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A Nation Divided

To What Extent is the Arab-Israeli

Conflict undermining human security
within the nation

18th century Palestine contained average of
82% Muslim 10% Christian and 4% Jewish.
Multicultural population.
Tables turned late 1800s as Zionists wanted
to gain a homeland for Jews
As more Zionists settled the which resulted
in the indigenous people became skeptical
Violence ensued as each group wanted
rights for the land .

Violence continued leading to UN
Resulted in Jews gaining 55% of the
Several wars followed with it
resulting in Israel gaining more land
As violence continues there is yet to
be a solution

Inhabitants remain affected especially as it relates to the
Problems based on differing ethnicity and religion is also
present as some of the land Israel occupies is considered
holy ground.
Jews seem to have an upper hand since the Cold War
agreement with the U.S
Palestine is still seen as non-self-governing which leads to
nationals having little influence and being susceptible to
mistreatment which undermines their human security.
Israelis are also affected by violence as it relates to
conflict in the land.

In terms of human security security and
insecurity can vary (Tadjbakhsh (2009)
On one hand inability to have access to
jobs, health care, social welfare, and
education and so on.
It can also be seen as the violation of
human rights, extremism, violence, spread
of conflicts and the like.
Both conceptions are considered when it
comes to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict.

Thesis Statement
The Arab-Israeli Conflict causes security to be
major issue within the occupants of Israel.
Military security seems to be deemed as more
Before 1948 the land was known as Palestine
hence the who does it belong to disagreement
With so much loss of life and infringement of
human security the emphasis is now to shifting
to finding ways to promote peace to maintain
human security (Nusseibeh, 2008).

Thesis Statement
This paper seeks to analyze the journey towards
the current state of conflict and its continuance
among Israelis and Palestinians.
Aims to show the way in which the constructivist
concept can explain the reason for conflict or why
the state chooses to maintain state security while
having little regard towards human security.
This paper seeks to explore the emergence of the
Israeli and the Palestinian settlements and conflict
and how these historical events have brought on
issues which undermine human security within the

Research Questions
Is human security being undermined in the Israeli-Palestinian

What are the reasons for the Arab-Israeli conflict?

What are the ways in which the conflict affects human security?

Is state security undermining human security?

What is the constructivist explanation for the happenings in the

Can there be a way to promote or encourage human security?

Literature Review
Origin of the conflict
Jews for Justice in the Middle East (2001)
claim that writings give the idea that in the
19th century Zionists appeared in Palestine
to regain their homeland.
Resulting in forceful opposition by the
current population (Palestinian Arabs)
Zionists had to fight back and so the conflict

Literature Review
Origin of the conflict
However, its refuted as Zionists initial
intention was to form a holistic Jewish
disregarding indigenous population.
Land was held in the name of the Jewish
Thus making it impossible for it to be
leased or sold back to Arabs
Arabs strongly opposed and conflict ensued

Literature Review
Present Day
Darweish (2010) The continuance of
structural inequalities results in
continuance of the conflict as occupants of
the land are experiencing injustice and
The colonial type approach seems to still
be at hand in order to ensure continuance
of one ethnic group possessing power and

Literature Review
Exercised through the structures, systems,
laws and regulations established thus leading
to a manipulation of rights and privileges to
anyone not categorized as Jewish
Contributing to the continuance of violence
as, the Arabs try to regain equality (Darweish
As Jews acquire the most as the conflict
continues, Israel is acknowledged as a Jewish

Literature Review
Even Jews outside the state can gain
citizenship according to the Law of
Return (1950) and the Citizenship law
While the possibility of a Palestinian to
become a full citizen remains futile.
Jews experience participation, housing
and infrastructure, planning and
building authority, livelihood and access
to water and land

Literature Review
Palestinians experience a
discriminatory system and structure
where they are faced with economic
deprivation, exhaustion, despair and
denial of national rights (Darweish

Literature Review
Human Security Undermined
Human security in Israel, according to the
Arab National society for Health, Research and
Services (R.A), threats towards the inhabitants
of Israel derive from the state itself.
These threats affect mostly the ethnic
Israel sees its Arab minority as an inside
threat to its existence thus, their rights and
privileges are under constant watch.

Literature Review

They have been sidelined politically, socially and

economically; therefore they depend heavily on the
economic, cultural and political arrangements.
They have little say or influence on their lives as well
as their society at large.
In relation to reducing the marginalization of human
security Nusseibeh reframing security as human
security can clear the path for a genuine search for
However, Israel has made several implementations to
maintain traditional security which is more focused on
military might.

Literature Review
Despite these enactments inhabitants of
the nation are still in fear and faced with
humiliation. This is due to heavy
application of Israels security measures.
Thus, Nusseibeh suggests that focus should
be placed on reducing guns and the
concentration on military might which can
lead to better protection for all inhabitants.
As such, switching the focus from military
security to human security.

Conceptual Framework
Javadikouchaksaraei et al (2015), states in IR
constructivism theory has played a major role in
analyzing phenomena.
It has the ability to examine issues associated with
Most times when actions seem different from what
is seen as the accepted norm, constructivism seeks
to examine the reasoning behind it through
analyzing norms and identity of specific ethnic
groupings within and across nations.

Conceptual Framework
This is due to the constructivist belief that
the world is a social construction and as a
result norms and identities of social
groupings are important in understanding
the constructed world.
Constructivism consists of ontological ideas
which concentrate on the importance of
traditional and the material structures.
This relates to communities whether they
be ethnic, cultural or religious.

Conceptual Framework
Constructivism uses scientific methods with
the most popular being the interpretative
As Adler (1997) suggests Constructivists
prefer theories with the objectives for
understanding the structures of domination.
Constructivism would play a major role in
this research as the current situation in
Israel is highly influenced by structural
patterns as well as individualistic norms.

