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Learning Objectives:
The student should be able to:
Define the meaning of socialization;
Understand how nature, nurture, isolation,
and deprivation affect ones personality
Discuss the different sociological theories
of socialization;
Explain the different agents of socialization
and their effects on ones personality;

Describe the importance of

socialization throughout the lifetime;
Give the meaning of re-socialization
and total institution;
Define and discuss deviance, crime,
and social control
Understand the Filipino personality

Here, the diagram will present the

meaning of socialization, the struggle
between Nature and Nurture,
sociological theories of socialization,
agents of socialization, throughout the
lifetime, re-socialization, deviance,
crime, and social control, and the
Filipino Society.

Meaning of

Nature Vs.


Agents of


Crime, and
Social Control


The Filipino

Have you ever entered into your
classroom wearing a crown and an
evening gown? Or, did you ever expect
your teacher to do his/her laundry in front
of the class? Funny, isnt it? Unless a
person is put of his mind, he/she could
probably never do such strange actions.
So most of us who are conscious of the
patterns of behavior and code of dressing
in our society, would not dare act as such.
How do we learn the appropriate ways of
behaving in our society?

What are the significant factors involved

in this process of learning? Sociologists
have tries to answer these questions by
examining the various factors involved in
According to Macionis (2010) the
lifelong process by which a person
acquires the values, behaviors, and
attitudes considered appropriate in his
culture in called socialization. From his
interaction with his family, friends,
neighbors, and all the people around

he is able to adjust himself to his

surroundings. Further, the media
magazines, television, and internet
influence ones manner of acting and


The interplay between heredity and
environment plays a significant role in human
development and in the process of socialization.
As reported by Neuback and Giasberg (2005),
sociologists call this interaction as the nature
versus nurture principle. Nature refers to all
the biological inheritance present in a person
upon birth. All human potential and capacities
cannot be fully enhanced and utilized without
the contribution of nurture. Nurture refers to
the social environment that helps develop the
potential of a person in order for him to function
effectively in the society.


In a series of laboratory experiments,
researchers, Harry and Margaret Harlow
demonstrated the effect of isolation and
deprivation on infant rhesus monkeys. As
part of the study, they deliberately took the
infant monkeys away from their mothers and
from other monkeys. Each of these monkeys
was put inside a cage with two non-living
artificial mothers, one mother is made
of wire with feeding bottle filled with milk.

As a result, the infant monkeys clung

more to the mother made of cloth.
They would only approach the mother
made of wire if they are hungry because
this mother has a feeding bottle filled
with milk. But as soon as they fed
themselves, they would go back to the
mother made of cloth because it has
the capacity to give them intimacy,
warmth, and physical comfort. (Macionis,

It was also noted in this experiment

that being isolated and socially deprived
for six months resulted in the infant
monkeys odd behavior, like hurting
themselves and just staying in the
corner. They were not able to develop
skills of relating with other monkeys.
Because of lack of social contact with
other monkeys, their social development
was adversely affected. If these were the
harmful effects of isolation and
deprivation on infant rhesus monkeys,
how much more would be the effect on

Box 4.1
The Cases of Anna and Genie
Sociologist Davis in 1940 related the
story of Anna, an unwanted child of an
unmarried and mentally impaired
woman. Anna was kept isolated for 6
years in the attic of her grandfathers
house. The mother would just feed her
and leave her alone, even at night, to
work it the farm. No other care and
attention was given to Anna except for
the food that her mother is providing
her. When Anna was found by

the researchers, after having been

isolated and neglected socially and
emotionally for 6 years, she could not
walk, talk, and care for herself. Before
Anna died at the age of ten, however,
she was able to display acts of being
helpful to other children.
In another separate case, researcher
Curtiss in 1977, reported the incident of
Genie. She was found at the age of 13
after being locked in a room for eleven
years since she was two years

old. Genies abusive father would

either tie her to a chair or to a sleeping
bag. If she would cry or make a sound,
her brutal father would beat her up.
Other family members who would
come to visit her briefly would just give
her baby food. Genies mother, who
was blind and disabled, could not do
anything to help her until one day, she
got a chance to free Genie and took
her away from her father. Upon
Genies admission to a pediatric
hospital, the doctors observed

that she could not walk, talk, and

control her urine and bowel. Her
physical appearance was so much
neglected that her weight and height
were just half of her age. After intensive
therapy, Genie was able to display
progress in talking, walking, and caring
for herself. However, her level of
intelligence remained subnormal.

