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UNDERGROUND CABLE
MANAGEMENT

February 15

(BSES Ltd, Mumbai)

Underground Cable Network


Underground cable network is an important element in the
power delivery chain from sub-transmission to the doorstep
of consumer.

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Importance of underground cable network and its efficient


management in the modern day electric utility is of prime
importance.

February 15

Underground cable network has salient benefits of


reliability and safety endowed with suitable technological
developments.

Company Profile

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BSES is a numero-uno company in the business of


Generation, Transmission and Distribution of electric supply
having near 100% underground distribution network in
suburbs of Mumbai.
BSES has developed a state of art distribution network with
high reliability and quality, which is apparent from its salient
vital system parameters.

February 15

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Vital Statistics
Supply Area
: 384 Sq Kms
No of Consumers
: 22.3 Lakhs
Population Covered
:Above 1 Crore
Connected Load
: 5537 MW
System Maximum Demand
: 1226 MVA
Power Transformers (20/10/15 MVA)
: 1682 MVA
No of Receiving Stations 33(22)/ 11 kV
: 49 Nos.
No of Distribution Substations
: 4083 Nos.
Distribution Transformer
: 2432 MVA
33 kV Capacitors
: 90.75 MVAR
11 kV Capacitors
: 390.968 MVAR
HV Mains (33/22/11 kV)
: 2829 Kms
LT Mains
: 2965 Kms
Street Light lamps
: 74810 Nos.
System loss
: 13.36 %
Reliability Index
: 99.98 %
Annual Growth in demand
: 3.59%
Power Transformer (Installed capacity to MD) : 1.37
Distribution Transformer(Installed capacity to MD) : 1.98

February 15

T & D Network
DTPS

Generation
16.5/ 220 kV
220 kV OH
Lines

220 kV OH Lines

Ghodbunder
220/ 33 kV R/S

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33 kV UG
Cables

Versova
1

33 (22)/ 11 kV
Receiving Station

22 kV UG Cables

Transmission
TPC
Tie Line

Aarey
4

TPC Supply
Points

SubTransmission

11 kV UG Cables

11/ 0.433 kV
Substation

11 kV UG Cables

LT UG Cables

February 15

Consumer

Distributio
n

T & D Network - Conductor/ Cable Details


Major
Types

Major
Sizes
(sq mm)

Circuit
kms

AAAC
Zebra

487.5 sq
mm

400 kms

33 kV, UG

XLPE

400, 300

281.23 kms

22 kV, UG

PILC

300

253.98 kms

11 kV, UG

PILC

240, 120, 70 2254 kms

LT Cables, UG

XLPE

240, 120, 50 2922.84 kms

Transmission
220 kV O/H Line

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Sub-Transmission

February 15

Distribution

Sub-Transmission Network
About 95 % of the Sub-Transmission and Distribution Network consists
of Underground Cables.
Typical single line diagram of a Receiving Station

February 15

22 / 33 kV Incomer
from BSES / Tata

22/33 kV Breaker

22/33 kV Breaker

10 / 20 MVA pow er
transformer

10 / 20 MVA power
transformer

11 kV Breaker

11 kV Breaker

C a p a c i to r N o . 2

Feed er

F eed er

F eed er

C a p a c i to r N o .1

F eeder

Feed er

Bus Coupler

S ta tio n T ra n s fo rm e r

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22 / 33 kV Incomer
from BSES / Tata

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Existing LT Cable Sizes

February 15

Sr. Core
Size
Type
No
1
3 1/2 C
300 AL
2
3 1/2 C
240 AL
3
3 1/2 C
225 AL
4
3 1/2 C
185 AL
5
3 1/2 C
150 AL
6
3 1/2 C
120 AL
7
3 1/2 C
95 AL
8
3 1/2 C
70 AL
9
3 1/2 C
50 AL
10
4/C
25 AL
11
3 1/2 C
0.2 CU
12
3 1/2 C
0.15 CU
13
3 1/2 C
0.1 CU
14
3 1/2 C
0.075 CU
15
3 1/2 C
0.06 CU
16
3 1/2 C
0.04 CU
17
4/C
0.0225 CU
18
4/C
0.0145 CU
19
2/C
0.0145 CU
20
4/C
16 AL
TOTAL

