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Cement is obtained by burning a

mixture of calcareous and
argillaceous materials at a very
high temperature.
Cement is used as a binding
material in mortar, concrete, etc.

Calcareous Materials: Calcareous Materials

are compounds of calcium and magnesium.
Limestones are common calcareous material
used in manufacturing cement.
Argillaceous Materials: Argillaceous
Materials are mainly silica, alumina and
oxides of iron. Clay and shale are common
argillaceous material used as cement
ingredient in the process of manufacturing

Functions of Cement

(i) Lime (CaO):

This is the important ingredient of cement
and I s proportion is to be carefully
maintained. The lime in excess makes the
cement unsound and causes the cement to
expand and disintegrate. On the other hand, if
lime is in deficiency, the strength of cement
decreases and it causes cement to set quickly.

(ii) Silica (SiO2):

This is also an important ingredient of
cement and it gives or imparts strength to the
cement due to the formation of dicalcium
and tricalcium silicates. If silica is present in
excess quantity, the strength of cement
increases but at the same time, its setting
time is prolonged.

(iii) Alumina (Al2O3):

This ingredient imparts quick setting
property to the cement. It acts as a flux and
it lowers the clinkering temperature.
However the high temperature is essential
for the formation of a suitable type of
cement and hence the alumina should not
be present in excess amount as it weakens
the cement.

(iv) Iron Oxide (Fe2O3):

This ingredient imparts color, hardness and
strength to the cement.

(v) Magnesia (MgO):

This ingredient, if present in small amount,
imparts hardness and color to the cement. A
high content of magnesia makes the cement

(vi) Calcium Sulphate (or) Gypsum (Ca

SO4) :
This ingredient is in the form of gypsum
and its function is to increase the initial
setting time of cement.

Sulphur (S): A very small amount of

sulphur is useful in making sound
cement. If it is in excess, it causes
cement to become unsound.
Alkalis: The most of the alkalis present
in raw materials are carried away by
the flue gases during heating.

The above constituents forming the raw

materials undergo chemical reactions during
burning and fusion, and combine to form the
following compounds called BOGUE

Tricalcium aluminate, C3A:It liberates a lot of heat during the early stages of
hydration, but has little strength contribution.
Gypsum slows down the hydration rate of C3A.
Cement low in C3A is sulpate resistant.
Tricalcium silicate, C3S:This compound hydrates and hardens rapidly. It is
largely responsible for portland cements initial set
and early strength gain.

Dicalcium silicate, C2S:

C2S hydrates and hardens slowly. It is largely
responsible for strength gain after one week.
Tetra Calcium Alumino Ferrite, C4AF:
This is a fluxing agent which reduces the melting
temperature of the raw materials in the kiln (from
3,000o F to 2,600o F). It hydrates rapidly, but does
not contribute much to strength of the cement
By mixing these compounds appropriately,
manufacturers can produce different types of
cement to suit several construction environments.

A typical example of cement contains

5070% C3S,
1530% C2S,
510% C3A,
515% C4AF, and
38% other additives or minerals (such
as oxides of calcium and magnesium).

(1) Mixing and crushing of raw materials
a. Dry process
b. Wet process
(2) Burning
(3) Grinding

Mixing of Raw Materials : (a) Dry process:

In this process calcareous material such as lime
stone (calcium carbonate) and argillaceous
material such as clay are ground separately to fine
powder in the absence of water and then are mixed
together in the desired proportions. Water is then
added to it for getting thick paste and then its cakes
are formed, dried and burnt in kilns. This process
is usually used when raw materials are very strong
and hard.
In this process, the raw materials are changed to
powdered form in the absence of water.

(b) Wet process:

In this process, the raw materials are changed to
powdered form in the presence of water.
In this process, raw materials are pulverized by using
a Ball mill, which is a rotary steel cylinder with
hardened steel balls. When the mill rotates, steel
balls pulverize the raw materials which form slurry
(liquid mixture). The slurry is then passed into
storage tanks, where correct proportioning is done.
Proper composition of raw materials can be ensured
by using wet process than dry process. Corrected
slurry is then fed into rotary kiln for burning.

(b) Wet Process:


This process is generally used when raw materials

are soft because complete mixing is not possible
unless water is added.
Actually the purpose of both processes is to
change the raw materials to fine powder.

(2) Burning:
Corrected slurry is feed to rotary kiln, which
is a 150-500 feet long, 8-16 feet in diameter
and temperature arrangement is up to 15001650 degree C.At this temperature slurry
losses moisture and forms into small lumps,
after that changes to clinkers. Clinkers are
cooled in another inclined tube similar to kiln
but of lesser length.


(3) Grinding:
Now the final process is applied which is
grinding of clinker, it is first cooled down to
atmospheric temperature. Grinding of clinker
is done in large tube mills. After proper
grinding gypsum (Calcium sulphate Ca SO4)
in the ratio of 01-04 % is added for
controlling the setting time of cement.
Finally, fine ground cement is stored in
storage tanks from where it is drawn for

1. Ordinary Portland Cement
2. Sulphate Resisting Cement
3. Rapid Hardening Cement (or) High
Early Strength Cement
4. Quick Setting Cement
5. Low Heat Cement
6. High Alumina Cement
7. Air Entraining Cement
8. White Cement


It is the variety of artificial cement. It is
called Portland cement because on
hardening (setting) its colour resembles to
rocks near Portland in England. It was first
of all introduced in 1824 by Joseph Asp din,
a bricklayer of Leeds, England.

