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110 MW 985-32 TGs


TYPE TGP 234260/2H
Presented by
Abhilash Chandra Aron
Consultant, Turbogenerators
May, 2004

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GENERAL
38 sets in operation all over India.
Oldest sets in operation since 1974 at
Kothaguddam and Bhatinda.
Originally a SKODA design, TGs were
manufactured at BHEL Hyderabad.

ACA - 110MW - 2 / 90

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ACA - 110MW - 3 / 90

COOLING vs. RATING


A/H = AIR / HYDROGEN
R = ROTOR: DIRECT RADIAL
I = STATOR: INDIRECT

TARI

THW / THDF
THRI
412
200 300 450

MVA

1000

A. C. ARON

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COOLING SYSTEMS

STATOR
SLOT
ROTOR
SLOT

ACA -110MW - 4 / 90

THRI

THW / THDF
A. C. ARON
02 02 2000

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MERITS

High efficiencies. Low maintenance.


Machine cooling is highly optimized.
Simple construction.Stator core is directly

clamped to body without any springs.


Rotor winding hot spot to average temp.
ratio is low. Rotor copper is fully utilized.
High I2 current withstand capability.
Operation with one cooler out, allowed.
ACA - 110MW - 5 / 90

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TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION
110 MW, 137.5 MVA, 0.80 pf, 11 kV,
7220 A, Excitation:1428 A, 381 V; 2atg H2
Output with 1 of 3 coolers out: 96.25 MVA
Output with air cooling:
68.75 MVA
Maximum output at 0 pf lag:
110 MVA
Maximum output at 0 pf lead:
50 MVA
Efficiency at rated output:
98.32%
Hydrogen gas flow:
30 Cu M per sec.
Cooling water flow: 250 Cu M per Hr.
ACA - 110MW - 6 / 90

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TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION - 2

Rotor critical speed:


2150 rpm
Rotor moment of inertia J: 13.78 ton M
Stator terminals: 6;
With YY winding.

ACA - 110MW - 7 / 90

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TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION - 3
60 STATOR SLOTS VARIANT

Short

Circuit Ratio:
0.5
Inherent voltage regulation:
39%
xd: 20.7%;
xd: 30 %;
xd: 217%
X2: 22.9%;
X0: 10.7%;
Amplitude of sudden short circuit current
including DC component: 9.2 x In peak.
Losses dissipated:
1500 kW
CW max.: 34C; Inlet cold H 2 max.: 40C
ACA - 110MW - 8 / 90

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TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION - 4

Short

66 STATOR SLOTS VARIANT

Circuit Ratio:
0.59
Inherent voltage regulation:
33.5%
xd: 16.8%;
xd: 24.7%;
xd: 198%
X2: 16.8%;
X0: 8.3%;
Amplitude of sudden short circuit current
including DC component: 10.7 x In peak.
Losses dissipated:
1700 kW
CW max.: 36C; Inlet cold H2 max.: 42C
ACA - 110MW - 9 / 90

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EFFICIENCIES

BOTH 60 SLOTS & 66 SLOTS

99%

1.0 pf

98%

0.8 lag
Rated

EFFICIENCY
97%
96%

0
25
100

50

75

LOAD %

ACA - 110MW - 10 / 90

A C ARON
21 NOV 02

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GENERAL ASSEMBLY
4050

3950

ACA - 110MW - 11 / 90

A C ARON
16 NOV 02

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GENERAL ASSEMBLY - 2
1840

1840

ACA - 110MW - 12 / 90

A C ARON
16 NOV 02

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ACA - 110MW - 13 / 90

110 MW TG 985-32
2280
70

985
1125

3200
Rotor:3280
A C ARON, 30 SEP 02

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ACA - 110MW - 14 / 90

110 MW TG 985-32
VENTILATION DIAGRAM

A C ARON, 18 SEP 02

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CAPABILITY DIAGRAM
0.6
0.8
0.9

ROTOR HEATING
LIMIT
0.4
110
100
80 LAG
60
40

MW 137.5 110 82.5 55 27.5


H2 2 atg
H2 0.05 atg
AIR
THEORETICAL
STABILITY LIMIT
ACA - 110MW - 15 / 90

MVA

40
60
80 LEAD
82.5
A C ARON
15 NOV 02

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ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS
140
120