Conceptual Framework
Constructivism within the conflict
With the presence of the Zionists as well as the
already established identity of Palestinians,
constructivism would observe this as contributing
to the Palestinian conflict as the new settlers were
seen as a threat to their identity
(Javadikouchaksaraei et al 2015).
It seemed as if each group was more focused on
maintaining a place for themselves which is of a
significant relation to identity as
Javadikouchaksaraei et al cited from (Khalidi,

Conceptual Framework
Dominance of one group as well as the
existence of cross-ethnic, cross-cultural and
cross-community discrepancies should be
examined in order to holistically understand
the entirety of the conflict, because
constructivism suggests that any other
approach may be proven to be unsuccessful.
As efforts to make peace have already been
tried with the use of treaties, constructivists
assume that individual dialogue may assist in
lessening the conflict.

Conceptual Framework
What should be taken into consideration are the
previous and present behaviours and conditions of
both Israel and Palestine.
Consequently, both parties can attempt to grasp
the desires of the other and seeing as they do have
a similar goal in maintaining their identity, it may
assist as a solution to the conflict.
Thus the underlying assumptions of constructivism
can play a major role in unmasking solutions to the
issues being researched (Javadikouchaksaraei et al

In terms of the methodology employed for this
research the qualitative method would be utilized.
Qualitative research is associated with qualitative
phenomenon which is linked to quality.
Some characteristics of this research method
include the lack of non-numerical data but it is
descriptive, and uses reasoning (Rajeskar et al,
Its objective is to understand the meanings and
feeling behind a situation while using these as
well as other factors to describe phenomenon.

Qualitative data is exploratory and explores the
why and how of decision making (Rajeskar et
al, 2013).
Therefore, as this paper seeks to analyze
phenomenon within a nation qualitative
research methods seems appropriate for
collecting data in an effort to explain such.
Creswell (1998) suggested that qualitative
research uses clear-cut methodological
customs of investigation that examine social or
human issues.

It can be deemed as an inquiry process where the
researcher develops an intricate, all-rounded idea by
analyzing words.
The researcher also relays the differing standpoints of
informants. This type of methodology allows for the use of
secondary sources to assist in findings and develop the
For examining the issues presented in this research
secondary sources such as earlier research on the Arab
Israeli conflict would be analyzed, as it relates to security
reports from international organizations would be examined
along with books, academic journals, newspaper articles
government reports and documents such as agreements
and acts related to the issue.

Reasons for the selection of secondary research
methods in the examination of the effects of the
Israeli-Palestinian conflict, is linked to the distance
or location of the researcher in comparison to the
ongoings of the society that is to be of researched.
Moreover, another purpose for the use of secondary
research comes from its ability to provide historical
information and findings that can provide various
viewpoints on topics that are similar to the issue
being researched which can allow for the support or
reject of claims made based on the issue at hand.

For example with respects to constructivism
and its explanation of the Israeli-Palestinian
conflict, secondary data may assist in
illustrating the extent to which such a theory is
applicable by analyzing other conflicts that
have occurred in countries with similar cultural
or historical underpinnings.
Secondary data can also assist in providing the
researcher with a better understanding of the
issue being researched and can help to make
more sense of the data collected.

It is also more ethical especially since the
society under research has various
occurrences of violence and this can pose a
threat to the safety of the researcher.
In terms of this research secondary data can
provide the varying accounts of violence
within the Israeli-Palestinian region as well as
the thoughts of the occupants in the nation
and their living situations or conditions
without having to physically collect data.

It can also provide the theoretical
concept occurrences that have led to
the issue that is under research.
As with any other type of research
there would be certain shortcomings
or limitations, Secondary sources can
provide a certain level of bias as it
reflects the views of the researcher.

Additionally, secondary research is time-bound
which can result in inaccurate data if the
researcher is seeking current information.
Validity is also difficult to ensure as the
research is done by another individual.
However to limit the shortcomings quantitative
type data would also be collected in the form
of statistics or graphs as it relates to the
research, this can somehow highlight certain
areas where qualitative research cannot.

Initial Findings
The Israeli-Palestinian conflict seems to be
heavily influenced by the occurrences of the
Seems as if the world has forgotten that since
1200 (A.D.) the state was occupied by Arabs.
With Israel holding most of the land and being
seen as the sovereign state Israelis have an
upper-hand as they are protected by the nations
laws and regulations and do enjoy a certain
amount of freedom and privileges.

Initial Findings
Their main threat really would be a terrorist attack
from the Arabs who still seek to regain their
territory yet still the Jews are protected by the
Israeli army.
On the other hand Palestinians are faced with
restriction and most are prevented from certain
privileges such as school or work because of the
allowance of limited movement.
It would seem that the Jews are adamant in
ensuring state security so much so that, the human
security of Palestinians and by extension certain
rights are being neglected.

Table of Contents


List of Abbreviations

Chapter 1: Introduction

1.1 Background

1.2 Research Problem

1.3 Research Questions

1.4 Thesis Statement

1.5 Aim and Objectives

Table of Contents

Chapter 2: Literature Review

2.1 Emergence of conflict

2.2 Aftermath of settlements

2.3 Human Security Undermined

Chapter 3: Conceptual Framework

3.1 What is Constructivism?

3.2 Constructivism within the conflict

Chapter 4: Methodology

Table of Contents

Chapter 5: Presentation of Study

5.1 Constructivist analysis of the Arab Israeli Conflict

5.2 The lack of human security within the region

5.3 Attempts to improve human security

Chapter 6: Discussion and Analysis

Chapter 7: Conclusions and Recommendations

7.1 Recommendations