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Strength of Materials Slides

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OF MATERIALS

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

StressStrain Relationships

Hardness

Effect of Temperature on Properties

Fluid Properties

Viscoelastic Behavior of Polymers

2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Principles of Modern Manufacturing 4/e SI Version

Mechanical Properties in

Design and Manufacturing

Mechanical properties determine a materials behavior

when subjected to mechanical stresses

Properties include elastic modulus, ductility,

hardness, and various measures of strength

Dilemma: mechanical properties that are desirable to

the designer, such as high strength, usually make

manufacturing more difficult

2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Principles of Modern Manufacturing 4/e SI Version

StressStrain Relationships

be subjected:

1. Tensile - stretching the material

2. Compressive - squeezing the material

3. Shear - causing adjacent portions of the material

to slide against each other

Stressstrain curve - basic relationship that describes

mechanical properties for all three types

2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Principles of Modern Manufacturing 4/e SI Version

Tensile Test

Most common test for studying

stressstrain relationship,

especially metals

In the test, a force pulls the

material, elongating it and

reducing its diameter

(left) Tensile force applied and

(right) resulting elongation of

material

2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Principles of Modern Manufacturing 4/e SI Version

ASTM (American Society for

Testing and Materials)

specifies preparation of test

specimen

2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Principles of Modern Manufacturing 4/e SI Version

Tensile testing

machine

2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Principles of Modern Manufacturing 4/e SI Version

(1) no load; (2) uniform elongation and area reduction;

(3) maximum load; (4) necking; (5) fracture; (6) putting

pieces back together to measure final length

2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Principles of Modern Manufacturing 4/e SI Version

Engineering Stress

Defined as force divided by original area:

F

e

Ao

where e = engineering stress, F = applied

force, and Ao = original area of test specimen

2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Principles of Modern Manufacturing 4/e SI Version

Engineering Strain

Defined at any point in the test as

L Lo

e

Lo

where e = engineering strain; L = length at any

point during elongation; and Lo = original gage

length

2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Principles of Modern Manufacturing 4/e SI Version

Typical Engineering

Stress-Strain Plot

Typical engineering

stressstrain plot in a

tensile test of a metal

Two regions:

1. Elastic region

2. Plastic region

2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Principles of Modern Manufacturing 4/e SI Version

Elastic Region in

StressStrain Curve

Relationship between stress and strain is linear

Hooke's Law:

e = E e

where E = modulus of elasticity

Material returns to its original length when stress is

removed

E is a measure of the inherent stiffness of a material

Its value differs for different materials

2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Principles of Modern Manufacturing 4/e SI Version

Yield Point in

StressStrain Curve

As stress increases, a point in the linear relationship

is finally reached when the material begins to yield

Yield point Y can be identified by the change in

slope at the upper end of the linear region

Y = a strength property

Other names for yield point:

Yield strength

Yield stress

Elastic limit

2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Principles of Modern Manufacturing 4/e SI Version

Plastic Region in

StressStrain Curve

Yield point marks the beginning of plastic deformation

The stress-strain relationship is no longer guided by

Hooke's Law

As load is increased beyond Y, elongation proceeds

at a much faster rate than before, causing the slope

of the curve to change dramatically

2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Principles of Modern Manufacturing 4/e SI Version

Tensile Strength in

StressStrain Curve

Elongation is accompanied by a uniform reduction in

crosssectional area, consistent with maintaining

constant volume

Finally, the applied load F reaches a maximum value,

and engineering stress at this point is called the tensile

strength TS (a.k.a. ultimate tensile strength)

TS =

Fmax

Ao

2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Principles of Modern Manufacturing 4/e SI Version

Ability of a material to plastically strain without fracture

Ductility measure = elongation EL

Lf Lo

EL

Lo

where EL = elongation; Lf = specimen length at

fracture; and Lo = original specimen length

Lf is measured as the distance between gage marks

after two pieces of specimen are put back together

2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Principles of Modern Manufacturing 4/e SI Version