66 SLOT VARIANT

OCC

11KV 100%
STATOR
VOLTS
% 60
40

% In
ARMATURE
CURRENT
SCC

20

100%=7216A
80
60
40
20

890
0
400
800
1200 1400
AMPS
ROTOR CURR. 440
1010 1335
110MW - 16 / 90

A C ARON 16NOV02

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ELECT. CHARACTERISTICS - 2
120

11KV 100%
STATOR
VOLTS
%
60

60 SLOTS
VARIANT
OCC

% In
ARMATURE
CURRENT

LOAD
MAGNETIZATION

SCC

1 PF 0.8 PF 100%=7216A

80
60
40
20
20
0
600
1000
1400
1800
1600 AMPS
ROTOR CURR. 595 940 1150
40

ACA - 110MW - 17 / 90

A C ARON 16NOV02

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VOLTAGE - FREQUENCY LIMITS


RATED: 295 MVA

10.0
7.5
5.0
2.5

%
VOLT 0.
0
-2.5
-5.0
-7.5
-10.0

ACA - 110MW -18 / 90

137 MVA
AREA

-5.0

-2.5
2.5
0.0
% FREQUENCY

5.0
A. C. ARON

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GENERATOR COOLING

Stator

is indirectly cooled. Rotor has direct


radial gas cooling. The stator core is radial
gas cooled.
Rotor is cooled by 2 streams. One stream
cools end winding, whereas other stream
enters sub slots and then flows radially to
cool rotor slot parts.
Another stream cools stator overhangs,
goes to cold gas compartments between
housing & core, then flows through ducts.
ACA - 110MW - 19 / 95

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GENERATOR COOLING - 2

3rd

flow goes to air gap via retaining rings, then


flows radially outwards through core ventilation
ducts.
All the 3 flows combine in air-gap, travel
radially outwards cooling stator core and then
enter the gas coolers.
Flow resistance H2 side: 12mm of W.C.
Flow resistance CW side: 4000 mm W.C.
H2 gas temperature rise: 17C
ACA -110MW - 20 / 90 HO

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GENERATOR COOLING - 3
Cold gas minimum temperature value is
specified to prevent condensation.
CW flows into gas-coolers at both TE and
Ex E ends of generator.
H2 coolers: HC-W II-Bs/Cu 6 (10x5-2-260)
Number of cooler elements: 2 x 3 = 6

ACA - 110MW - 21 / 95

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STATOR CONSTRUCTION

Stator body can withstand explosion in it. It is


hydraulically tested at 7 atg for 2 min.
Core is directly fixed to the body through a set
of steel dove tails welded to square steel
beams.
Nonmagnetic cast steel core end pressure
plates and fingers provided. Casting has ribs
to permit flow of H2 gas. Copper ring screens at
core ends arrest the axial flux and minimize end
packets heating.
ACA - 110MW - 22 / 95

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STATOR CONSTRUCTION - 2

Low loss 0.5 mm CRNO core steel used.


Core laminations insulated by Class B
varnish suitable for 105C temperature.
8 mm vent-ducts provided in main core
portion. Closely spaced 5 mm ducts, for
intensive cooling given in end packets.
Core vibrations calculated: 30 Micr p/p.
Stator core weight: 45 Tons.
End shields are made of Mn steel casting.
ACA - 110MW - 23 / 90

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STATOR CONSTRUCTION - 3

Double flow ring type Hydrogen shaft


seals prevent H2 leakage.
Stator is transported on special wagon.

ACA - 110MW - 24 / 90

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110MW - 25 / 95

20

STATOR
END WINDING

A C ARON
30 SEP 02

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ASSEMBLY OF OUTPUT LEADS


900
120

CT
A

900

65
210

100

15
160
HGL
LAMINATE

120

170

ACA - 110MW - 26 / 95

A C ARON
12 NOV 2002

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WINDING INSULATION

Resin rich Samicatherm class F insulation

is

used for main winding insulation.


Bar copper strips are transposed, so as to
reduce eddy current losses.
Top ripple springs - added later - in slots.
Reliable & robust winding overhang with large
number of brackets, braidings.
Nose joints made by silver alloy brazing of
conductors together in two groups each.
ACA - 110MW - 27 / 95 HO

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STATOR SLOT
11
62
70

166

22
30.2

ACA - 110MW - 28 / 95

SLOT WEDGE
TOP PACKER
TOP RIPPLE SPRING
SEMI CONDUCTING
WRAPPER
TOP BAR
SEMI CONDUCT.FILLER
PACKER
WDG. RTD
BOTTOM BAR
CORE RTD
A C ARON
99 07 17

