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General Aviation

Aircraft Rescue Fire Fighting

Aircraft Familiarization Training

Types of Aircraft & Accident Statistics


78% of active civil aircraft are single engine.
10% of active civil aircraft are light twin engine.
12% of active civil aircraft are over 12,500 lbs.
95% of all aircraft accidents occur within 10 miles of
an airport.

General aviation aircraft are


the greatest potential hazard
to a firefighter.

Primary Hazards
Fire - Class A, B, C, and D.
Toxic Fumes/Smoke.
Explosions - Ordnance/ Fuel Cells/ Cargo/
Oxygen Tanks

Aircraft Terminology

Fixed Wing Aircraft Components

Fuselage
The
main
body
structure
of
an
Aircraft. Houses the
crew,
passengers
and
cargo.
The
wings, landing gear,
and tail are attached
to it.

Wings
Designed to develop
the major portion of
the lift required for
heavier-than-air
aircraft.

Empennage
The
aircraft
tail
assemble including the
vertical and horizontal
stabilizers, rudders and
elevators.

Cockpit
The fuselage
compartment
occupied
by
the pilots.

Canopy
Transparent
enclosure over the
cockpit of fighter
type aircraft.

Engines
Power plants for the
aircraft.
Can
bePiston,
Turboprop or Jet.
Engines are numbered
consecutively from the
pilots left to right. (i.e..
1,2,3,4)

Nacelles

The housing of an
externally mounted
engine.

Surfaces
General term that
applies to the devices
that enable the pilot to
control the direction of
flight and altitude.
Keep hands clear from
movable surfaces.

Ailerons
Attached
to
the
trailing edge of the
wing.
Controls the roll
(banking) motion of
the aircraft.

Elevators
Attached
to
the
horizontal stabilizer
(fin).
Controls the climb or
descent
of
the
aircraft.

Rudder (Vertical Stabilizer)


The upright movable
part of the aircraft
tail assemble that
assists
in
the
directional control of
the aircraft.

Flaps
Attached
to
the
trailing edge of the
wings to improve
aerodynamic
performance during
takeoff and landing.

Spoilers/Speed Brakes
Moveable aerodynamic
devices or plates on
aircraft that extend into
the airstream to reduce
the airspeed of the
aircraft by increasing
drag.
Used
during
descent and to assist
slowing the aircraft.

Landing Gear
Usually of tricycle
design, consists of main
landing gear strut under
each wing or fuselage
and one nose landing
gear strut. The landing
gear is also used for
steering and braking.

Aircraft Structural Materials


Aluminum

Magnesium

Beryllium

Titanium

Steel

Composite Materials

Wood

Other Materials

Aluminum & Aluminum Alloys


Lightweight material used in sheets for
skin surfaces, as channels and castings
for framework.
Light gray appearance or silver when
polished.
Does not withstand heat well, melts at
approx.. 1,200 F.

Beryllium
Used on aircraft brakes system.
Resembles magnesium in color.
May produce an irritating or poisonous gas when
involved in a fire.
SCBA must be worn when fighting fires involving
beryllium.

Steel
Used in aircraft engine parts, around engine
nacelles, engine fire walls , and tubing.
Presents no fire hazard, but may contribute to
the fire by sparking if friction is created.
Heavy metal but is useful in high heat or
tolerance areas.

Wood
Used in older aircraft in structural areas
such as wings spars, wing ribs and
bulkheads.
Most common use is when combined
with tubular steel framing with wooden
components.

Combustible Conventional Metal


Materials

magnesium and titanium are the most


common combustible metals used in aircraft.

Magnesium
Strong and lightweight material used in
landing gear, wheels, engines
mountings brackets, crankcase
sections, cover plates, and other engine
parts. Generally used in areas where
forcible entry will not be required.

Magnesium
The appearance of this metal is silverywhite or grayish in color.
Very hard to ignite but once ignited, it
burns intensely and is difficult to
extinguish.
Poses as a serious re-ignition source.

Magnesium
The ease of ignition depends primarily on its
mass (thickness & shape). Ignition
temperature is generally considered to be
close to its melting point of 1202 degrees F.
When specialized extinguishing agents are
not available, dry sand may be used to
cover and smoother the fire.

Magnesium

Titanium
Silver-gray material that is as strong as
ordinary steel but is 56% lighter.
Used primarily in engine parts, around
engine nacelles, engine fire walls, and
turbine blades. Also used to reinforce
skin surfaces to protect them from
impinging exhaust flame or heat.

Titanium
Its ignition temperature is generally
considered to be close to its melting
temperature of 3,140 degrees F.
The metal burns with intensity and
resist extinguishment much like
magnesium.

Composite Materials

Carbon/Graphite
Boron/Tungsten

Carbon/Graphite Fibers
Provide a superior stiffness, high
strength-to-weight ratio, and ease of
fabrication.
Used extensively in modern aircraft to
replace heavier components.

Carbon/Graphite Fibers
Epoxy fibers will begin to deteriorate or
burn at approximately 725 degrees F. A
severe contamination hazard is considered
likely when the fibers become airborne.
Once free, these small fibers can be
transported up to several miles by air
currents and can cause damage to
unprotected electrical equipment.

Boron/Tungsten
Boron fibers to provide superior stiffness,
high strength-to-weight ratio, and ease of
fabrication.
Boron fibers can be released if their
epoxy binder burns.
They can be extremely sharp and
present a hazard during salvage and
overhaul operations.

Other Materials
Fine fibers embedded in carbon/epoxy
materials.
The fibers are usually made of fiberglass,
aramid, Kevlar epoxy, Kevlar graphite or
carbon in the form of graphite.
Produce a highly toxic gas when heated,
even when no flame is noticeable.

Types of Engines

Piston Engine
Single or twin
engine aircraft.
Horizontally
opposed air cooled
engine.
Avgas

Piston Engine
Single or twin
engine aircraft.
Radial air cooled
engine.
Avgas

Turboprop Engines
Propeller geared to
a small turbojet
engine.
Used widely in small
and medium sized
passenger aircraft.

Turboprop Engines
Easily distinguished
form piston aircraft.
Cylindrically shaped
engine nacelle.
Large exhaust ports.

Turboprop Engines
Some engines
produce 80% of
thrust at the prop
and 20% thrust from
the jet exhaust.
Turboprop engines
use Jet A fuel.

Jet Engines
High power output
per engine weight
and size.
Used in large and
small passenger
aircraft.

Jet Engines
Easily
distinguishable from
other types of
engines.
Civil aviation will use
Jet A fuel.

Types of Aircraft

Single Engine
Most single engine
aircraft are:
Piston Engine
Unpressurized
Light Metal

Single Engine
1,200 to 6,000
pounds
1 to 6 seats
10 to 300 gallons
Avgas

Light Twin Engine


Most light twin
engine aircraft are:
Piston engine
Unpressurized
Light to heavy metal

Light Twin Engine


4,000 to 10,000
pounds.
4 to 8 seats.
80 to 400 gallons
Avgas

Heavy Multi-Engine
Most Heavy MultiEngine Aircraft are:
2 to 4 turboprop
engines
Pressurized
Heavy construction

Heavy Multi-Engine
8,000 to 55,000
pounds
8 to 70 seats
350 to 1,500 gallons
Jet-A

Jet Aircraft
Most jet aircraft are:
2 to 4 engine
Pressurized
Heavy construction

Jet Aircraft
12,500 to 710,000
pounds
12 to 500 seats
800 to 50,000 gallons
Jet-A
Hydraulic pressures to
3,000 P.S.I.