Length
(in km)
18.380
732.650
171.750
55.930
11.160
1315.600
32.220
4.010
315.390
32.140
12.870
27.570
59.960
58.580
3.390
88.410
48.620
21.390
2.910
3.490
3016.420

LT Cables of
more than 20
different
sizes
are present in
the system
For
Distribution
Network: 31/2 Core
300 and 150 sq mm
size XLPE Cables
have
been
Standardized

BSES Ltd. Mumbai - Site Conditions:

February 15

i)

Depth of trench

1.00 meters

ii)

Ground temperature

25 C

Iii)

Thermal resistivity of
soil

150C
cm/W

iv)

Ambient temperature

35 C

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The cable has adequate protection against corrosion in highly


contaminated soils like sea-beds/and or against electrolytic
action near D.C Traction system. Other conditions are as
follows:

Cross-Section of HT Cable

RMB/MISC/CABLE SEC.

PVC FILLER
STRANDED ALUMINIUM CONDUCTOR
INNER SEMICON

GALVANISED STEEL ROUND WIRE

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XLPE INSULATION

February 15

COPPER TAPE
SEMICONDUCTING WATER SWELLABLE TAPE
OUTER SEMICON
PVC ST2 OUTER SHEATH
PRESSURE EXTRUDED
PVC ST2 INNER SHEATH

CROSS SECTIONAL DRAWING FOR


33KV 3CX400 sq.mm-A2XWY CABLE

HT Cables

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19/33kV, 3 Core, 400mm2, XLPE CABLE

February 15

Operating Conditions: The 19/33kV (E) cable is used for


connection between bulk suppliers Receiving Station and
BSES Receiving Station and 33kV Switchgear to 33 kV
side of power transformers. The cable is supposed to
operate at a P.F. of 0.88 lagging.
Requirement: 19/33 kV(E) grade 90C rating heavy duty
3/core x 400mm2 aluminum conductor XLPE insulated,
screened, steel wire armoured, PVC sheathed cable
(A2XWY) suitable for use in earthed system.

HT Cables

11/11 KV (UE), 1 Core, 1000mm2 XLPE cables

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Operating Conditions: The 11/11kV (UE), 1 core, 1000


mm2, XLPE cable is used for connection between 11 kV
side of power transformer & 11 kV Incoming Panel cubical
at Receiving Station.
Requirement: 11/11 kV (UE) grade 90 deg.C rating
heavy duty 1/core x 1000.mm2 aluminum conductor XLPE
insulated, screened, unarmoured PVC sheathed cable
suitable for use in unearthed system.

February 15

HT Cables

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6.35/11kV, 3 Core, 150&300mm2, XLPE


CABLE

February 15

Operating Conditions: The 11kV (E) cables is used as 11


mains feeders emanating from BSES Receiving station
in various distribution substation along the routes of
Ring Mains underground feeders in different localities
of supply area.
Requirement: 11kV(E) grade rating heavy duty 3/core x
150 & 300mm2 aluminum conductor XLPE insulated,
screened, steel wire armoured, PVC sheathed cable
(A2XWY) suitable for use in earthed system .

HT Cables

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ComponentsConductor: H4 grade Aluminum conductor of electrolytic


grade stranded of circular cross section complying with IS8130/1984

February 15

Size
mm2

Min. Number
of Strands /
Wires
per conductor

Min. Diameter of each


Strand / wire before
compaction ( mm )

400

59

3.04

1/1000

89

3.93

300

36

3.4

150

36

2.4

HT Cables
Conductor Screening: Either non-metallic semi-conducting tape
or a layer of extruded semi-conducting compound or a
combination of two.
Insulation: XLPE extruded insulation

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Insulation Screening: Extruded Semi-conducting screening with


water swellable tapes and metallic screening.
Inner Sheath: Pressure extruded inner sheathing of Black PVC.
Armour: The Armour shall be of galvanized steel round wires
with fault level of 1500 MVA at 33kV & 500 MVA at 11 kV.
Duration of fault level is one (1) second.
Outer Sheath: An extruded outer sheathing of Blue PVC .

