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Solutions, especially liquid solutions,

generally have markedly different
properties than either the pure
solvent or the solute. For example, a
solution of sugar in water is neither
crystalline like sugar nor tasteless
like water.

Some of the properties unique to

solutions depend only on the number
of dissolved particles and not their
identity. Such properties are called
colligative properties.

The colligative properties we will

consider in this SparkNote are vapor
pressure lowering, freezing point
depression, boiling point elevation,
and osmotic pressure.

When a nonvolatile solute is

dissolved in a solvent, the vapor
pressure of the resulting solution is
lower than that of the pure solvent.
The amount of the vapor pressure
lowering is proportional to the
amount of solute and not its identity.

Therefore, vapor pressure lowering is

a colligative property. The equation
that describes that phenomenon is
called Raoult's law.

Boiling point elevation is a colligative

property related to vapor pressure
lowering. The boiling point is defined
as the temperature at which the
vapor pressure of a liquid equals the
atmospheric pressure. Due to vapor
pressure lowering, a solution will
require a higher temperature to
reach its boiling point than the pure

Every liquid has a freezing point--the

temperature at which a liquid
undergoes a phase change from
liquid to solid. When solutes are
added to a liquid, forming a solution,
the solute molecules disrupt the
formation of crystals of the solvent.
That disruption in the freezing
process results in a depression of the
freezing point for the solution relative

When a solution is separated from a volume

of pure solvent by a semi-permeable
membrane that allows only the passage of
solvent molecules, the height of the solution
begins to rise. The value of the height
difference between the two compartments
reflects a property called the osmotic
pressure of a solution. As you know, if you
add more solvent to a solution, the two mix
together to form a more dilute solution.

The same forces allowing that mixing

serve to force solvent molecules from
the pure solvent compartment across
the membrane into the solution
compartment causing the change in
volume. The amount of osmotic
pressure is directly related to the
concentration of the solute. That is
because more concentrated the
solutions have greater potentials for

1. Vapor Pressure Lowering
- Adding a non volatile solute to a
solvent lowers the vapor pressure of
the resulting solution below that of
the pure solvent at the same
- Note: a non volatile solute is one that
has a low vapor pressure and
therefore a low tendency to vaporize

As the number of solute particles

increases, the reduction in vapor
pressure also increases; thus vapor
pressure is a colligative property.
What is important is not the identity
of the solute molecules but the fact
that they take up room on the
surface of the liquid

2. Boiling Point Elevation

- Adding a non volatile solute to a
solvent raises the boiling point of
the resulting solution above that of
the pure solvent.
Remember; the vapor pressure of the
solution is lower than that of the pure
solvent and that the boiling point is
dependent on vapor pressure

A higher temperature will be needed

to raise the depressed vapor
pressure of the solution to
atmospheric pressure, this is the
condition required for boiling.
Example: The coolant ethylene glycol
( a non volatile solute) is added to
car radiators to prevent boil over in
hot weather.

3. Freezing Point Depression

- Adding a non volatile solute to a solvent
lowers the freezing point of the resulting
solution below that of the pure solvent.
- The pressure of the solute particles
within the solution interferes with the
tendency of solvent molecules to line up
in an organized manner, a condition
necessary for the solid state.

A lower temperature is necessary before

the solvent molecule will form the solid.
NaCl is spread on roads and sidewalks to
melt ice or prevent it from forming. The salt
dissolves in the water to form a solution
that will not freeze until the temperature
drops much lower than zero degree Celsius,
the normal freezing point of water

4. Osmosis is the passage of a solvent

through a semi permeable membrane
separating a dilute solution ( or pure
solvent) from a more concentrated
Osmosis, the flow of solvent through
a semi permeable membrane from a
dilute to a more concentrated solution

Reverse Osmosis
- is used in the desalination of sea
water to make drinking water. Pressure
greater than the osmotic pressure is
applied on the salt water side of the
membrane to force solvent water
across the membrane from the salt
water side to the Pure water side.

Osmotic Pressure is the pressure that

must be applied to prevent the net
flow of solvent through a semi
permeable membrane from a
solution of lower solute concentration
to a solution of higher solute
The greater the concentration
difference between the separated
solutions, the greater the magnitude

1. The plants will die if watered with
salt, the salt solution outside the root
membranes is more concentrated than
the solution in the root, so water flows
out of the roots; then the plant
becomes dehydrated and dies.

2. When salt water is taken into the

stomach, water flows out of the
stomach wall membranes and into the
stomach; then the tissues become
dehydrated. Drinking sea water will
cause greater thirst because the body
will lose water rather than absorb it.


- Pertain to osmotic-type phenomena
that occur in the human body

When red cells are placed in pure

water, they swell up ( enlarge in size)
and finally rupture(burst) this process
is called HEMOLYSIS
- This is caused by an increase in the
amount of water entering the cells
compared with the amount of water
leaving the cells

Crenation when water moves from

the cells to the solution, causing the
cells to shrink in size
Isotonic is a solution with an osmotic
pressure that is equal to that within
Red blood cell fluid, physiological
saline solution, and 5% (m/v) glucose
water are all isotonic with respect to

If isotonic solutions were not used,

the damaging effects of hemolysis or
crenation would occur

Hypotonic solution a solution with a

lower osmotic pressure than that
within cells
Hypo means under or less than
Distilled water is hypotonic with
respect to red blood cell fluid

Hypertonic solution a solution with

a higher osmotic pressure than that
within cells
Hyper means over or more than
Concentrated NaCl is hypertonic with
respect to red blood cell fluid

Dialysis is the process in which a semi

permeable membrane allows the
passage of solvent, dissolved ions, and
small molecules but blocks the
passage of colloidal-sized particles and
large molecules

This can be used to purify a colloidal

solution containing protein molecules
and solute. The smaller solute
molecules pass through the dialyzing
membrane and leave the solution. The
larger protein molecules remain
behind. The result is a purified protein
colloidal dispersion

Reaction Rates
Factors that influence reaction rates
1. Physical nature of reactants
- subdividing a solid into smaller
particles increases surface area and
thus increase reaction rate

2. Reactant Concentration
- increase in reactant concentration
increases the rate of reaction because
more frequent collisions

3. Increase in Temperature
- increase in the temperature results
in the increase in the average kinetic
energy of the reacting molecules.
The increased molecular speed
causes more collisions and thus
increase in the reaction rate

4. Addition of Catalyst- enhance

reaction rates by providing alternative
reaction pathways that have lower
activation energies than the original,
uncatalyzed pathway
Lower activation energy increases
reaction rate

1. Chemical Equilibrium
2. Equilibrium Constants
3. Reversible Reaction