The separate cases of Anna and Genie

indicate that the provision of basic
physical needs is not enough. The
physical and social development of a
child is also dependent on the amount
and quality of social contact, intimacy,
and human interaction.


Schaefer (2005), explained that as we

begin to adopt the norms and values of
our culture, we also form our sense of self.
Our interaction with other people greatly
affects how we perceive ourselves. This
self makes us different with others.
According to symbolic interaction theory,
we develop our sense of self by using
symbols and language in our interaction
with other. The two early proponents of
this theory are Charles Horton Cooley and
George Herbert Mead.

Cooley: The Looking-Glass

As described by Brinkerhoff, et. al.,
(2005) we develop our sense of self by
perceiving how other people look and
think about us. This perception, which
Cooley termed as looking-glass self, is
the result of the following three steps:

We imagine how do we look to other

We imagine how other perceive our

we either form a favorable or
unfavorable self-concept based on
the first two steps.

Thus, if we imagine that we look

good to other people and others can
view us the same way, we have a
positive self-concept. On the other
hand, if we feel that we do not look
good to other people and that they
can also perceive us in the same way,
we have a negative self-concept.

How do you look at
your self? How to do
you think other
people perceive

Mead: Stages of the Self

Mead argued that social self is formed upon
the interaction of the I and me these two,
he considered as the division of the self. The
I, which is the first to be developed between
the two refers to the subjective part of the
self contains the innate and natural distinct
characteristics of a person. The me, which is
objective aspect of the self, pertains to the
persons awareness of the demands of the
society From him. Macionis (2010) and Schaefer
(2005) cited that the me is developed based on
the following three stages:

1. Preparatory stage:
During this stage, children generally
copy the actions and behavior of people
around them, although they do not have
any idea of the interactions that are
taking place in their environment.

2. Plat stage:
As children become slowly aware of
the existing social relationships that exist
around them, children at this stage,
begin to assume the role of the other
person. This process is imagining ones
self in doing the responsibilities of
another person is called role-taking.

3. Game stage:
At this stage, children become capable
of taking a multitude roles at the same
time. They begin to understand their own
roles as well as the roles of others

Brinkerhoff described that as we

grow, the self is continuously being
modified by the significant others or
those whom we consider important
and influential in our lives. Eventually,
we go beyond the expectations of
these significant others and also act
according to the demands of
generalized others, or other
members of the society whom we also

Whom do you consider
as the significant
others in your life?
Who among them is
the most influential?

Agents of Socialization
Whom are the different responsible
groups that help us acquire the skills
needed in order to adjust and function
well in the society? As cited by Neubeck
and Galberg, the following are considered
the different agents of socialization:

1. Family
The first primary group that makes
lasting impact in the life of a person is
the family. From his parents, siblings, and
other members of the family, a person
becomes exposed to the different kinds
of values, attitudes and behavior. It is in
the family that the physical social, and
emotional needs of a person at his/her
early stage development are met.

2. Schools
The dominant culture of the society is
taught in the schools. Children are given
training on specific skills and knowledge
that would make them productive
citizens of the country. Their potential is
honed and their holistic development is
given attention.

3. Peers.
a greater sense of autonomy, sense of
belonging, and feeling of acceptance and
self-worth are the different kinds of
satisfaction a person derived from his
peers. This is particularly true for some
teenagers who feel that adults at home
misunderstand them. A subculture or a
new trend in clothing, language, and
values is created as a result of a different
kind of socialization among them.

4. Religious

religion has always been important part in the

lives of the Filipino. Fiesta, Christmas, All
Saints Day and Holy Week are some of the
celebrations in the country that are rooted in
the dominant Catholic faith. Other religious
groups, like the Muslims, also have their own
day of feasting like Eidl Fitr or the end of a
month fasting called Ramadan. The members
of each organization experience a unique kind
of socialization. Generally, religion provides
guide for moral values and principles and
gives meaning and direction to a persons life.

5. Workplace
weather a person finished his/her
schooling or not, the workplace orientates
him/her with the rules and regulations that
he/she must follow, in order to do his job
and other responsibilities. He is also
trained to respect and follow the authority
figures inside the institution. Giving
importance to time and money is also a
value that one could get from the

6. Mass Media
a very powerful source of socialization that
could have both positive and negative
effects on the personality of a person is the
mass media. The information from the
radio, newspapers, television, film, and
internet, helps a person to become aware of
the cultural environment. For children,
television is a significant tool in the
development of their language ability. On
the other hand, the common theme of most
of the movies about sex and aggression
could also be harmful to the young.