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SEMI CONDUCTING COAT

ISOLA 642

ACA - 110MW - 29 / 90

SEMI-CONDUCTING COATS

GLASS TAPE + DOBECKON


(POLYEURATHANE)
A C ARON
SEPT 2002

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STATOR WINDING NOSE JOINT

32 STRIPS 10x1.6 BARE


3.6 Amp/mm

26

SOLID
BRAZING

R10

Each phase has mid phase transposition


ARON
on TS to reduce eddy losses in winding A26CSEPT
02
ACA - 110MW - 30 / 95

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ROTATION

1
66

STATOR
WINDING
DIAGRAM
66 SLOTS

ACA - 110MW - 31 / 95

A C ARON
11 NOV 2002

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EX. END
60 SLOTS
A-A

A
A
1

60

16

46

70
20

ACA - 110MW - 32 / 95

31

A C ARON
21 NOV 02

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STATOR SLOT WEDGES TIGHTNESS


Tightness check in o/haul is done on 20%
slot wedges,but on not less than 5 per slot
Test points to be helically located in bore.
Test pressure varies with thickness, width
length, number of top ripple springs used.
For 1 x 0.8mm:10xBxL; 1x 0.9mm:18xBxL 2
x 0.9: 30xBxL Kg. B and L being in cm.
Movement: <0.55mm for 60% and <0.75
for 40%. After rewedging to be: >0.1 <0.3
for 75%. For the rest to be <0.45.
110MW-33/95

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LOCKING OF STATOR SLOT WEDGES


End

wedges of stator slots are locked


against movement using Metallon E-2082
consisting of adhesive paste & hardener
Mixture in equal amounts has 1 hour life.
Its curing time is 1- 2 days at room temp.
After curing,it is like
3
WEDGE 50
rubber. Ripple spring
to be shorter by 50mm.
COMPRESSION
STRIP
ACA - 110MW - 34 / 95

TOP BAR
A C ARON
15NOV 02

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TERMINAL BUSHINGS
3 ph+3 neutral terminals provided. Shorter
ones are phase, longer ones are neutral.
Conductor is of leak proof hollow copper
tube with its both ends silver plated.
Insulation is of epoxy-glass, with capacitor
grading to control elect field.Gas tightness
between copper and insulation is ensured
by a gasket and clamping ring on air side.
Non magnetic flange is shrink fitted over
the insulation and cemented in position for
gas tightness.

ACA - 110MW - 35 / 95

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ROTOR

Half coupling is shrink fitted on the shaft.


Retaining rings shrunk fit on shaft barrel

and end wedges. They have radial holes


for outlet of hot gas.
Axial fans with Aluminium alloy die forged
blades fitted to hubs by fit bolts provided.
Blades are with Clark Y profile for pressur
of 8.5 mm W.C. & 30 CuM /sec discharge
Sub slot at slot bottom carries cold H2 for
cooling rotor copper.
ACA - 110MW - 36 / 95

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ROTOR - 2
Conductors have slits for radial flow of H 2
gas. Inter-turn insulation is made of glassepoxy laminates. L-shape slot insulation
liners have Nomex lining.
Slot wedges are made of Alumin-Bronze
forging. These get electrically shorted by
retaining rings and act as damper winding.
Wedges in slots adjacent to poles are of
steel forging to improve flux wave forms.
Cross pole slots for inertia equalization.
110MW - 37 / 95

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ROTOR - 3

Field lead consists of 2 semicircular steel

conductors duly insulated.


Finished rotor is balanced in cold. Then
winding is heated to working temperature
and balance rechecked at rated RPM.
Rotor is over-speeded at 120% for 2 min.,
& balance checked again at rated speed.