February 15

Cross-Section of LT Cable
D:\\ OLDHDD\MISC\cross sectional view of 3.5 c x 240 sqmm cable

CROSS SECTIONAL DRAWING FOR


3.5 C X 240 sqmm (A2 X FY) L.T. CABLE

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XLPE INSULATION

February 15

SECTOR SHAPED
ALLUMINUM CONDUCTOR

EXTRUDED PVC
OUTER SHEATH
FLAT G.S.STRIP
EXTRUDED PVC
INNER SHEATH

LT Cable

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LT cables Standardized Ratings are.


2 core 25 sq. mm
4 core 25 sq. mm
4 core 50 sq. mm
3.5 core 120 /240 sq. mm
3.5 core 150 / 300 sq. mm
Operating Conditions:
The 1.1 kV (E) type cable may be used as 1.1 kV, distribution
feeders emanating from BSES 4/6/8/10 way L.T. Pillars/ L.T. ACBs
to various distribution pillars along the routes of L.T.
underground feeders or in the streetlight application in different
localities of supply area.
Requirement: 1.1 kV (E), 2/4/3 core Aluminum conductor, XLPE
insulated, steel strip armoured. Inner and Outer extruded PVC
sheathed power cable (A2XFY) of various size suitable for use in
earthed system.
1

February 15

LT Cable

1.1 kV (UE), 1 Core 500mm2 XLPE,


un-armoured cable

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Operating Conditions:

February 15

The 1.1 kV (UE) type 1 core 500 mm2, distribution feeders


emanating from BSES Distribution Transformers to L.T.
Panels.
Requirement: 1.1kV(UE) 1/core Aluminum conductor, XLPE
insulated. Outer extruded PVC sheathed power cable (A2XY) of
size 500mm2 suitable for use in earthed system.

LT Cable
ComponentsConductor: H4 grade Aluminum conductor of electrolytic grade stranded of
various cross section is as per following table.
Sr
1
2

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February 15

4
5
6
7
8

Size
( mm2 )
3C/300
3C/240
3C/150
3C/120
4C/50
4C/25
2C/25
1/500

Conductor
Phase

Min. No.
of
Strands
36

Min. Diameter of
each wire (mm)
3.40

Shape of
Conductor
Sector

Neutral

36

2.40

Sector

Phase

36

3.12

Sector

Neutral

36

2.20

Sector

Phase

36

2.40

Sector

Neutral

19

2.30

Sector

Phase

36

2.20

Sector

Neutral

19

2.30

Sector

Phase

3.20

Sector

Neutral

3.20

Sector

Phase

2.17

Sector

Neutral

2.17

Sector

Phase

2.17

Circular

Neutral

2.17

Circular

Phase

59

3.5

Circular

LT Cable

Insulation: XLPE extruded insulation

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Inner Sheath: An extruded inner sheathing of Black PVC


conforming to the requirement of type ST-2.

February 15

Armour: The dimension of galvanized steel Strips shall


be as specified and shall conform to IS:7098/Pt-1
Outer Sheath: An extruded outer sheathing of Yellow PVC.

Cable Selection Criterion


Cable TypesXLPE, PILC & PVC.
XLPE cables are most popular because of its better electrical and thermal
properties like higher continuous operating temperature, Short Circuit
temperature, Break Down strength etc.

Main Considerations

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a) For 11 kV,22 kV and 33 kV cables,the cable size is determined by


continuous current rating and short circuit rating.
b) For 1.1 kV cable,the selection of size is determined by continuous
current rating,the maximum permissible voltage drop and short circuit
rating.
In addition to above, following are some factors for deciding the type and
size of cable.

February 15

a) Earth fault current carrying capacity.


b) Voltage drop (For low voltage system)
c) Power loss

Methods of Cable Laying


a) Laying direct in ground.
b) Drawing in ducts.
c) Horizontal Drilling.

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The cables are laid directly in ground or pulled in ducts. The pulling
tension is quite important and depends on the method of pulling.
Precaution is usually taken not to bend the cable to a sharp radius. Jerks
and pulls to the cables are avoided during installation. Suitable bedding
is provided below the cable.
The I.S. Standard 1255-1983 ,Mode of practice for installation and
maintenance of power cables up to and including 33 kV rating is a very
well brought out document which may offer guidelines with this respect.
Horizontal drilling is employed where excavation of roads for cable laying
is not possible. In this method the road is drilled horizontally and cables
are laid through Hume pipes which are inserted into the drilled holes.
Before cable laying, excavation permit from local municipal authorities is
taken with prior intimation and subsequently necessary road
reinstatement charges are paid on completion of work.
2

February 15

Cable Installation Plan

On completion of laying, termination and jointing of cables, a


computerized drawing is prepared, which contains the
following details of the installation.

