post-w ar Profi
les
China
Civil war resumes
Communists eventually take over (Mao

Zedong)

Great Britain and France


Marshall Plan (aka European Recovery

Program)
$13 billion to help rebuild Western
European economy and war-devastated
regions

Post-w ar Profi
les
Soviet Union
Saw economic growth

during the war and


industrialization under
Stalin BUT
Industry, cities, and
people had suffered from
war with German
Red Army (Soviet Army)
controlled Eastern Europe
with the continued threat
of moving west

Post-W ar Profi
les
United States
Isolationism ends / US assumes

global leadership
Civil Rights movement grows
Economy prospers

Predict!
Which countries will become world

superpowers after WWII? How will they


interact with each other?
Superpower = countries that dominated
the post-war world

Predict!
Which countries will become world

superpowers after WWII? How will they


interact with each other?
Superpower = countries that dominated
the post-war world
US and the Soviet Union
Cold War

InternationalCooperation
US pushes for world economic reform
International Monetary Fund (IMF)
organizes international money
exchange and policies
World Bank provides reconstruction
and development loans to countries
General Agreement on Tariffs and
Trade (GATT) reduces tariffs to
expand world trade
OVERALL GOAL: rebuilding the world
economy to recover from the war

InternationalCooperation
United Nations (UN)
Replaces the League of Nations
Permanently housed in NYC
All member nations sit on the
General Assembly
5 permanent Security Council seats:
United States, Soviet Union, Great
Britain, France, China

InternationalCooperation
UN (continued)
Aided independence movements in

colonies

Within 20 years most colonies were


independent
Helped the creation of the State of Israel
Provided aid to areas suffering after the

war
1948 issued the Universal Declaration
of Human Rights

All humans are born free and equal in


dignity and rights

Sum m ary: Eff


ects ofW W II
Europe / Japan in ruins after WWII
European colonies gradually gain

independence
Soviets dominate Eastern Europe
Cold War between the US and the Soviets

begins
US becomes a world economic and political

power
Civil Rights movement gains momentum

N ote on the U nit Test


Multiple Choice and Short Answer
Be prepared to provide EVIDENCE

for short answers on the following


topics:
Isolation v. intervention
Causes and Effects of WWII

H om ew ork
SFI Sheet
Study for Test