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Basic Television



The composite video signal generated by camera and

associated circuitry is processed in the control room before
routing it to the transmitter. At transmitter, picture carrier
frequency assigned to the station is generated, amplified and
later amplitude modulated with the incoming video signal. The
sound output associated with the scene is simultaneously
processed and frequency modulated with channel sound carrier
frequency. The two outputs, one from picture signal transmitter
and the other from sound signal transmitter are combined in a
suitable network and then fed to a common antenna network for
transmission. As is obvious, the picture and sound signals,
though generated and processed simultaneously pass through
two independent transmitters at the broadcasting station.

Basic Television System

The basic television system converts light and sounds into electrical video and audio
signals that are transmitted (wirelessly or by cable)
and reconverted by the television receiver and loudspeaker into television pictures and

Television Studio

an acoustically treated compact anechoic (free from echo)


suitably furnished and equipped with flood lights for proper

light effects
uses dimmerstats with flood lights that enables suitable
illumination level of any particular area of the studio
depending on the scene to be televised
several cameras are used to telecast the scene from
different angles
large number of microphones are provided at different
locations to pick up sound associated with the programme

Television Studio Technical Aspects

The camera and microphone outputs are fed into the control room by
coaxial cables
The control room has several monitors to view pictures picked up by
different cameras.
Monitors used are TV receivers that contains no provision for
receiving broadcast signals but operates on adirect input of
unmodulated signal
Headphones are used to monitor and regulate sound output
received from different microphones through audio mixers
For a live studio, video tape recording and telecine machine rooms
are located close to the control room
Programmes as enacted in the studio are recorded on a video tape
recorder (VTR) through the control room. These are later broadcast
with the VTR output passing through the same control room
All the rooms are interconnected by coaxial cables and shielded
In large establishments, there are several such studio units with their
outputs feeding the transmitter through a switcher in the master
control room, which selects one programme at a time

Television Studio Layout

Television Multicamera Studio System Diagram

The multicamera studio system contains quality controls (CCU and audio console), selection
controls (switcher and audio console), and monitors for previewing pictures and sound.

Television Studio : Sample Picture

Television studio with lighting system, cameras , monitor, microphone and green background. Green
Background is for chroma keying. Chroma Keying is the process by which a specific colour element
(chroma) is removed from a video scene and replaced (keyed) with a different element.

Television Studio with Chroma Keying

Television studio with chroma keying for Superman.

Television studio with chroma keying for Weather News.

Television Live Show Studio

Television studio with chroma keying for Superman.

The Game Begins ! MMC Studio of Germany.

Television Cameras

Two basic groups of television cameras :

1. Self Contained Camera

has all the elements necessary to view a scene and generate a
complete television signal. Such units are employed for outdoor
locations and normally have a VTR and baby flood lights as an
integral part of the televising set up
2. Two-unit Systems
employs separate camera heads driven by remote camera
control equipment located in the central apparatus room

Television Cameras

Self Contained Camera

Two Unit Systems

Television Cameras : Lenses

Television cameras can produce images to different scales
depending on the focal length (viewing angle) of the lens employed.
Lenses of longer focal length are narrow angle lenses while those
of shorter focal length are wide angle lenses.
Narrow angle lenses (below 20) are suitable for close ups of
distant objects because of the magnifying effect due to their longer
focal length.
Lenses with angles over 60 are most suited for location shots
which cover large areas.
Medium angle lenses (20 to 60) are called universal lenses and
are used for televising normal scenes.

Television Cameras : Lense Turret

A rotating device on a camera for bringing any of several lenses
in front of the shutter

An image orthicon turret assembly holds four lenses of focal

lengths 35 mm, 50 mm, 150 mm and a zoom lens of 40 to 400

Television Cameras : Zoom Lens

A zoom lens is a mechanical assembly of lens elements for which the focal
length ( and thus angle of view) can be varied, as opposed to a fixed focal length (
FFL) lens
A true zoom lens, also called a parfocal lens, is one that maintains focus when its
focal length changes. A lens that loses focus during zooming is more properly
called a varifocal lens

A zoom lens has a variable focal length with a range of 10 : 1 or more. In this
lens the viewing angle and field view can be varied without loss of focus. This
enables dramatic close-up control.
The smooth and gradual change of focal length by the cameraman while
televising a scene appears to the viewer as it he is approaching or receding from
the scene.