ACA - 110MW - 38 / 95

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ROTOR SLOT

6
148
32
36
Slots: 32
Pitch: 1/42
Coils:
CD: 7.4 A/mm

ACA - 110MW - 39 / 90

SLOT WEDGE
TOP PACKER
CONDUCTOR
(16 PER SLOT)
SLOT CELL
INTER-TURN
2 x 0.21
SUB SLOT
A.C.ARON
SEP 02

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ROTOR OVERHANG

RR NUT

D985

ACA - 110MW - 40 / 95

~112 HOLES D14 RETAINING RING


CENTERING
RING
INSULATION
ROTOR
COPPER

A. C. ARON
99 07 21

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RETAINING RING - OLD DESIGN


610 D14

D985

D1015

D1040

D1140
D825

1640 UPTO
CENTRE

D445

B
D916
D942.4
ACA - 110MW - 41 / 95

D911
A C ARON
12 NOV 02

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RETAINING RING - NEW DESIGN

2 SCREWS M9

D985

30 10

595

D1140

D1040

1640
465
UPTO CENTRE

D825
85

75

D445

2450 UPTO CENTRE

RR NUT IS HEATED TO 200C BEFORE


SCREWING ON TO RETAINING RING.
ACA - 110MW - 42 / 95

A C ARON
15 NOV 02

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SLIP RINGS & BRUSHGEAR


Steel radial bolts connect flexible Cu lead
from winding to steel field lead. Another
set of steel bolts connect slip rings rigidly
to the steel field leads.
Steel forged slip ring has helical groove
and skewed holes in it for ring ventilation.
Minimum permitted slip ring dia is 420mm.
No. of carbon brushes 25 x 32 mm is 42.
The recommended brush grade is HM 6R.
ACA - 110MW - 43 / 95

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SLIP RINGS & BRUSHGEAR - 2

Slip ring wear rate normally is 25 Microns

per 1000 Hrs. 125 in 1000 Hrs. shows


poor performance.
Brushes ride on a film, few microns thick
and composed of brush material with a top
layer of water molecules absorbed from
air. This layer of water molecules, gives
the film its lubricating properties & allows
brushes to operate with minimum friction
and wear rates.
ACA - 110MW - 44/ 95

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SLIP RINGS & BRUSHGEAR - 3


Change of polarity is not encouraged lest

it may upset the established films. Only if


after slip rings grinding, it is seen that one
ring has lesser diameter, it may be done.
Brush pressure to be180 gm/cm. Change
of brushes in operation is not allowed.

ACA - 110MW - 45 / 90

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46/9
5

BEARINGS
Bearings are babbited steel castings with
elliptical bore for greater hydro dynamic
stability.They rest in generator end shields
Six steel pads are bolted to a bearing and
outer spherical surface of the pads makes
the bearing self aligning type. Pads are
electrically insulated by thick glass textolit.
Lub oil at 1 - 1.5 atg comes from turbine.
Hydraulic lift is provided at 40 - 80atg oil
and is so adjusted, that lift is about 50%
of top gap which is 0.12% of bearing dia.

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UPRATING TO 120 MW

Hydrogen

gas pressure to be increased.


Rotor cooling to be converted to 4-flute.
Stator winding bars overhang tying to be
improved - braidings to be increased.
Cast stator end shields to be replaced by
fabricated ones due to higher H2 pressure.
Gas coolers to be checked - water flow
may have to be increased.
Overall-any shortcomings to be corrected.
ACA - 110MW- 47 / 91

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RADIAL SEAL RING


AIR SIDE OIL

H2 SIDE OIL
SEAL CHAMBER

AIR SIDE
SEAL RING

H2 SIDE RING

ACA - 110MW - 48 / 90

A C ARON
12 NOV 2002

company name organization

DOUBLE FLOW SEAL- OIL SYSTEM

Main seal oil pump draws oil from vacuum tank


and feeds to H2 side seal via cooler and filter.

Oil is drained in about equal quantities towards


H2 side and air side. H2 side drain flows to defoaming tank and then to vacuum tank through a
float valve.
If main oil pump fails, standby emergency DC seal
oil pump takes over.
Turbine governing oil is used to feed air side
seal oil via another set of cooler+filter.
110MW - 48 / 90 HO

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DOUBLE FLOW SEAL SYSTEM - 2


H2 side main seal oil, drained towards air

side mixes with air side seal oil flow and


also with bearing oil and together goes to
stilling tank. From here, it returns to main
turbine oil tank. Part oil flows to equalizing
tank also, maintaining its level.
Air side seal oil pressure is controlled by
DPR R-3 at 0.2 less than H2 side press.
This flow, from turbine oil, is independent
of main seal oil system, giving reliability.
ACA - 110MW - 49/ 90

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DOUBLE FLOW SEAL SYSTEM - 3

DOUBLE FLOW SEAL SYSTEM - 3


H
2 side seal oil pressure is maintained

at 0.9
bar above H2 press. by PRV R-1 and at 0.7
by R-2 when emergency pump runs
Oil from de-foaming comes to equalizing via
a float valve that ensures a level in
defoaming tank,thus preventing Hydrogen
ingress into equalizing tank.
From equalizing tank, oil flows to vacuum
tank through another float valve. Always
there is a column of oil in stilling tank to
make up the level in equalizing tank.
50 / 95

