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Introduction to Oil

Tanker Design for

Indian Oil Corporation

Presented by Nikhil Raj,


Oil Tanker - Oil tanker means a ship constructed or
adapted primarily to carry oil in bulk in its cargo spaces.

Categories Crude Oil Tanker

- Product Oil Tanker

Type of Hull Construction

Single Hull Tankers These vessels have side shell/ bottom

shell as a common boundary between cargo tank and sea

Double Hull Tankers Double hull tankers are so designed

that the cargo tanks do not have side shell as a common

boundary. The space between the side shell and cargo tank
is generally used for ballast.

Note: IMO Phase out date for single hull tankers is 2015 or
25 years age, whichever is early

Oil Tanker Classification

General Purpose: 10,000 T 24,999 T Dwt
Medium Range : 25,000 T 44,999 T Dwt
Long Range 1
: 45,000 T 79,999T Dwt
Long Range 2: 80,000 T 159,999 T Dwt
: 160,000 T 319,999 T Dwt
: 320,000 T 549,999 T Dwt

Oil Tanker Classification

Product Tanker : 10,000 T 60,000 T Dwt
: 60,000 T 80,000 T Dwt
: 80,000 T 120,000 T Dwt
: 120,000 T 200,000 T Dwt
: 200,000 T 315,000 T Dwt
: 320,000 T 550,000 T Dwt

Oil Tanker Design

Factors to be considered for an Oil Tanker Design:
Market requirements.
Regulatory requirements e.g. SOLAS, MARPOL,
Classification Society Requirements.
Port/ Terminal Requirements e.g. draft, size,
mooring, etc.
Oil Major Requirements.
Flag State Additional Requirements, if any.
National/ International Standards.
Special areas Requirements e.g. ECAs
Owners extra requirements

Oil Tanker Design

Main Parameters
Dimensions (Length/ Breadth/ Depth/ Draft)
Power of Main Engine
Dead Weight
Cargo Capacities

Cargo Tank Arrangement

CargoTank Arrangement on VLCC

Oil Tanker Design

Class Requirements for Hull Design
All Oil tankers of Length more than 150 m are
required to comply with the Common Structural
Rules (CSR) of IACS.
Vessels of length less than 150 m are required to
comply with the requirements of individual
Classification Societies.
Design life of 25 years is considered for all Oil
Tankers built to CSR. The design life of tankers
not complying with CSR is 20 years unless it is
specified higher.

Midship Section of Panamax Tanker

Midship Section of a VLCC

Painting of Cargo Tanks

As per new SOLAS amendments Regulation II-1/3-11,
all new crude oil tankers of 5,000 dwt or above
engaged on international voyages are required to
comply with Performance Standard for Protective
Coatings for Cargo Oil Tanks as per following schedule:
Contract date: 1 January, 2013
Keel laying date: 1 July, 2013
Delivery date: 1 January, 2016
The target life of coating system is 15 years. All
vessels are required to maintain a Coating Technical
File for Cargo tank coatings endorsed by Class. All tank
coatings shall be type approved as per IMO.

Oil Tanker Design


requirement for an Oil Tanker.



It is normally guided by the Oil terminal

requirement which is higher

Classification Requirements.



All oil tankers have to comply with OCIMF

guidelines on mooring vessels at Oil terminals,

Single Point Moorings and Double banking/
STS transfer.

Typical Mooring Arrangement

at a Berth

Single Point Mooring

Ship to Ship Transfer Operation

Cargo System
Design of Cargo System depends upon the

number of different grades of cargo to be

loaded simultaneously i.e. 3 or 4 grades.
All segregations are to be double valve as per
Vessel to be provided with Cargo Manifold as
per OCIMF guidelines.
Vessels fitted with Pump room are required to
comply with OCIMF paper on Pump Room
Product Tankers may be designed without

Cargo System
In case of emergency during adverse weather

condition, vessel can load water in a designated

cargo tank. A separate sea suction is provided
for the same in the pump room with valve
testing arrangements.
Connection is also made between ballast and
cargo system for emergency de-ballasting using
cargo pumps.
All overboard discharge from cargo tanks must
be led through an approved type Oil Discharge
and Monitoring Equipment.

Cargo Pumping System

Cargo pumping system consists of cargo pumps, tank

cleaning pump, stripping pump and cargo eductors.

Steam Turbine driven cargo pumps are generally
provided for cargo pumping system in bigger tankers.
Electric driven cargo pumps are provided mostly on
small tankers.
The prime movers are placed in safe zone inside the
engine room.
Product Tankers up to Panamax size may also be
provided with submerged type cargo pumps fitted in
each tank.