Television Cameras : Camera Mountings

Studio cameras are mounted on light weight tripod stands with rubber wheels to
enable the operator to shift the camera as and when required. It is often
necessary to be able to move the camera up and down and around its central axis
to pick-up different sections of the scene
Pan-tilt units may be used which typically provide a 360 rotational capability and
allow tilting action of plus or minus 90
In many applications, primarily closed circuit systems, where it is desirable to be
able to remotely move the camera both horizontally and vertically, small servo
motors are provided as part of the camera mount

Television Cameras : View Finder

Essentially a monitor which reproduces the scene on a small picture

tube. It receives video signals from the control room stabilizing amplifier.
The view-finder has its own deflection circuitry as in any other monitor, to
produce the raster.
The view-finder also has a built-in dc restorer for maintaining average
brightness of the scene being televised.

Television Camera : Studio Lightings

It is necessary to illuminate each area of action separately besides
providing an average level of brightness over the entire scene.
Lighting scheme is so designed that shadows are prevented
The light fixtures used include spot lights, broads and flood lights of 0.5 KW
to 5 KW ratings
The brightness level in different locations of the studio is controlled by
varying effective current flow through the corresponding lamps. For a
smooth current control, dimmerstats (autotransformers) are used for low
rating lamps are silicon controlled rectifiers (SCRs) for higher power lights

Television Camera : Audio Pick-up

The location and placement of microphones depends on the type of
programme. For panel discussions, news-reading and musical programmes
the microphones may be visible to the viewer and so can be put on a desk
or mounted on floor stands. However, for plays and many other similar
programmes the microphones must be kept out of view. For such
applications these are either hidden suitably or mounted on booms. A
microphone boom is an adjustable extended rod from a stand which is
mounted on a movable platform. The booms carry microphones close to
the area of pick-up but keep them high enough to be out of the camera
range. Boom operators manipulate boom arms for distinct sound pick-up
yet keeping the microphones out of camera view.


The production control room or studio control room (SCR) is the place
in a television studio in which the composition of the outgoing program
takes place.
It is manned by the programme director, his assistant, a camera control
unit engineer, a video mixer expert, a sound engineer and a lighting
director. The programme director with the help of this staff effects overall
control of the programme while it is telecast live or recorded on a VTR. The
camera and sound outputs from the announcers booth and VIP studios are
also routed through the programme control room.

Camera Control Unit (C.C.U.)

The camera control unit has provision to control zoom lens action and
pan-tilt movement besides beam focus and brightness control of camera
tubes. The C.C.U. engineer manipulates various controls under directions
from the producer. In broadcast stations, the video signal must be
maintained within very close tolerances of amplitudes. The C.C.U. engineer
has the necessary facilities to adjust parameters such as video gain,
camera sensitivity, blanking level video polarity etc.

A video switcher is a multicontact crossbar switch matrix with
provision for selecting any one or more out of a large number of
inputs and switching them on to outgoing circuits. The input
sources include cameras, VTRs and telecine machine outputs,
besides test signals and special effects generators. Thus at this
point the programme producer with the assistance of video switcher
may select the output of any camera, or mix the output of two or
more cameras.Similarly various effects such as fades, wipes,
dissolves, supers and so on may be introduce and controlled with a

VIDEO SWITCHER : Three Types of Video Switchers

Mechanical Pushbutton Switcher - In this type the signals are
terminated on the actual switch contacts. The bank of switches is
interlocked to prevent simultaneous operation. This type of switcher
is used primarily for portable field units or in CCTV systems
because switching is not frequent and momentary disturbances in
the picture during switching can be tolerated.

