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Materials Technology

Material Testing

Overview Testing Materials


Hardness Testing
Measures the materials resistance to indentation or scratching
Hardness Value
Read Directly From
Dial
Table Height
Adjustment

Indenter

Test Component
Placed on Table

Activating lever

Direct Reading Hardness Testing


Machine (Vickers or Brinell)

Overview Testing Materials


Vickers Hardness Testing
Measures the materials resistance to indentation or scratching

A square pyramid shaped


indenter (point angle 136) is
forced into the specimen. The
diagonal length of the indented
square is measured. This
measurement is taken by a
special microscope for accuracy.
It is then converted into a
Vickers hardness
number

Overview Testing Materials


Brinell Hardness Testing
Measures the materials resistance to indentation or scratching

The Brinell hardness test


uses a hardened steel or
tungsten carbide ball of
10mm, 5mm or 1mm
diameter. The diameter of
the indentation is measured
and it is used to indicate the
hardness of the material

Overview Testing Materials`


Simple Workshop Test (Hardness)
The Plunger is dropped
from a 500mm height
onto different materials.

Heavy Plunger

The indentations on
each test piece are
measured.
The deeper the
indentation the softer
the material

Clear Acrylic Tube

Specimen to be Tested
Steel Ball Bearing

Overview Testing Materials


Izod Impact Test
Measures a materials toughness
Start Position
of Pendulum

Pendulum

Scale to read energy


absorbed in breaking
the specimen

Test Specimen
Held Vertically
Vice

Overview Testing Materials`


Izod Impact Test
Measures a materials toughness
Pendulum
The Specimen is held
vertically in a vice
The notch on the
specimen faces the
pendulum

Vice
Specimen

The striking energy of


the pendulum is 167
Joules

Overview Testing Materials`


Charpy Impact Test
Measures a materials toughness
Pendulum
The Specimen is held
horizontally between
two supports
The notch on the
specimen faces away
from the pendulum

Support
Specimen

The striking energy of


the pendulum is 300
Joules

Overview Testing Materials`


Simple Workshop Test (Toughness)
Hammer
This is another
comparative test.
The specimen pieces
are held vertically in a
vice and hit with a
hammer

Vice

It is important to wear a
face shield or goggles
and for spectators to
stand well back.
Brittle materials will
fracture and possibly
splinter.

Specimen
Ductile Material

Overview Testing Materials`

Simple Workshop Test (Deflection)


This is another
comparative test

Weights
Platform

The specimen is placed on


the supports
Weights are placed on the
platform, pushing the
plunger down causing the
specimen to deflect
Specimens can be tested
to destruction or their
deflection is measured
when the same weight is
applied to each in turn

Plunger

Specimen

Supports

Overview Testing Materials`


Tensile Testing
Measures a materials tensile strength

Dial Gauge to Measure


Extension of Specimen

Clamps for Holding


Specimen

Simple Tensile Testing Machine

Overview Testing Materials`


Simple Workshop Test (Stiffness)
Clamped

Deflection

This is a comparative
test. The material to be
tested is clamped to a
bench.
Weights are applied to
the free end.
The amount of
deflection of each
material is measured
and compared with
each other

Specimen
Applied Weights