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Cell Structure and

Functions

Table of contents
Functions of a cell
Parts of a cell
Cellular Respiration
Glycolysis
Krebs Cycle
Electron Transport Chain

What is a Cell ?
It it is the basic unit of life.
It is the structural ,
Functional and biological
unit of every living
organism.

How big is the cell

Parts of a Cell

Centriole
Exist as a pair near the
nucleus.
Plays a part in the
seperaiton of
chromosomes during
cell division

Cilia and Flagella


Cilia (small and numerous) and
flagella (large and single) have a 9 +
2 pattern of microtubules and are
involved in cell movement.
Cilia and flagella move when the
microtubule doublets slide past one
another.
Each cilium and flagellum has a
basal body at its base.

Chromatin
> Consists of deoxyribonucleic
acid (DNA) bound to proteins
( found in the nucleus).
>During cell division, it
condenses to form distinct
threadlike structures called
chromosomes.

Cytoplasm
> site for most of the
chemical activities of the
cell.

Rough endoplasmic Reticulum (RER)


>flatten membrane bound structures.
> The outer surface of the RER is continous with the nuclear
membrane and it is covered with ribosomes
> it transports the proteins made by ribosomes to the golgi
apparatus for secretion out of the cell.

Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum(SER)


> it is more tubular in structure and
attached to the RER
> it doesn't have ribosomes attached
to it.
> The SER synthesis substances like
fats and steriods
> It is also involved in the process of
detoxification by converting harmful
substances into harmless substances.

Golgi Apparatus
> Appears as a stack of flattened
spaces surrounded by membranes.
> Vesicles tend to fuse at one side pf
the Golgi apparatus and pinch off from
the opposite side.
> It stores and modifies substances
produced by the ER
> It packages substances in vesicles
and secretes them out of the cell.

Lysosomes
:circular,

but bigger than


ribosomes
Nickname: Clean-up Crews
Function: to break down food into
particles the rest of the cell can use
and to destroy old cells

Intracellular digestion
Releases nutrients
Breakdown of waste

Mitochodiria

- The power House of the cells


- it converts oxygen and nutrients
into energy thourgh cellular
repiration.

Nucleus
-Coordinates the cell's
activities,Which include growth,
metabolic reactions, photo synthesis
and reproduction (cell division)
- Stores the cell's hereditary material,
or DNA
- It consists of nuclear enevelope
which encloses the nucleoplasm and
DNA

Plasma Membrane
- it is also called cell surface
membrane
- It is lipid bilayer and may have
proteins embedded in it
-It is partially permeable
membrane
- it regulates what enters and
leaves the cell and also provides
protection and support.

Protoplasm
- It consists of plasma
membrane, cyctoplasm and
nucleus.
- It consists of about 70% to
90% water with dissolved
substances like mineral salts
and organic compounds.

Ribosomes
- Involved in protein synthesis
- Found freely in the cytoplasm or
attached to the surface of the rough
endoplasmic reticulum
- Ribosomes found free in the
cytoplasm make proteins used within
the cell.
-Ribosome attached to the RER make
protiens that will be transported out of
the cell.

Vacuole
- Structure used to store
materials like water, salts,
proteins and carbohydrates.

Prokaryotes versus Eukaryotes


Cell
Structure

Prokaryot
es

Eukaryote
s

Size

Smaller
1-10mm
in
diameter

Larger
10100mm in
diameter

Nuclear
envelope

Absent

Present

Membran
e bound
organelle
s

Absent

Present

nuclear
material

Singular
loop of
circular
DNA

Doublestranded
DNA
arranged

6 Major Functions Of Membrane


Proteins
Signal transduction is when the binding of the messenger
to the receptor triggers a chain reaction involving other
proteins, which relay the message to a molecule that
performs a specific activity inside the cell.
Cell-cell recognition is the ability of a cell to distinguish one
type of neighboring cell from another. This attribute is
important in cell sorting and organization as tissues and
organs in development. It is also the basis for rejection of
foreign cells by the immune system. Cells recognize other
cells by keying on surface molecules, often carbohydrates,
on the plasma membrane.

6 Major Functions Of Membrane


Proteins
Intercellular joining is when membrane proteins
of adjacent cells may be hooked together in
various kinds of intercellular junctions. Some
membrane proteins (CAMs) of this group provide
temporary binding sites that guide cell migration
and other cell-to-cell interactions.
Enzymatic activity is when a protein built into the
membrane may be an enzyme with its active site
exposed to substances in the adjacent solution. In
some cases, several enzymes in a membrane act
as a team that catalyzes sequential steps of a
metabolic pathway as indicated (left to right) here.

6 Major Functions Of Membrane


Proteins
Cell-cell recognition is when some glycoproteins
(proteins bonded to short chains of sugars) serve as
identification tags that are specifically recognized by
other cells.
Attachment to the cytoskeleton and extracellular
matrix (ECM): Elements of the cytoskeleton (cells
internal supports) and the extracellular matrix (fibers
and other substances outside the cell) may be
anchored to membrane proteins, which help maintain
cell shape and fix the location of certain membrane
proteins. Others play a role in cell movement or bind
adjacent cells together