True Stress

Stress value obtained by dividing the instantaneous

area into applied load

F

A

where = true stress; F = force; and A = actual

(instantaneous) area resisting the load

2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Principles of Modern Manufacturing 4/e SI Version

True Strain

Provides a more realistic assessment of

"instantaneous" elongation per unit length

L

dL

L

ln

Lo

L L

o

2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Principles of Modern Manufacturing 4/e SI Version

True stressstrain

curve for previous

engineering

stressstrain plot

2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Principles of Modern Manufacturing 4/e SI Version

Strain Hardening in

Stress-Strain Curve

Note that true stress increases continuously in the

plastic region until necking

In the engineering stressstrain curve, the

significance of this was lost because stress was

based on the original area value

It means that the metal is becoming stronger as strain

increases

This is the property called strain hardening

2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Principles of Modern Manufacturing 4/e SI Version

True Stress-Strain

in Log-Log Plot

True stressstrain

curve plotted on

loglog scale.

2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Principles of Modern Manufacturing 4/e SI Version

Flow Curve

Because it is a straight line in a log-log plot, the

relationship between true stress and true strain in the

plastic region is

K n

where K = strength coefficient; and n = strain

hardening exponent

2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Principles of Modern Manufacturing 4/e SI Version

Categories of Stress-Strain

Relationship: Perfectly Elastic

Behavior is defined

completely by modulus of

elasticity E

Fractures rather than

yielding to plastic flow

Brittle materials: ceramics,

many cast irons, and

thermosetting polymers

2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Principles of Modern Manufacturing 4/e SI Version

Stress-Strain Relationships:

Elastic and Perfectly Plastic

Stiffness defined by E

Once Y reached, deforms

plastically at same stress

level

Flow curve: K = Y, n = 0

Metals behave like this when

heated to sufficiently high

temperatures (above

recrystallization)

2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Principles of Modern Manufacturing 4/e SI Version

Stress-Strain Relationships:

Elastic and Strain Hardening

Hooke's Law in elastic

region, yields at Y

Flow curve: K > Y, n > 0

Most ductile metals behave

this way when cold worked

2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Principles of Modern Manufacturing 4/e SI Version

Compression Test

Applies a load that squeezes

the ends of a cylindrical

specimen between two

platens

Compression force applied to

test piece and resulting

change in height and

diameter

2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Principles of Modern Manufacturing 4/e SI Version

2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Principles of Modern Manufacturing 4/e SI Version

Engineering Stress in

Compression

As the specimen is compressed, its height is reduced

and crosssectional area is increased

e = -

F

Ao

2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Principles of Modern Manufacturing 4/e SI Version

Engineering Strain in

Compression

Engineering strain is defined

h ho

e

ho

Since height is reduced during compression, value

of e is negative (the negative sign is usually ignored

when expressing compression strain)

2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Principles of Modern Manufacturing 4/e SI Version

Stress-Strain Curve in

Compression

Shape of plastic region is

different from tensile test

because cross section

increases

Calculated value of

engineering stress is

higher

2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Principles of Modern Manufacturing 4/e SI Version

Compression Test

Although differences exist between engineering

stressstrain curves in tension and compression, the

true stressstrain relationships are nearly identical

Since tensile test results are more common, flow curve

values (K and n) from tensile test data can be applied to

compression operations

When using tensile K and n data for compression,

ignore necking, which is a phenomenon peculiar to

strain induced by tensile stresses

2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Principles of Modern Manufacturing 4/e SI Version

Hard brittle materials (e.g., ceramics) possess elasticity

but little or no plasticity

Conventional tensile test cannot be easily applied

Often tested by a bending test (also called flexure test)

Specimen of rectangular crosssection is positioned

between two supports, and a load is applied at its

center

2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Principles of Modern Manufacturing 4/e SI Version