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a)

February 15

b)
c)
d)
e)
f)
g)

Type of cables, cross-section area, rated voltage, details of


construction, cable number and drum number;
Year and month of laying;
Actual length between joint-to-joint or ends;
Location of cables and joints in relation to certain fixed
reference points, for e.g.- Buildings, hydrant, boundary
stones, etc;
Name of the jointer who carried the jointing work;
Date of making joint; and
Result of original electrical measurements and testing on
cable installation
All subsequent changes in the cable drawings are entered
after the job. All drawings are maintained in digital format. 2

Monitoring and maintenance of Cables

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Although the system might have been designed correctly at the time of
installation, over the period of years several changes may occur in the
system such as, Environmental changes, derating of existing cables
caused by installation of new cables in the vicinity, changes in the
thermal resistivity of soil,defects in the earthing and bonding caused
by breaks in the conductor and earthing material used,increase of
sheath potential beyond the permissible safe limits, excavations by
other utilities etc.

February 15

Due to any of the above reasons, faults may occur even in a well
designed system if not properly monitored and maintained.
Cable Safeguarding is done to prevent any damage to the
underground cables during excavation by other agencies.
The maintenance of cable installation includes route inspection,
periodic checking of current loadings, maintenance and care of all
cables and end terminations.

Maintenance of Distribution Network


Cable Route Inspection and Cable Safeguarding
By experience it is observed that about 75% of the cable faults in the
system occur due to damages to the UG cables by external agencies
who carry out excavation on all roads for their own construction

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activities. Hence to safeguard cables following procedures are followed.

February 15

Monthly Inspection of 33/22kV cable route in the entire system


Monthly inspection of 11 kV cross country cable routes in system
Major excavations by external agencies on all roads are
supervised and cables (HT/LT) are safeguarded.
Wherever existing roads are widened by the Municipal authorities,
our cables/street light poles are shifted and safeguarded.

Protection of cables
a) Normally the high voltage cables are protected against overcurrent
and earthfault, whereas low voltage cables, are protected by fuses.

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b) Cables connected between transformer secondary terminals and


controlling switchgear is deemed to be a part of the transformer for
protection purposes. For delta-star transformer an earth fault on these
cables will not be seen as such by the primary protection, hence these
cables are covered within the differential or the restricted earth fault
zone.

February 15

c) In case of an upstream radial feeder connected to another feeder


downstream ,the two protection will have to be coordinated so that in
case of a fault in the downstream feeder ,the upstream protection
works only as a backup.
d) In addition to the protection against internal faults or overcurrents,
the cables are also to be protected against lightning wherever these are
connected to overhead lines. The lightning arrestors are provided at
the junction of the cable and overhead line.

Cable Jointing Methods

Cable jointing is as important as manufacture/installation. A


very healthy cable, properly tested at the manufacturers work
and laid may fail due to defective and careless jointing.

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Types of Jointing carried out:

February 15

a) Polyurethane Cable Jointing.


b) Heat shrinkable Cable Jointing.
In case of cable joints (Straight Through Joints) and
terminations the emphasis is laid on quality and selection of
proper cable accessories, proper jointing techniques depending
on type of cable, skill and workmanship of the working
personnel. The quality of the joint is such that it does not add
any resistant to the circuit. The materials and techniques so
designed to give adequate mechanical and electrical protection
to the joints under all service conditions.

Cable Testing

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The cables are tested in accordance with relevant standards


to prove the design and general qualities of the cables as
below:-

February 15

a) Routine tests on each drum of cables.


b) Acceptance tests on drums chosen on random for
acceptance of
the lot.
c) Type tests.
The above tests include Conductor resistance Test, Partial
discharge Test, High Voltage Test, Short Circuit Current Test etc.