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DOUBLE FLOW SEAL SYSTEM - 4

An

oil jet ejector and an oil pump maintain


vacuum in vacuum tank. They remove all
gases & air from oil, maintaining H 2 purity.
Oil-gear pump pumps oil at 5 - 6 bar to oil
jet ejector for creating vacuum. It stops
automatically, when pressure in main seal
oil line fails.
Seal oil is pumped by rotary gear pumps
to deliver 190 LPM at 10 bar. Over press.
safety valves and flexible couplings given.
ACA - 110MW - 51 / 95

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DOUBLE FLOW SEAL SYSTEM - 5


AIR

TO TURBINE
OIL TANK
FROM
DEFOAMING

GOVERN.
OIL

DPR R3

H2

DEFOAMING

STILLING
TANK

EQUALIZING

VACUUM

DPR
R1/R2
ACA - 110MW - 52 / 90

A. C. ARON
03DEC 02

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DOUBLE FLOW SEAL SYSTEM - 6

ROOF

H2 DEFOAMER
EQUALIZING
VACUUM TANK

R1

STILL
TANK
Z

R2
MAIN
ZZ

REGULATING
TURBINE OIL

ROOF

ACA - 110MW - 53 / 95

R3
EMERG.
PUMP

A C ARON
15 NOV 02

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ALARMS AND ANNUNCIATIONS

Equalising tank low level: If oil flow from

defoamer or from stilling tank is improper.


High level in vacuum tank: If level is high
due to float valve problem etc.
Pressure switches initiate alarms if:
Main oil supply,Emergency oil supply fails.
Low pressure of seal oil: At 2 atg, H2 side
oil is at 2.9, alarm set at 2.7; Air side oil at
2.7, alarm set at 2.5. At 0.05 atg, H2 side
oil is at 0.9 & air side oil at 0.7. Alarms for
both are set at 0.5 kg/cm.
ACA - 110MW - 54 / 95

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ALARMS AND ANNUNCIATIONS - 2

Differential pressure alarm for both H2 and

air side oils is set at 0.5 kg/cm.


Pressure & vacuum gauges are installed
for local indications.Oil jet pump discharge
press. and turbine regulating oil pressures
are also monitored.
Temp. of oil in vacuum & equalising tanks
and of seal oils after filters are monitored.
ACA - 110MW - 55 / 90

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OIL REFUSE &


SUCKED GASES

OIL JET AIR EJECTOR


UNDER PRESSURE AREA
NOZZLE

DIFFUSER

GASES

STILLING CHAMBER
OF BALANCING TANK

PRESSURE
OIL
ACA - 110MW - 56 / 90

A C ARON
30 NOV 02

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FLOAT VALVE ID-70


FOR OIL LEVEL IN
DEFOAMER

ACA - 110MW - 57 / 90

A C ARON
30 NOV 02

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REGULATING VALVE ID-40


FOR SEAL OIL REGULATION

SPRING
TIGHTENER

OIL FROM
DEFOAMER

OIL FROM
SEAL RINGS

ACA - 110MW - 58 / 90

A C ARON
30 NOV 02

company name organization

SEAL OIL SYSTEM - OPERATION


Both main and emergency systems faulty:
Ensure air side supply at correct pressure.
Purity in machine may get affected.
Interruption in air side oil supply: Air side
oil to be at H2 press.+ 0.5 minim. If either
main oil or emergency oil are not fit,
stop the set with Hydrogen in.
Low seal oil pressures alarm can come if
H2 gas pressure is much less than 2 atg.
If so,increase gas pressure to rated value.
ACA - 110MW - 59 / 90

company name organization

SEAL OIL SYSTEM - OPERATION - 2


Vacuum tank level maximum: If tank is full

of foam,decrease vacuum. Check valve to


balancing tank. If float valve is defective,
bye pass vacuum tank and repair the float
Vacuum tank level is low: Check valves.
Fill the tank by opening valve to balancing
tank. Check float valve and repair it.
Strong foaming in vacuum tank: Reduce
vacuum from 0.9 to 0.5 or to zero. Stop
the pump. When foam is normal, restart.
ACA - 110MW - 60 / 90

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SEAL OIL SYSTEM - OPERATION - 3