Bending Test

Bending of a rectangular cross section results in both

tensile and compressive stresses in the material:

(left) initial loading; (right) highly stressed and

strained specimen

2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Principles of Modern Manufacturing 4/e SI Version

Brittle materials do not flex

They deform elastically until fracture

Failure occurs because tensile strength of outer

fibers of specimen are exceeded

Failure type: cleavage - common with ceramics

and metals at low temperatures, in which

separation rather than slip occurs along certain

crystallographic planes

2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Principles of Modern Manufacturing 4/e SI Version

The strength value derived from the bending test:

TRS

1.5FL

bt 2

applied load at fracture; L = length of specimen

between supports; and b and t are dimensions of

cross section

2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Principles of Modern Manufacturing 4/e SI Version

Shear Properties

Application of stresses in opposite directions on

either side of a thin element: (a) shear stress and (b)

shear strain

2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Principles of Modern Manufacturing 4/e SI Version

deflection occurs.

Shear strain defined as

b

where = deflection element; and b = distance over

which deflection occurs

2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Principles of Modern Manufacturing 4/e SI Version

Typical shear

stressstrain curve

from a torsion test

2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Principles of Modern Manufacturing 4/e SI Version

Relationship

In the elastic region, the relationship is defined as

G

where G = shear modulus, or shear modulus of

elasticity

For most materials, G 0.4E, where E = elastic

modulus

2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Principles of Modern Manufacturing 4/e SI Version

Relationship

Relationship similar to flow curve for a tensile test

Shear stress at fracture = shear strength S

Shear strength can be estimated from tensile

strength: S 0.7(TS)

Since crosssectional area of test specimen in torsion

test does not change as in tensile and compression,

engineering stressstrain curve for shear true

stressstrain curve

2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Principles of Modern Manufacturing 4/e SI Version

Hardness

Resistance to permanent indentation

Good hardness generally means material is resistant

to scratching and wear

Most tooling used in manufacturing must be hard for

scratch and wear resistance

2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Principles of Modern Manufacturing 4/e SI Version

Hardness Tests

Commonly used for assessing material properties

because they are quick and convenient

Variety of testing methods are appropriate due to

differences in hardness among different materials

Most wellknown hardness tests are Brinell and

Rockwell

Other test methods are also available, such as Vickers,

Knoop, Scleroscope, and durometer

2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Principles of Modern Manufacturing 4/e SI Version

Widely used for testing

metals and nonmetals

of low to medium

hardness

A hard ball is pressed

into specimen surface

with a load of 500,

1500, or 3000 kg

2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Principles of Modern Manufacturing 4/e SI Version

Load divided into indentation area = Brinell Hardness

Number (BHN)

HB

2F

F = indentation load, kg; Db = diameter of ball,

mm, and Di = diameter of indentation, mm

2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Principles of Modern Manufacturing 4/e SI Version

Another widely used test

A cone shaped indenter is pressed into specimen

using a minor load of 10 kg, thus seating indenter in

material

Then, a major load of 150 kg is applied, causing

indenter to penetrate beyond its initial position

Additional penetration distance d is converted into a

Rockwell hardness reading by the testing machine

2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Principles of Modern Manufacturing 4/e SI Version

(1) initial minor

load and (2) major

load.

2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Principles of Modern Manufacturing 4/e SI Version

Effect of Temperature on

Properties

General effect of

temperature on

strength and ductility

2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Principles of Modern Manufacturing 4/e SI Version

Hot Hardness

Ability of a material to

retain hardness at

elevated

temperatures

Typical hardness as

a function of

temperature for

several materials

2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Principles of Modern Manufacturing 4/e SI Version

Recrystallization in Metals

Most metals strain harden at room temperature

according to the flow curve (n > 0)

But if heated to sufficiently high temperature and

deformed, strain hardening does not occur

Instead, new grains form that are free of strain

The metal has recrystallized

The metal behaves as a perfectly plastic material;

that is, n = 0

2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Principles of Modern Manufacturing 4/e SI Version