VIDEO SWITCHER : Three Types of Video Switchers

Relay Switcher - or relay cross-bar is an electromechanical

switcher. Here magnetically activated read switch contacts are used
to effect switching. The relays can be operated by remote control
lines. Reed relays have fast operate time (around1 ms) and so can
be used to enable switching during the vertical blanking interval.
Figure below shows a 3 x 5 switching matrix employing a reed relay

VIDEO SWITCHER : Three Types of Video Switchers

Electronic Switcher - These are all electronic switchers and use

solid state devices that provide transition times of the order of a few
micro-seconds. Their size is generally very small and due to
inherent reliability need much less maintenance. Almost all present
day switchers employed in broadcasting are electronic switchers.

VIDEO SWITCHER : Types of Switching Transitions

The actual switching transition is either carried out by a lapdissolve operation or a fade out-fade in form of switching.

VIDEO SWITCHER : Electronic Switcher Configuration

Figure below is a functional block diagram of very simple broadcast

switchermixer. It has five inputs out of which any two may be selected to drive the two buffer
amplifiers. These, in turn feed into a mixer amplifier.
The mixer transfers video signals by fade out-fade in method. The potentiometers at
the remote mixer amplifier can be positioned to select 100 per cent output from
either A or B bus. Assume A and B inputs were at 100 per cent and 0 per cent levels
respectively. If camera No. 2 is selected on the A bus, it would appear at the output.
Similarly, if camera No. 3 is selected on the B bus, it will not appear at the mixer
output. However, when the levers that control the potentiometers are moved through
their full travel, the output from the mixer amplifier would transfer from A bus to B bus
at a relatively slow rate providing a transition from camera No. 2 to camera No. 3.
Similarly more complex switchers can be designed to provide different switching

Special Effects Generator

A special effects generator - normally located along with the
camera control units in the camera apparatus room. It is
programmed to generate video signals for providing special effects.
Its output is available at a panel in the production control room. The
special effects signals include curtain moving effects, both
horizontal and vertical. These are inserted while changing from one
scene to another. Similarly many other patterns are available which
can be interposed in-between any two programmes. Infact several
options are available and can be selected while ordering the

To generate a meaningful picture on the raster of a monitor or receiver, some means
are needed to synchronize the scanning systems of both the camera and the
monitor. In a multicamera system, as is often the case in broadcasting, it is
necessary to have them all synchronized by a single sync pulse generator.
Accordingly a common sync drive circuitry is provided which controls scanning
sequence, insertion and timing of sync pulses in all the cameras. With such a
control, when the scene shifts from one camera to another, the synchronizing
waveforms are in phase so that the monitor or home receiver is not interrupted in its
scanning process. In the absence of such a provision, while switching from one
camera to another, the monitor or receiver would have to read just its scanning
procedure for the incoming camera and the picture might roll momentarily.

Distribution of Camera Outputs to Monitors

Monitors usually have well designed video amplifiers with bandwidth as large as 30
MHz. This enables excellent reproduction of pictures. Any defects are clearly seen.
This is useful while testing and adjusting studio and other allied equipment. Several
monitors may be used to display the scene viewed by one camera. When the
number of monitors is large and they are located at a considerable distance from
each other, a distribution amplifier (see Fig. 7.7(b)) is used to route the video signal
to all of them. Similarly it is often desirable to provide means for viewing the output
from different cameras on a monitor. This is simply done by selecting the monitor
inputs from one camera or another by push button switches as shown in Fig. 7.7(c).
The switches not depressed connect terminating resistors to the appropriate
cameras. In operation all switches are interlocked so that only one camera can be
connected to the monitor at any time. Depressing one switch releases all other.