Foaming is also reduced by lowering oil

temp. in vacuum tank by feeding cool oil


after oil cooler, direct by opening a valve.
If this does not help, check if the valve to
stilling tank is properly closed. In opened
condition, it permits inflow of fresh humid
lubricating oil with foaming in vacuum tank
Finally, vacuum can be lowered by 0.2 atg
below normal and oil pressure to oil jet
ejector reduced by throttling related valve.
ACA - 110MW - 61 / 90

company name organization

FAULTY FLOAT VALVE IN DEFOAMING TANK


Valve not closing:Signal Low H2 pressure

appears. Oil is forced to flow to balancing


tank. H2 enters balancing tank & escapes.
Stop the set, expel H2 and fill with CO2.
Valve not opening: Oil floods H2 defoamer &
does not go to balancing tank. It enters into
the machine. LLI gives alarm. Low oil level
in balancing tank alarm appears.
Opening direct valves, allow oil to flow to
balancing tank. If in LLI,15 litre oil collects in
5 minutes, stop the set, remove H 2.
62 / 90

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Faulty regulating valves are first corrected

by adjusting the regulating spring. If this


fails,ensuring availability of other systems,
remove the valve for repair / replacement.
Oscillation in SOP values >0.2 is adjusted
by throttling the valve in impulse line. This
is best tested when machine is at rest.
H2 purity below 92%: Rinse generator with
60 - 90 Cu M of pure H2. Rinsing can be
done on load. Check air & H2 side seal oil
pressures and correct if required.
63 / 90

company name organization

GAS COOLERS

Horizontally mounted 3 cooler units. Each unit

is in two halves along length.


Tube material is brass CuZn28Sn / Cupro
nickel as required. Tube fins are made of
copper.Later they get tin-plated with tubes
Tube plate material is brass CuZn40. The
Water boxes: Steel, plastocor protected.
Cooler pressure drop: Approx. 0.38 mwc.
The tubes can be cleaned with H2 inside at
reduced load.
ACA - 110MW - 64 / 90 HO

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HYDROGEN GAS SYSTEM


H2 DISTRIBUTOR
+

CO2

GAS ANALYZER

H2 DRIER
OUT

HYDROGEN

ACA - 110MW - 65 / 90

AIR

CO2

WASTE
DETECTOR

65 bar

A. C. ARON
27 NOV 02

company name organization

HYDROGEN GAS SYSTEM - 2

gas press. is reduced from 150 to 3.5 bar


pressure for feeding into machine.
Diaphragm type gas valve ID20 with servo
motor+remote control is sometimes added to
urgently expel H2 from control room.
Gas system valves are of diaphragm type.
Some globe type shut off valves also used
Silica jel gas dryers are given. Silica jel is
activated by 240V, 600 W heater to 120C by
a thermostat. Wet silica is of pink color.
H2

ACA - 110MW - 66 / 90

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HYDROGEN GAS SYSTEM - 3


H2 purity:98-99% in operation is indicated
by single range H2 in air purity meter. H2
losses to be within 24 Cu Meter at NTP
during any 24 hours period.
During operation,only 1H2 cylinder is kept
connected at a time. To expel H 2 or air,
minimum of 90% CO2 is filled.
The 3-range analyzer measures: CO 2 in
air 0-100%; H2 in CO2 0-100%; H2 in air
76-100%, during scavenging operations.
ACA - 110MW - 67 / 90

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LOOKING GLASS

GAS
DRYER

SILICA JEL

THERMAL ISOLATOR
BUSH
HOT PLATE

H2

WATER
DRAIN
TERMINAL

ACA - 110MW - 68 / 90

GLASS WOOL
COMPRESSED
SPRING
FILLING

TERMINAL
COVER

A C ARON
30 NOV 02

company name organization

NEOPRENE
TEFLON

DIAPHRAGM
VALVE ID-20

PRESSURE:10 BAR
MEMBRANE TYPE
TEMP.: 120C

ACA - 110MW - 69 / 90

A C ARON
30 NOV 02

company name organization

BEARING INSULATION CHECK

Turbine

end of shaft to be
well grounded. Measure V1,
then measure V2 using AC
range. If two are not
identical,grounding of shaft to
be corrected.
Bridge oil film on Exc.End
and measure V3. If different
R
from V2 bearing insulation is
bad. Shaft current is
measured.
In non excited regime, use