Recrystallization Temperature

Recrystallization temperature of a given metal = about

onehalf its melting point (0.5 Tm) as measured on an

absolute temperature scale

Recrystallization takes time

The recrystallization temperature is specified as the

temperature at which new grains are formed in about

one hour

2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Principles of Modern Manufacturing 4/e SI Version

Recrystallization and

Manufacturing

Recrystallization can be exploited in manufacturing

Heating a metal to its recrystallization temperature

prior to deformation allows a greater amount of

straining

Lower forces and power are required to perform

the process

Forming a metal at temperatures above its

recrystallization temperature is called hot working

2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Principles of Modern Manufacturing 4/e SI Version

Manufacturing

Fluids flow - they take the shape of the container that

holds them

Many manufacturing processes are accomplished on

materials converted from solid to liquid by heating

Called solidification processes

Examples:

Metals are cast in molten state

Glass is formed in a heated and fluid state

Polymers are almost always shaped as fluids

2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Principles of Modern Manufacturing 4/e SI Version

Viscosity in Fluids

Viscosity is the resistance to flow that is characteristic of a

given fluid

Flow is a defining characteristic of fluids, but the

tendency to flow varies for different fluids

Viscosity is a measure of the internal friction when

velocity gradients are present in the fluid

The more viscous the fluid, the higher the internal

friction and the greater the resistance to flow

Reciprocal of viscosity is fluidity

2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Principles of Modern Manufacturing 4/e SI Version

Viscosity

Viscosity can be defined using two parallel plates

separated by a distance d and a fluid fills the space

between the two plates

2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Principles of Modern Manufacturing 4/e SI Version

Shear Stress

Shear stress is the frictional force exerted by the fluid

per unit area

Motion of the upper plate is resisted by this frictional

force resulting from the shear viscosity of the fluid

This force F can be reduced to a shear stress by

dividing by plate area A

F

2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Principles of Modern Manufacturing 4/e SI Version

Shear Rate

Shear stress is related to shear rate, defined as the

change in velocity dv relative to dy

dv

dy

where = shear rate, 1/s; dv = change in velocity,

m/s; and dy = change in distance y, m

Shear rate = velocity gradient perpendicular to flow

direction

2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Principles of Modern Manufacturing 4/e SI Version

Shear Viscosity

Shear viscosity is the fluid property that defines the

relationship between F/A and dv/dy; that is,

F

dv

or

A

dy

where = a constant of proportionality called the

coefficient of viscosity, Pa-s

2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Principles of Modern Manufacturing 4/e SI Version

Coefficient of Viscosity

Rearranging, coefficient of viscosity can be

expressed:

rate during flow

2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Principles of Modern Manufacturing 4/e SI Version

Viscosity of Polymers

Viscosity of a thermoplastic polymer melt is not

constant

It is affected by flow rate

Its behavior is non-Newtonian

A fluid that exhibits this decreasing viscosity with

increasing shear rate is called pseudoplastic

This behavior complicates analysis of polymer

shaping processes such as injection molding

2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Principles of Modern Manufacturing 4/e SI Version

Fluids

Viscous behaviors of

Newtonian and

pseudoplastic fluids

Polymer melts exhibit

pseudoplastic behavior

For comparison, the

behavior of a plastic

solid material is

shown.

2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Principles of Modern Manufacturing 4/e SI Version

Viscoelastic Behavior

Material property that determines the strain that the

material experiences when subjected to combinations

of stress and temperature over time

Combination of viscosity and elasticity

2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Principles of Modern Manufacturing 4/e SI Version

Viscoelastic Behavior

(a) Response of

elastic material;

and (b) response

of a viscoelastic

material

Material in (b)

takes a strain that

depends on time

and temperature

2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Principles of Modern Manufacturing 4/e SI Version

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