Which among the
different agents of
socialization had the
most impact in your
life? Why?

Socialization throughout
Ones lifetime.
the way we look at ourselves is very
much influenced by our interaction with
the people around us. The different
stages of development as a human being
are a product of his socialization. The
following are the stages:

a very positive and warm environment in
the family filled with love, care, support,
and respect are important in building a
strong foundation for a childs healthy
self-concept. On the other hand, an
uncaring family wherein the child
experiences of abuse and maltreatment,
might not be conductive to his social and
emotional development, and thus might
lead to a negative concept.

Anticipactory socialization or the process
of learning that makes a person aware of
his roles in the future happens during
adolescence stage. This is the transition
between childhood and adulthood.
Psychologists describe this period as
stage of emotional instability and need for
independence. Thus, guidance from
parents and other significant figures in the
life of an adolescent is very important.

at this age, occupational socialization
or the kind of learning that a person
acquire from his/her workplace occurs.
Until about age 40, which is considered
early adulthood, a lot of major decisions
in life are experienced like choosing a
career, starting a family, or remaining

Neubeck and Glasberg claims that an

individual enters middle adulthood
between 40 and 65. according to
Psychologist Erikson, this is the stage of
generativity versus stagnation. This
means that a person either feels that
he has accomplished something for
himself and is now ready to leave a
lasting legacy for future generation, or
he has not done anything remarkable in
his life and thus remain stagnant.

Old Age
age 65 & beyond are marked by psychologist as the
stage of older adulthood. This is the period wherein
the physical ability of a person declines and the
reality of death must be faced, according to
Brinkerhoff, a different kind of socialization happens
at this stage wherein an individual must prepare
himself for several role exits, such as retirement or
loss of ones spouse. Erikson characterized this
stage as integrity versus despair. This means that
person either feels that he has accepted and
resolved his crises in life and thus has acquired
lessons from them or he experiences despair
because of not having resolves his sufferings,
failures, and disappointments.


Recall the significant

events that happened
in your life since
childhood. What had
been the most
memorable event?

In some cases, an individual may be
subjected to an abrupt and drastic change
in his lifestyle, thereby forcing him to
discard his old self and assume a new role
in life and redefine his self-identity. This
process is called re-socialization. This
happens in instances such as meeting an
accident and becoming physically disabled;
being converted to a religion whose beliefs
and practices are far from the previous one;
joining the military;

entering a religious life by becoming a

monk, priest or nun; being admitted
to a rehabilitation center for drug
addicts or being imprisoned inside the
jail. Sometimes these conditions may
require a person to enter a institution
and thereby detach himself from the
rest of the society, regulate his
actions, and adopt a new lifestyle.
Monasteries, mental hospitals,
military camps and prison camps are
examples of the institutions.

Deviance, Crime, And

Social Control
A news article from the New York
Times, reported on the internet ( July 9,
2011) that same-sex marriage was finally
legalized in New York in June 2011. New
York is the largest state of America where
gay and lesbian couple reside and will be
allowed to marry. Other states in America
where same-sex marriages had already
been legalized include: Washington D.C.;

Connecticut; Iowa; Massachusetts: New

Hampshire and Vermont. United States
President Obama, in 2011 ordered the
Justice Department to stop defending the
Defense of Marriage Act this is the 1996
law which prohibits the recognition of the
federal states of same-sex marriage.
President Obama said that as a Christian,
he is not in favor of same-sex marriage
but he is a fierce advocate of equality for
gay and lesbians. He further said that
while he is open to the possibility that
this beliefs on same-sex marriage are
misguided, he has no intention of

Meanwhile, a local news from Baguio

City, Philippines (June 25, 2011) on the
internet that the 8 gay couple in Baguio
City were given wedding rites by the
Metropolitan Community Church of Metro
Baguio. Pictures were also posted
showing the exchange of kisses between
the couples. This kind of wedding is
sacred and binding among the Lesbian,
gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT)
communities. On the other hand, Baguio
Benguet Bishop Cenzon commented
that the wedding is wrong and cannot
be called as a holy union.