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Economic Considerations

While technical considerations decide the minimum conductor


cross-section, economics governs the optimum size, which
would give the minimum running cost. For this purpose, the
minimum size along with two or three higher sizes are
considered, and annual running costs for each size are worked
out by calculating loss (in terms of money) and
interest/depreciation of the cable cost. The total of these two
gives running cost. The size that gives the minimum running
cost is usually chosen.

February 15

Concept of Aerial Bunched Cables

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Aerial bunched cables are XLPE/HDPE insulated power


conductors of Aluminum laid together around a high tensile
stranded galvanized steel insulated or bare messenger wire to
form the Aerial bunched Cable. This assembly is directly strung
on to distribution pole/towers at any point of distribution.

February 15

Advantages:
a) Less fault rate on account of good protection against line and
ground faults.
b) High insulation resistance to earth in all seasons and
polluted atmospheres.
c) High capacitance and low inductance leading to low
impedance of lines.

Performance Analysis over overhead lines

General Points :

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The most important reasons for choosing underground cables


versus overhead lines are as under:
a) Heavily built-up urban or industrial regions, leaving little or
no room for overhead lines.
b) The costs of rights-of-way for an overhead line exceed the
extra cost of under grounding.
c) Congestion of overhead lines near substations or
generating stations.
d) Crossing of large railway yards and highway interchanges.
e) Aesthetic considerations, public laws and regulations
f) Safety of aviation.

February 15

Performance Analysis over overhead lines

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Technical Considerations :

February 15

a)

Loading: The permissible load of an overhead line is limited by


thermal expansion (sag) and the annealing temperature of the
conductor Whereas cable loading is mainly limited by the aging of
the insulating material ( dielectric loss),this loss is constant and
independent of the load carried.

b)

Inductance:Cables have much lower inductance than overhead


lines.Hence the voltage drop in underground cables is less due to
lower inductive reactance.

c)

Capacitance: Cables draw much higher charging currents than


overhead lines on account of the closer spacing between phases
and the proximity of the conductor and grounded cable insulation
sheath.

d)

Supply Interruptions: As the cable runs below the ground it is less


prone to natural disasters and accidents which consequently
reduces the trippings.

Fault Analysis of Underground Cables

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a) 75% of the interruptions are due to damaging of cables


by external agencies. For this it is recommended that
Safeguarding of the cable network be given due
importance.
b) 25 % of the interruptions are caused by component
failure. The number of interruptions can be reduced by
strict quality control, proper training of personnel to
improve the quality of workmanship, improvements in the
preventive/ condition based maintenance strategies.

February 15

Quantified Benefits
Failures of Transformers have been reduced due to achievement of
better cable safeguarding and hence reduction in number of faults on
the LV network thereby reducing surge current due to faults passing
through transformer have been avoided.

Failure rate of Distribution Transformers


3.00

2.00

Failure Rate

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2.50

1.50
1.00
0.50
0.00
1994-95

February 15

1995-96

1996-97

1997-98

1998-99

Year

1999-00

2000-01

2001-02

2002-03

Quantified Benefits
The Sound Underground Cable Maintenance and its Effective
Management has made BSES to maintain System Reliability Index to
almost 100%.

Reliability Index Curve

R
elia
b
ilityIn
d
ex%

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100

99

98
Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Year 2003

February 15

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

CONCLUSION

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Changes in the markets for electricity are leading to increased utilization of


transmission and distribution assets. Competition within the context of the
electricity open market leads to constant pressure on electricity tariffs,
compelling electric utilities to look at every option available to reduce their
operating expenses and optimize their capital investments.

February

Underground Distribution is aesthetically more appealing, is not prone to


weather related outages and hence is extremely reliable, allows for removal
of poles and lines from busy streets and densely populated areas and
hence eliminates obstructions and increases safety and results in simpler
and faster construction because the number of components & auxiliary
items for commissioning the lines are reduced.
Power delivery to concentrated markets such as major cities and dense
residential areas relies to a large degree on the continued efficient
performance of underground cables. New cables have to be reliable and
economical. Many existing underground cables are aging and loads are
increasing. These factors lead to the need for extra care in planned
maintenance and refurbishment or upgrading, in optimizing cable
3
15 operation and in design and installation of new cables

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Thank You
February 15, 2016