V1

Roil

A
V

V2, V3
ACA - 110MW - 70 / 90

company name organization

OPERATIONAL EXPERIENCE

Stator core looseness observed especially

in end packets. Cases of broken vent duct


spacers also reported, causing hot spots.
Stator core teeth found loose and vibrated
They thus damaged the top winding bars
causing stator earth faults.
Stator winding overhang braidings found
loose. Gaps between the lower bars and
winding holders noticed, causing winding
overhang vibrations and damages.
ACA - 110MW - 71 / 90

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OPERATIONAL EXPERIENCE - 2
Heavy ingress of oil reported. Oil covered

stator winding and even stator core. Oil


& carbon dust seen on rotor also, causing
decrease in its IR and repairs.
Loosening of stator slot wedges was seen
in overhaul. Earlier top ripple springs were
not used in this design, and were added
later as a modification.
Occasionally, high winding vibrations in
overhang also caused damages.
ACA - 110MW - 72 / 90

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MODIFICATIONS
Earlier 8-8-4 alloy was used for retaining
rings. Later, it was changed to 18-5 alloy.
Still later,18-18 alloy was introduced.
The constructional design of this machine
was changed to improve core tightness
and better fastening of stator winding.
Stator end copper ring screens have been
removed. Axial through bolts introduced to
improve core tightness in operation. Core
tightening pressures have been increased
ACA - 110MW - 73 / 90

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MODIFICATIONS - 2
Stator core end plates are now made of

carbon steel with welded press fingers.


Steel winding support brackets welded to
press rings
Rotor overhang ventilation is redesigned
eliminating radial holes in retaining rings.
Rotor coils made in halves with inter-turn
insulation glued to copper.
2 sets made and commissioned at Talcher
& Kothaguddam and running smoothly.
ACA - 110MW - 74 / 90

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TEMPS. AFTER MODIFICATION

AECO UNIT D, AS ON MAY 2004

Load 113 MW 11.3 kV, 6100,6230,6243 A


Stator core laminations: 57 - 72 C
Stator winding in slots: 64 - 71 C
Cold H2 gas : 41 - 46 C
Hot H2 gas: 55 - 59 C
CW hot from coolers:
39 - 42 C
ACA - 110MW - 76 / 92

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PARICHA GENERATORS

UNIT 1:
Stator winding had loose stator wedges in

slots. They were tightened using ripple


springs in slots in 1987.
Oil starvation in 1983 caused vibrations in
the bearings. Rotor was rectified in BHEL
Hyderabad by machining its rotor journals.
Journal diameters got reduced. Rotor was
balanced and used with special bearings.
ACA - 110MW - 75 / 90

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PARICHA GENERATORS - 2
UNIT 2:
in 1994, asynchronous motoring occurred.
Rotor got overheated at ends developing
cracks on retaining ring seating surfaces.
Rotor was replaced with spare rotor and
unit re-commissioned in 1994.

ACA - 110MW - 76 / 90

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CASE STUDIES - CASE A

PANIPAT - 2

Commissioned: Feb 1980; Overhauled in

July 1983 with following observations:


Several stator overhang braiding broken,
end wedges loose, terminal bushing of R &
B phase cracked in outside portions.
In Nov1983, set tripped while being rolled
on stator E/F at 7 kV while building up the
voltage. Machine was opened to find:
Core end packet near slot 56 was found
burnt because of HV failure.
ACA - 110MW - 77 / 90

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CASE A - 2

PANIPAT - 2

8 bars were seen cracked just outside the

core before first bend. Another 8 bars of R


and B failed in subsequent HV tests. Y ph
bars were OK.
Bar insulation was seen to be monolithic
without any delayering etc. Cracks in bars
were upto copper.
It was concluded that such a failure could
either be due to ph to ph fault or improper
closing / opening of GCB.
ACA - 110MW - 78 / 90

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CASE B - 1

SABARMATI - D

1st

syn: Oct 1978; O/hauled in Oct 1981


Stator wedges and braiding found loose
and were attended to. Thereafter the set
operated at full load. Water+oil @ 300 ml
used to be collected.
In March 1984, it tripped Cl A with a loud
bang.H2 press.increased from 1.9 to 2.08
atg; H2 purity dropped from 99 to 97%
Differential relays,negative seq. relay and
rotor E/F relay operated.

ACA - 110MW - 79/ 90

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CASE B - 2

SABARMATI - D

Many

top bars had cut marks upto copper


because of rubbing of HGL packers betw. top
and bottom bars. They came out after
braiding got broken during likely abnormal
operation and got entangled between bars
Rubbing of top bars in vibration caused
loss of insulation. Oil spray on Ex. Side
precipitated failure: Ph B & Ph C to earth.
Copper of 54T and 60T had melted on Ex
Side with extensive damage in 9O clock to
12O clock to 3O clock zone.
110MW - 80 / 90

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CASE B - 3

SABARMATI - D

No damage or oil was seen on TS at all.