It could be observed , from the two

news articles, that in some states in
America where same-sex marriages
are legal, it is not considered deviant.
In the Philippines, marriage is still
defined as the union of a man and
woman, same-sex marriage may be
considered deviant.

What are your
views regarding

Schaefer defined Deviance as any

behavior that violates social norms and is
considered sufficiency significant so that
society responds negatively to its
violation. It conveys the strong feeling
that the people who are engage in this
behavior are very different. Deviant
behavior may be tolerated, approved, or
disapproved. The meaning of deviance
depends on culture, time, place, and
circumstances. Thus, deviant behavior is
socially constructed, which means that it
is always interpreted with reference to the
set of rules and

Practices of a society. What is considered

deviant in some culture might not be
seen as something different in other
groups. Some of the approved deviations
are inventions, discoveries, heroism, and
dynamic leadership. Those that are
strongly disapproved, especially in the
Filipino culture, are crimes, drug
addiction, prostitution alcoholism,
homosexuality, suicide, and mental

However, there are also some

actions which do not conform to the
standards of the society but are not
considered deviant. These eccentric
actions may be classified as nonconformity because society could still
tolerate such behaviors. Examples
are: wearing barong tagalog or a
gown partnered with rubber shoes;
or having a tongue ring of nose ring.



Patricia Quistgaard, a school

psychologist in America, defined bullying
as an intentional, aggressive act that
victimize peers, with a motive to harm
and harass someone whom the bully
perceives the inferior to him. In her
study, she identified five forms of
bullying. These includes:

Physical bullying such as pushing or


Emotional bullying such as teasing and

Relational bullying such as rumor
spreading or rejecting freindships;
Cyber-bullying like sending humiliating on
intimidating messages through computers or
Bystander victimization or the emotional impact
to those who witness bullying situations


How is bullying a
form of deviant

Seven studies on cyberbullying have
been conducted by Patchin and Hinduja
since 2002. several of their findings

72% of the children who go to schools

have experienced being bullied online.

Reasons for cyberbullying include:

to get even with someone because
thy ought to have it; it is funny and
entertaining; to be mean; and
because of jealousy.
In some cases, victims of
cyberbullying commit suicides.
Motive for bullying, for both
traditional and through cyber means,
include the desire for power and
domination over others.


Describe the nature

and occurrence of
cyberbullying in
Facebooks, Twitters,
and other social

Explanations for Deviant


As reported by Neubeck and

Glasberg, sociologists gave several
explanations for the presence of
deviant behavior. These include:

Psychological explanations that

focus on the inherited peculiar genes of
the person, which could be the reason
for his/her becoming deviant

Psychological explanations that emphasize

that deviance is the result of repressed
emotional feeling, due to personal and family
Socio-psychological explanations that
assert that various people in the persons
immediate environment such as the family,
peer group, and school, among others place a
large influence on the persons deviant
Sociological explanations that hold that
having a deviant behavior is not within the
control of the individual but it exist due to the
deviants structured and imposed upon him/her
by the society


Choose a deviant
behavior in the
Philippines. Examine
the causes that led to
the behavior, based on
the four (4)

Medicalizations of

Macionis reported that the emerging

influence of medicine and psychiatry in the
United States over the past 50 or 60 years,
resulted in the change of the view of moral
and legal deviance, from a crime into a
disease which requires a medical
attention. This is called medicalization of
deviance. Before, alcoholics were
considered bad persons, but because of
the view, they are now sick persons who
need treatment rather than punishment.

Meaning of Crime
Neubeck and Glasberg explained that
crime is one form of deviance. Behavior
is likely to be defined as criminal when it
is too disruptive to be permitted and
cannot be controlled by informal means.
Such kid of actions violate criminal law,
and punishment for crime is provided by
the criminal justice system of a society.
Crimes are classified by sociologists
into seven types. These are:

Conventional or street crime consist

of violent crime, properly crime, and
morals crime. Violent crime includes
actions involving force or the threat of
force such as robbery, murder, and
rape. Properly crimes, are committed in
order to get money and valuable
objects. Moral crimes or victimless
crime includes illegal action willingly
engaged in by the persons involved
such as in gambling, prostitution, and
illegal use of drugs.

