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Monitoring and Managing Performance

Course Tutor :
Md.Rifat Amin Ryhan

For general query:


4.1 What is performance


4.2 Why performance management?

Advantages :
(a) Objective-setting gives employees the security
and satisfaction of both understanding their jobs
and knowing exactly what is expected of them.

4.2 Why performance management?

(b) Joint-objective setting and a developmental

approach are positive and participatory

4.2 Why performance management?

(c) Performance management focuses on future

performance planning and improvement rather
than retrospective performance appraisal

4.3 Performance management activities

There are four key performance management

(1) Preparation of performance agreements
(2) Preparation of performance and development
(3)Management of performance throughout the year
(4) Performance reviews.

4.3 Performance management activities

(1) Preparation of performance
agreements or contracts
Some typical areas for the setting of
performance targets:
(a) Sales (for sales representatives)
(b) Growth in turnover, profitability or
shareholder value (for the most
senior executives)
(c) Waiting times (for hospital
(d) Pass rates (for teachers and
(e) Punctuality and attendance (for
junior workers)

4.3 Performance management activities

(2) Preparation of performance and development

These set out detailed performance and personal
development needs, and action plans to address
them, in order to meet individual objectives.

4.3 Performance management activities

(3) Management of performance throughout the year

This involves the continuous process of providing feedback on
performance, conducting informal progress reviews and
dealing with performance problems as necessary.

4.3 Performance management activities

(4) Performance reviews

(a) Results can be measured against targets
(b) The employee can be given feedback
(c) An agreement can be reached on on-going
development needs and future performance targets
(d) The link between results and performance-related pay can
be made.

4.4 The wider use of goals and


Peter Drucker,outlined management by objectives (MbO).

Drucker was the first to suggest that objectives should be
SMART. This acronym originally stood for the qualities listed
Specific Measurable

Achievable Realistic Time-related


4.5 External accreditation

(a) Investors in People is a scheme for business

improvement sponsored by the UK government. Assessment
is based on interviews with staff and depends on evidence of
satisfactory policy and practice outcomes

4.5 External accreditation

(b) Charter mark is another UK government sponsored

scheme. It is intended to promote improvements in customer
service in organisations that deliver public services. It is being
replaced by a new Customer Service Excellence standard.

4.5 External accreditation

(c) ISO 9000:2000 series is the latest version of a

general scheme of organisational accreditation in
quality management.


Discipline can be considered as: 'a condition in an enterprise in

which there is orderliness, in which the members of the
enterprise behave sensibly and conduct themselves according to
the standards of acceptable behaviour as related to the goals of
the organisation'.

5.1 Types of disciplinary situations

Disciplinary situations which may require intervention :

(a) Excessive absenteeism
(b) Repeated poor timekeeping
(c) Defective and/or inadequate work performance
(d) Poor attitudes which influence the work of others or which
reflect on the public image of the firm.

5.2 Model disciplinary procedure

Many enterprises have accepted the idea of progressive

which provides for increasing severity of the penalty with each
repeated offence: a bit like the yellow card (warning), red card
off) system used in football.

5.2 Model disciplinary procedure

The following are the suggested steps of progressive disciplinary

(a) The informal talk
(b) Oral warning or reprimand
(c) Written or official warning
(d) Suspension without pay
(e) Dismissal

5.2 Model disciplinary procedure

Employment Act 2002 requires a mandatory three-step

The parties must put the issue in writing
The parties must meet to discuss the issue (the employee
being entitled to be accompanied by a trade union or staff
association representative, if desired)
An appeal must be held if required.

5.2 Model disciplinary procedure

Failure to complete this basic procedure made any

subsequent dismissal of the employee on disciplinary grounds

5.3 Disciplinary interviews

The disciplinary interview will then proceed as follows.

Step 1. The manager will explain the purpose of the
Step 2. The manager will explain the organisation's
position with regard to the issues involved and the
organisation's expectations with regard to future

5.3 Disciplinary interviews

Step 3. The employee should be given the

opportunity to comment, explain, justify or deny.
Step 4. Improvement targets should be jointly
agreed (if possible).

5.3 Disciplinary interviews

Step 5. The manager should explain any penalties imposed

on the employee, the reasons behind them and, if the
sanctions are ongoing, how they can be withdrawn
Step 6. The manager should explain the appeals procedure.

5.3 Disciplinary interviews

Step 7. The manager should ensure the employee understands

steps 1-6 above and then should briefly summarise the
Records of the interview will be kept on the employee's
file for the formal follow-up review and any further action


A grievance occurs when an individual feels that (s)he is

being wrongly or unfairly treated by a colleague or supervisor:
picked on, unfairly appraised, discriminated against and so

6.1 Purpose of a grievance procedure

Grievances should be solved informally by the individual's

manager. If not possible, a formal grievance procedure should
be followed:
(a) To allow objective grievance handling including 'cooling
off' periods and independent case investigation and

6.1 Purpose of a grievance procedure

(b) To protect employees from victimisation particularly

where a grievance involves their immediate superiors
(c) To provide legal protection for both parties

6.1 Purpose of a grievance procedure

d) To encourage grievance airing which is an important

source of feedback to management on employee problems
and dissatisfactions
(e) To require full and fair investigation of grievances, enabling
the employer employee relationship to be respected and
preserved, despite problems.

6.2 Grievance procedures

These procedures should do the following things.

(a) State what grades of employee are entitled to pursue a
type of grievance.
(b) Distinguish between individual grievances and

6.2 Grievance procedures

(c) State the rights of the employee for each type of

grievance: what actions and remedies may be claimed
(d) State what the procedures for pursuing a grievance
should be. They will typically involve appeal in the first
instance to the line manager (or next level up, if the line
manager is the subject of the complaint). If the matter cannot
be resolved, the case will be referred to specified higher
authorities. The assistance of the HR department
may be

6.2 Grievance procedures

(e) Allow for the employee to be accompanied by a trade

union or staff association representative or other colleague.
(f) State time limits for initiating certain grievance
procedures and subsequent stages of them, such as
appeals and communication of outcomes.

6.2 Grievance procedures

(g) Require written records of all meetings concerned with the

case to be made and distributed to all the participants.
(h) Provide for right of appeal, and specify the appeals procedure.

6.3 Grievance interviews

Remember discipline is where an employee does

wrong;grievance is where an employee feels wronged. Prior to
the interview, the manager should gain some idea of the
complaint and its possible source. The meeting itself can then
proceed through the following stages

6.3 Grievance interviews

Step 1. Exploration. What is the problem: the background, the

facts, the causes (obvious and hidden)?
Step 2. Consideration. The manager should:
Check the facts
Analyse the causes
Evaluate options for responding to the complaint
Step 3. Reply. The outcome (agreed or disagreed) should be
recorded in writing.

7.1 Reasons for poor performance

Not all performance problems will be disciplinary in nature, or

due to training/ competence gaps. Other factors the manager
may need to consider include:
(a) Job changes which have left the job-holder less suited for the
(b) Personality factors or clashes with team members

7.1 Reasons for poor performance

(c) Factors outside the work situation (eg marital or financial

(d) Problems with job design, work layout, management style and
other factors outside the individual's own control.

7.2 Performance counselling process

The following four-step process could be implemented.

(a) Counsel the individual through a basic problem-solving
(i) The facts.
(ii) The causes.
iii) The remedies.

7.2 Performance counselling process

(b) Ensure the individual understands the consequences of

persistent poor performance
(c) Set and agree clear improvement targets and action plans
and agree a period of time over which performance is
expected to improve.
(d) Support the individual with agreed follow-up action: training,
coaching, specialist counselling and so on.