Molten copper had entered rotor as well.


It is suspected that machine ran for some
time with arcing short of tripping. Finally
heavy arc caused oil to burn causing H2
pressure to increase etc. It also appears
that stator E/F relay was in-operational.
Machine was replaced and later repaired
and rewound at works.
ACA - 110MW - 81 / 90

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CASE C

BHATINDA-4

1st syn:Dec1978;1st O/H:Jan 1985; Seen core


looseness; stator wedges looseness, rubbing of
top packers with top bars and looseness and
breakage of braiding.
Set tripped in July 1985 with R & B phase to
earth fault. Damages were similar to B
Lot of oil found on TS overhang and core.
Bottom bars in slot 40 -53 zone damaged with
melting. Rubbing with the winding brackets
seen with insulation damages.
ACA - 110MW - 82 / 90

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CASE D

BHATINDA-3

1st syn:Mar 1978,O/H: Apr81and Sept84


Seen: Core looseness,4 top bars damage
due to loose core, loose braidings, loose
stator wedges, gaps between bottom bars
and winding holders; oil leakage.
Set tripped in Sept 1985 on R & Y to earth
fault. Overhangs of 11 top had come out,
broken at eyes, breaking the wedges and
hit rotor. Core was found loose in many
packets. Core repaired earlier, was OK.
ACA - 110MW - 83 / 90

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BHATINDA-3

CASE D - 2
Bottom bars resting on bracket near slot 24
got wear cuts. Flash overs, damages seen
in 38 - 41 zone. Holder near 24 was
delaminated/damaged. Eyes of 8-12 Top
bars were charred on Ex Side.
Possibly bottom bars braiding with above
winding holder got broken, causing high
vibrations in these bars, and subsequent
damage to them over time.
ACA - 110MW - 84 / 90

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CASE D - 3

BHATINDA-3

Rotor inter-turn insulation found shifted,


partially closing ventilation holes in barrel end
portion.
It is suspected that unit was mal-operated with
either wrong synchronizing or some other
phase to phase fault near terminals. Total
running hours when tripped 41,000
Both stator and rotor were repaired in BHEL
works.
ACA - 110 MW - 85 / 90

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CASE E: CORE DAMAGE

PANIPAT-3

1st syn: Nov 1985; Inspected: May 1987 Severe


core burns, charred wedges seen in 23 packets.
Hit marks and dents seen on rotor as well as on
core surfaces.
31T,32T & 63B,64B and related top bars were
removed. 600 spots were repaired, some by
grinding to 1mm depth and by elctro-chemical
machining etc.
Final ring flux test for 2.5 Hrs and ELCID tests
done in stages and core cleared.
ACA - 110MW - 86 / 90

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FARIDABAD-2

CASE F:DAMAGES IN A 60MW TG


AN AIR-COOLED GENERATOR

1st syn:Mar 1976; 1st O/H:May82; 2nd in


July 1986 after 51,000 hours of operation.
Core, overhang covered with lot of coal
dust. Core looseness seen in 30 packets.
Braiding between holders and bottom
bars seen broken in 3 - 9 Oclock zone on
both ends. Gap between winding holders
and bottom bars was 4 - 8 mm.
ACA - 110MW - 87 / 90

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CASE F: DAMAGES IN A 60MW TG - 2


Stator was HV tested. Two bars: 46T of A phase
and 32T of B ph failed at slot exits.
It appears that bars got damaged at exit points
due to high overhang vibration,that in turn was
because of loose and broken braiding etc.
Leakage currents were high in all 3 phases
indicating minor damages. Set was rewound.
In 10 years operation, this air-cooled set was
overhauled only twice.
FARIDABAD-2

ACA - 110MW - 88 / 90

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CASE G:

HARDUAGANJ
MARCH 1986

1st syn: May 1978; 5 months idle in 1980 due to

bearing damages. Inspection:1986. Operating


hours: 35,000; Starts: 380.
6 end packets on TS and 5 on ExS loose: all in
upper half core portion. Reddish rust deposits seen
on teeth. Oil deposit seen in bore of the core.
Few braiding loose / broken in upper half.
Rotor shaft journals were gray due to flow of shaft
currents.

ACA - 110MW - 89 / 90 END

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