White-collar or occupational crime

involves illegal acts done by people in
the course of their business activities.
Sociologists also call this crime in the
suites. These include income tax
evasion, soliciting bribes, and
consumer fraud. Technologically-based
crime is also included under this crime.
The use of computer may be abused by
illegally gaining access to a firms
important files and by engaging in
video piracy

Corporate crimes are violations of the

law done by the officers and employees
of the corporation in favor of the firm.
An example of this crime in convincing
customers to engage in financial deals
that would give large profit to the firm
but would lead to the huge losses on the
part of the customers.
Organized crime includes the work of
a group that deals with business
operation involving illegal activities such
as smuggling of goods, drug trafficking,
prostitution and money laundering.

Political crime refers to the abuse of

power and unethical activities committed
by persons government positions. These
include graft and corruption, prosecution
of individuals because of political
activities and police brutality.
Professional crime is committed by
career or professional criminals whose
means of earning a living is through
pickpocketing, shoplifting, and burglary.
These persons intentionally develop their
skills and techniques in order to upgrade
their knowledge in their chosen jobs.

Hate crimes refer to criminal actions

of people against a person, or to a
persons belongings because of race,
religion, sexual orientation or disability.
Examples are crimes against
homosexuals, or white people.

Views on Crimes from Different

Sociological Perspective
As cited by Macionis, Durkheim
structural functional theory viewed
deviance as an important component of
social organization. Further, he pointed
out that there is nothing wrong with
deviance. He argued that deviance even
serves four (4) significant functions:

it reinforces
the values
and norms of
the society;

example sets
limits on what
is wrong and
what is right;

It stirs social

it unites
people who
are against
deviance; and

For the symbolic interactionists,

deviance is relative and could be
explained in daily situations. They
contributed the theory on labeling which
committed the deviant behavior but due
to how others react to these situations.
From the social conflict point of view,
deviance is the product of social
inequality. the standards of the society
cater to the more marginalized sector,
there is greater possibility that they
could be labeled as deviant.

Meaning of Social
Schaefer explained that the term social
control refers to the planned or unplanned
processes by which people are taught
persuaded, or forced to conform to norms.
Milgram, a social psychologist, introduced
the two levels of social control. These are
conformity and obedience. Conformity
means getting along with peers while
obedience is following the instructions or
directions of higher authorities.

Thus, we conform to the style of dressing

of our friends and obey the rules set by
the teachers or school administrations.
Aside from levels, there are also types of
social control. These are: informal,
formal, internal, and external. Informal
social control consist of unofficial
pressure intended to convince potential
deviants to conform to social norms like a
mother asking her son not to wear
earrings. Formal social control refers
to the official pressure imposed to
persuade would be deviants

to conform to social norms like the school

regulation of wearing the proper uniform
for students. Internal social control
happens when an individual internalizes
and also applies the norms and values of
the society. External social control
includes the use of punishment or
negative sanctions in order to make
individual follow the prescribed norm. as
cited by Macionis, by taking away the
freedom of a criminal, such punishment
could serve him/her the following four (4)

Retribution, which means that the greater

the crime committed, the more serious id the
corresponding punishment given to the

social protection is the consequence of

prohibiting offenders to commit more
Rehabilitation aims to restore the
offenders and bring them back to society
as reformed and more obedient citizens
Deterrence seeks to minimize the
criminal actions by instilling fear in the
offenders however, some of those
offenders end up being recidivists or
previous offenders who make new crimes

Views on Social control from

Different Sociological Perspective
From the functionalism perspective, as
explained by Schaefer, the survival of the
society is dependent on how people follow and
give respect to societal norms. However, for
conflict theorists, they believe that nonconformity with the rules is also necessary to
bring some changes in the society. They
explained that if everybody will follow the
rules, this will benefit only the powerful class
and will put other groups in the inferior status.

The Filipino Society

The Filipino personality may be
attributed to external and cultural
influences and ethnic diversity within the
Philippines itself. The external influences
were derived from Malay roots and
Chinese, Indian, Spanish, and American
cultures. These influences have been
borrowed but, when assimilated, resulted
in a distinctively Filipino character.

Several writers have addressed the

personality values or ideals of Filipinos.
Courtesy, manliness, dignity, tactfulness,
prudence, self-control, honesty, tolerance,
belief in God, and humility are some of them.
Pakikisama (to get along with), hiya (to
feel ashame), utang na loob (to be
grateful), delicadeza (to be cautious),
mapagbigay (to be generous),
makiramay (to share), pagtitiis (to
endure), and pagtitimpi (to supress) are
valued traditions used as means to make
ones self loved or accepted.