Cargo Manifold Arrangement

Tank Cleaning System

A separate tank cleaning system is required to be

provided on the vessel to carryout tank cleaning/ Crude

Oil Washing (>20,000T Dwt).
The tank cleaning system consists of fixed tank
machines and portable tank cleaning machines.
The number of tank cleaning machines for each tank is
decided based on the shadow diagram.
Vessel is required to carry out Crude Oil Washing of
25% of the tanks during each discharging operation.
Hot Water washing of the cargo tanks is carried out at
the time of layup using a tank cleaning heater.

Safety Measures
The cargo inside each tank is carried in an inert environment.
Gas sampling system is provided for double hull spaces and

void spaces (20,000T Dwt & above) in the cargo area & pump
room for vessels fitted with pump room.
Accommodation air conditioning air intake is also provided
with gas detection system to avoid oil vapours entering the
accommodation areas.
Cargo deck is protected by Foam type fire extinguishing
Emergency Towing Arrangements are required to be provided
at both forward and aft end of Tankers of Dwt > 20,000 T as
per SOLAS. Emergency Towing Procedure Manual to be kept
on the vessel.

Safety Measures
Safe Access to Tanker Bow as per SOLAS II-1, Reg 3-3.
Permanent Means of Access inside Cargo Tanks as per SOLAS II-1,

Reg 3-6. All Tankers are required to be provided with Ship Structure
Access Manual.
Venting arrangement for cargo tanks.
- Mast Risers (30m/s) - Primary
- Pressure/ Vacuum Valve (20m/s) Secondary 1.25 the tank
loading rate
- Pressure sensors (Alternative)
- Design capacity 1.25 times the loading rate of cargo system
Venting of Pump Room : 20 air changes/ hr
Cargo, Ballast and Stripping Pumps for bulkhead shaft glands,
bearing and casing - audible & visible alarm/trips
Lighting in Pump room to be inter-locked with the ventilation
system such that the ventilation is in operation when switching on
the lights.

Safety Measures
Pump room to be provided with bilge level

monitoring devices with alarms in CCR.

Fixed fire extinguishing system for pump
Vibration monitoring of Cargo pumps and
Ventilation fans.
Cargo pump gland seal leakage alarm in CCR.

Safe Access to Tanker


Mast Riser/ Vent Riser

Pressure/ Vacuum

Inert Gas System

All new Oil Tankers of Dwt > 8,000 T are to be fitted with an Inert Gas

Crude Oil Tankers are provided with Inert Gas Plant based on flue gas
generation in the Aux. Boilers.
Product Tankers are provided with Inert Gas Generating plant burning
Diesel Oil to avoid cargo contamination.
Maximum Oxygen content in the tanks are maintained at 8% in the
cargo tanks and 5% in the IG line as per rules.
Vessels are also provided with vapour manifold as per USCG/ OCIMF
requirements to return vapour to the shore facilities during loading/
unloading operations.
Gas freeing of the cargo tanks is carried out by passing fresh air to
the cargo tanks using IG Fans and releasing the cargo vapours in the
air through vent risers/ opening gas freeing covers fitted on each
tank or provided separately in the cargo piping system .

Pollution Prevention
Double Hull Construction.
Segregated Ballast (>20,000T Dwt & above).
Pump room is provided with double bottom.
Oil Spill Coaming/ spill tray provided for containment of

oil spill on deck and manifold.

Ballast System pipes, air vent pipes, sounding pipes of
ballast tanks should not pass through cargo tanks and
cargo pipes should not pass through the ballast tanks.
Slop tanks to retain tank washings, deck spill, dirty
Vessel to be provided with approved type Oil Discharge
and Monitoring Equipment as per MARPOL.

Cargo Monitoring System

Cargo level gauging system combined with

pressure sensors and monitored in the

High/ High Alarms in CMS monitored in CCR
Closed ullage system for manual ullage
Hand dipping posts.
Overfill alarm.

Role of Classification Society

Develop Rules for design andconstruction of ships.
Approve designs against their Rules.
Conduct surveys during construction to satisfy the ship is

built in accordance with the approved design and to the

requirements of the Rules.
Acts as a Recognised Organisation carrying out statutory
surveys & certification as delegated by maritime
Regulations for in-service inspection and periodic survey
during operation.
Research and development programmes.
Support international organisations IMO,ISO,IACS.

Role of Director General of Shipping

Preparation of Merchant Shipping Rules related

to Crew Accommodation, Safety Construction of

Vessel, Life Saving Appliances, Fire Fighting
Prevention, Radio Rules, etc.
Final Approving authority for compliance with
Guides Shipping Industry on application of Rules

Thank You