Master control - the technical hub of a broadcast operation common among most
over the air television stations and television networks. It is distinct from a production
control room in television studios where the activities such as switching from camera to
camera are coordinated. It is also vastly different from the studio where the talent are
located. A transmission control room is usually smaller in size and is a scaled down
version of central casting. Master control is the final point before a signal is
transmitted over-the-air for terrestrial television or cablecast, satellit provider for
broadcast, or sent on to a cable television operator. Television master control rooms
include banks of video monitors, satellite receivers, videotape machines, video
servers, transmission equipment, and , more recently, computer broadcast automation
equipment for recording and playback of television programming. This room houses
centralized video equipment like sync pulse generators, special effects generator, test
equipment, video and audio monitors besides a master routing switcher.



A simplified functional block diagram of a television transmitter is shown
in the Fig. Necessary details of video signal modulation with picture
carrier of allotted channel are shown in picture transmitter section of the
diagram. Note the inclusion of a dc restorer circuit (DC clamp) before the
modulator. Also note that because of modulation at a relatively low power
level, an amplifier is used after the modulated RF amplifier to raise the
power level. Accordingly this amplifier must be a class-B push-pull linear
RF amplifier. Both the modulator and power amplifier sections of the
transmitter employ specially designed VHF triodes for VHF channels and
klystrons in transmitters that operate in UHF channels.
The modulated output is fed to a filter designed to filter out part of the
lower sideband frequencies known as vestigial sideband.
The filter output feeds into a combining network where the output from the
FM sound transmitter is added to it. This network is designed in such a
way that while combining, either signal does not interfere with the working
of the other transmitter. A coaxial cable connects the combined output to
the antenna system mounted on a high tower situated close to the
transmitter. A turnstile antenna array is used to radiate equal power in all
directions. The antenna is mounted horizontally for better signal to noise


At the production control room video signal amplitude as received from
the camera is very low and direct coupled amplifiers are used to
preserve dc component of the signal. Further on, ac coupling is
provided because it is often technically easier and less expensive to use
such a coupling. This involves loss of dc component which, however, is
reinserted at the transmitter before modulation. This is carried out by a
dc restorer circuit often called a blanking levelclamp.
In the master control room the composite video signal is raised to
about one volt P-P level before feeding it to the cable that connects
the control room to the transmitter. Though the transmitter is located
close to the studios, often in the same building, matching networks
are provided at both ends of the connecting cable to avoid
unnecessary attenuation and frequency distortion.
For picture transmission, the signal is transmitted by amplitude
modulation transmitter.


When the intensity of picture brightness causes increase in amplitude of the
modulated envelope, it is called positive modulation. When the polarity of
modulating video signal is so chosen that sync tips lie at the 100 per cent
level of carrier amplitude and increasing brightness produces decrease in
the modulation envelope, it is called negative modulation. The two
polarities of modulation are illustrated in Fig. 7.12.



The outputs of all the microphones are terminated in sockets on the sound
panel in the production control room. The audio signal is accorded enough
amplification before feeding it to switchers and mixers for selecting and
mixing outputs from different microphones. The sound engineer in the
control room does so in consultation with the programme director. Some
prerecorded and special sound effects are also available on tapes and are
mixed with sound output from the studio at the discretion of programme
director. All this needs prior planning and a lot of rehearsing otherwise the
desired effects cannot be produced. As in the case of picture transmission,
audio monitors are provided at several stages along the audio channel to
keep a check over the quality and volume of sound.

For audio transmission, the signal is transmitted by frequency

modulation transmitter.



Integrated Services Digital Broadcasting (ISDB) Transmission


Integrated Services Digital Broadcasting (ISDB) Transmission


Integrated Services Digital Broadcasting (ISDB) Transmission


QAM (quadrature amplitude modulation)- the amplitude of two waves, 90 out-of-phase

with each other (in quadrature) are changed (modulated or keyed) to represent the data
signal. Amplitude modulating two carriers in quadrature can be equivalently viewed as
both amplitude modulating and phase modulating a single carrier.


Differential Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (DQPSK) - A variation on the QPSK modulation
technique, DQPSK relies on the difference between successive phases of a signal rather
than the absolute phase position.


Orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) - a method of encoding digital data

on multiple carrier frequencies.


Thank You So Much

Gwyn Tumulak Balolong

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