On the other hand, negative traits are

lack of nationalism, lack of discipline, lack
of the spirit of cooperation and teamwork,
inferiorly complex, laziness, lack of
foresight, and lack of determination.
Feliciano explained some of the
Filipinos negative traits in the ff. trilogy of
Lusot means getting away from an
unpleasant & difficult situation in the
fastest & least painful way. Lying and
being deceitful exemplify which is a
means of escaping from responsibilities.

Lakad refers to the padrino system or

using a network connections in order to
fix and smooth out some difficult
transactions. It caters to the Filipino
societys culture or whom you know
and not what you know.
Lagay means bribe or grease money.
Connections and fixers can do their task
swftly if there is lagay. This act among
Filipinos implies that we regard people as
things which could be cought with

These wrong practices of some of

the Filipinos are the factors that
account for the degradation of
morality in the country. These could be
also be bases in reinforcing the acts of
graft and corruption of some of the
politicians in the government.


Make a collage by
cutting out pictures
from newspapers and
magazines depicting
Filipino values.
Determine the
specific value
presented in the

Senator Leticia Ramos Shahani
initiated a study to find out the strengths
ans weaknesses of the Filipino character.
The results show that the strengths of
the Filipinos are pakikipagkapwa-tao
(concern brothers); family orientation;
joy and humor; flexbility/adaptability;
creativity; faith and religiosity; and ability
to surive. Ironically, the weaknesses
stem from

the strengths themselves. These are

extreme personalism; extreme familycenteredness; lack of discipline; passivity
and lack of initiative; colonilism; kanyakanya or clique syndrome; and lack of
self-analysis and self-reflection.
the major root causes of the strengths
and weaknesses were identified as
follows: family & home environment;
social environment; culture & language;
history; educational system; religion;
economic environment; political
environment; mass media; and
leadership and role models


Cite specific
means or ways to
minimize Filipino
Describe the root

Santiago and Enriquez identified 8
levels of interaction among Filipinos,
based on 2 categories: ibang tao and
hindi ibang tao.
In ibang tao or outsider category, the
levels are: pakikitungo (civility);
pakikisalamuha (interaction with);
pakikilahok (participating); pakikibagay
(conforming); and pakikisama (getting
along with).

In hindi ibang tao or one of us

category, the levels are:
pakikipagpalagayang-loob (being in
rapport with); pakikisangkot (getting
involved); and pakikiisa (truly being one


Give examples of
situations wherein
different levels of
social interaction
among Filipinos

Comprehensive Check:

Social control


Role talking




The lifelong process by which people

acquire the values, behaviors, and
attitudes considered appropriate in
ones culture. _______
The planned or unplanned processes,
by which people are taught persuaded
or forced to conform norms. _______
Any behavior that violates social
norms and considered sufficiently
significant so that society responds
negatively to its violation. ________




An abrupt and drastic change in a

persons lifestyle, thereby forcing
him/her to discard his/her old self and
assume a new role in life and redefine
his/her self-identity. _______
Those persons whom we consider
important and influential in our lives. ___
At this stage, children generally copy the
actions and behavior of people around
them. _________
At this stage, children become capable of
taking a multitude of roles at the same
time. ___________

The perception of how other people

look and think about us. ________
9. The process of imagining ones self,
doing the responsibilities of another
person. ________
10. The objective aspect of the self that
pertains to the persons awareness of
the demands of the society from
11. The subjective part of the self that
contains the innate and natural
distinct characteristics of a person.

12. All

the biological inheritance present in

a person upon birth. _______
13. The social environment that helps
develop the potential of a person in
order for him to function effectively in
the society. __________
14. Demonstrated the effect of isolation
and deprivation on infant rhesus
monkeys. ________
15. Was kept isolated for 6 years in the
attic of her grandfathers house.

Determine if the statement

expresses correct or incorrect

Deviance may be described as

normal according structuralfunctional theory.


Hate crimes could happen among

Muslims and Christians.


Conformity means following the

directions of higher authorities.


The labeling theory was proposed by

social-conflict theorists.


Drug addicts are not bad, they are

ill, according to the view on
medicalization of deviance.

What would you think are the factors
that led to the changing views about
men and women in the society,
nowadays? Are these changing views
good or bad? Justify your answer.

How do we Filipino negative traits of

lusot, lakad, and lagay be minimized
or eliminated? Recommend or suggest

Make an assessment of the level of

Filipino morality at present. Cite
specific cases to illustrate your