Chemical Composition of O.P.Cement:

O.P.C has the following approximate chemical

The major constituents are:

1. Lime
2. Silica
3. Alumina


60- 63%
17- 25%
03- 08%

Chemical Composition of O.P.Cement: Continued-------

The auxiliary constituents are:


Iron oxide
Sulphur Tri Oxide (SO3)

0.5- 06%
1.5- 03%
01- 02%
01 to 04%


It is modified form of O.P.C and is specially
manufactured to resist the sulphates. In certain
regions/areas where water and soil may have alkaline
contents and O.P.C is liable to disintegrate, because of
unfavourable chemical reaction between cement and
water, S.R.C is used. This cement contains a low %age
of C3A not more than 05%.
This cement requires longer period of curing. This
cement is used for hydraulic structures in alkaline water
and for canal and water courses lining. It develops
strength slowly, but ultimately it is as strong as O.P.C.


This cement contains more %age of C3S and less %age of
C2S. This is infact high early strength cement. The high
strength at early stage is due to finer grinding, burning at
higher temperature and increased lime content. The
strength obtained by this cement in 04 days is same as
obtained by O.P.C in 14 days. This cement is used in
highway slabs which are to be opened for traffic quickly.
This is also suitable for use in cold weather areas. One
type of this cement is manufactured by adding calcium
chloride (CaCl2) to the O.P.C in small proportions.
Calcium chloride (CaCl2) should not be more than 02%.
When this type of cement is used, shuttering material can
be removed earlier.


When concrete is to be laid under water,
quick setting cement is to used. This cement
is manufactured by adding small %age of
aluminum sulphate (Al2SO4) which
accelerates the setting action. The setting
action of such cement starts with in 05
minutes after addition of water and it
becomes stone hard in less than half an


In this cement the heat of hydration is
reduced by tri calcium aluminate (C3 A )
content. It contains less %age of lime than
ordinary port land cement. It is used for
mass concrete works such as dams etc.


This cement contains high aluminate %age
usually between 35-55%. It gains strength
very rapidly with in 24 hours. It is also
used for construction of dams and other
heavy structures. It has resistance to
sulphates and action of frost also.


This type of cement was first of all developed in U.S.A
to produce such concrete which would have resistance
to weathering actions and particularly to the action of
frost. It is found that entrainment of air or gas bubbles
while applying cement, increases resistance to frost
action. Air entraining cement is produced by grinding
minute air entraining materials with clinker or the
materials are also added separately while making
concrete. Entrainment of air also improves workability
and durability. It is recommended that air contents
should be 03-04 % by volume.
Natural resins, fats, oils are used as air entraining


This cement is called snowcrete. As iron
oxide gives the grey colour to cement, it is
therefore necessary for white cement to keep
the content of iron oxide as low as possible.
Lime stone and china clay free from iron
oxide are suitable for its manufacturing. This
cement is costlier than O.P.C. It is mainly
used for architectural finishing in the


1.Colour greenish grey.
2.One feels cool by thrusting ones hand in
the cement bag.
3.It is smooth when rubbed in between
4.A handful of cement thrown in a bucket of
water should float.


(1) Fineness Test,
(2) Standard Consistency test
(3) Setting Time Test
(4) Compressive strength test
(5) Tensile strength test

(1) Fineness Test:

Finer cements react quicker with water and develop
early strength, though the ultimate strength is not
affected. However finer cements increase the
shrinkage and cracking of concrete. The fineness is
tested by:
By Sieve analysis:
Break with hands any lumps present in 100 grams
of cement placed in IS sieve No.9 and sieve it by
gentle motion of the wrist for 15 minutes
continuously. The residue when weighed should not
exceed 10 percent by weight of the cement sample.

(2) Standard Consistency Test Test :

This test is performed to determine the quantity

of water required to produce a cement paste of
standard or normal consistency.
Vicat apparatus is used for performing this test.

(3) Setting Time Test:

In cement hardening process, two instants are
very important, i.e. initial setting and final

Initial Setting Time:

The process elapsing between the time
when water is added to the cement and
the time at which the needle ( 1 mm
square or 1.13 mm dia., 50 mm in
length) fails to penetrate beyond 33 to 35
mm from the top block , is known as
Initial Setting Time of Cement.

Final Setting Time:

(4) Compressive Strength test of Cement:

This test is very important. In this test, three moulds
of (face area 50 cm2) are prepared and cured under
standard temperature conditions and each cube
tested by placing it between movable jaws of the
compressive strength testing machine. The rate of
increasing load is zero in the beginning and varies at
350 kg/cm2 per minute. The load at which the cube
gets fractured divided by the cross sectional area of
the cube, is the compressive strength of the cube.
The average of the compressive strengths of three
cubes is the required compressive strength of the
cement sample.