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CRYPTOGRAPHY

KUSUM
SHARMA

M.Sc S/W

CONTENTS
SECURITY
SECURITY THREATS
SECURITY GOALS
WHAT IS CRYPTOGRAPHY
BASIC TERMS
ENCRYPTION & DECRYPTION
CATEGORIES OF CYRPTOGRAPHY
COMPARISON
CONCLUSION

WHAT DOES SECURE MEAN?

SECURITY???

THREATS

SECURITY GOALS

CONFIDENTIALITY
INTEGRITY
SECURE

NON-REPUDIATION

CRYPTOGRAPHY
Cryptography is the

science and art of


transforming
messages to make
them secure and
immune to attack.

BASIC TERMS
PLAIN TEXT
CIPHER TEXT
CIPHER
ENCRYPTION & DECRYPTION
KEYS

ENCRYPATION & DECRYPTION

CATEGORIES OF CRYPTOGRAPHY

SYMMETRIC
KEY
CRYPTOGRAP
HY

ASYMMETRIC
KEY
CRYPTOGRAPH
Y

SYMMETRIC KEY
CRYPTOGRAPHY
Also known as secret key. Sender &

receiver uses same key & an


encryption/decryption algorithm to
encrypt/decrypt data. i.e. the key is
shared.

SYMMETRIC KEY CRYPTOGRAPHY


SENDER

RECEIV
ER
SECRET
KEY

ENCRYPTIO
N

CIPHERTE
XT

DECRYPTIO
N

TRADITIONAL
SUBSTITUTION
TRANSPOSITION
CIPHERS
CIPHER
CIPHER

SUBSTITUTION CIPHERS
A substitution technique is one in

which the letters/number/symbols of


plaintext are replaced by other
letters/numbers/symbols.
e.g. A
D, T
Z
2
5, 3
6

TRANSPOSITION CIPHER
In the transposition technique the positions of

letters/numbers/symbols in plaintext is changed with


one another.
1

Plain text: MEET ME AFTER PARTY


Cipher text: TEMEEMEFAPTRYRAT
KEY USED: 421635

ASYMMETRIC KEY
CRYPTOGRAPHY
Also known as public key

cryptography. Sender & receiver


uses different keys for encryption &
decryption namely PUBLIC & PRIVATE
respectively.

ASYMMETRIC KEY CRYPTOGRAPHY


SENDER

RECEIV
ER

PUBLIC
KEY

ENCRYPTIO
N

PRIVATE
KEY

CIPHERTE
XT

DECRYPTIO
N

KEYS USED IN
CRYPTOGRAPHY
SYMMETRIC
KEY
CRYPTOGRAP
HY

ASYMMETRIC
KEY
CRYPTOGRAPHY

COMPARISON
SYMMETRIC
CRYPTOGRAPHY

KEY ASYMMETRIC
CRYPTOGRAPHY

KEY

1) The same algorithm with the 1) One algorithm is used for


same
key
is
used
for encryption and decryption with a
encryption and decryption.
pair of keys, one for encryption
and one for decryption.
2) The key must be kept secret.

2) One of the two keys must be

kept secret.

3) It may be impossible or at least 3) It may be impossible or at least


impractical
to
decipher
a impractical
to
decipher
a
message if no other information message if no other information
is available.
is available.

APPLICATIONS
Defense services
Secure data manipulation
E commerce
Business transactions
Internet payment systems
User identification systems
Access control
Data security

CONCLUSION
By using of encryption techniques a fair unit

of confidentiality, authentication, integrity,


access control and availability of data is
maintained.

S
K
N
A
TH