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NUST School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering

ME-311 Machine Design


Lecture 19
Instructor: Dr. Samiur Rahman Shah

Clutches, Brakes, Couplings & Flywheels:

Internal Expanding Rim Clutches & Brakes


External Contracting Rim Clutches & Brakes
Frictional Contact Axial Clutches
Cone Clutches & Brakes
Energy considerations & Temperature rise
Friction Materials
Miscellaneous Clutches & Couplings

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Frictional-contact axial clutches


An axial clutch is
one in which the
mating surfaces
are perpendicular
to the rotational
axis
Clutches may be
of single plate or
multi-plate type

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Page 4

A clutch with disk of


external diameter D and
internal diameter d is
shown
We are interested in
obtaining a thrust force
F for required torque T
and pressure p
Two methods of solving
the problem are in use

Uniform wear disk


is rigid
Uniform pressure
disk is supple

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Frictional contact axial clutches uniform


wearthe disk is considered to be rigid
In this analysis,
At first use, the greatest wear is at the outer
radius where tangential velocity is greatest
After sometime, the wear equalises and the
clutch wears equally over the whole surface
The axial wear can thus be expressed as

w f1 f 2 KPVt
In which only P and V vary along the radius of the
clutch disk
d
By
definition,
wear
is
constant,
hence
pr C3 pmax ri pa
prw C
PV const C
1

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We can take the earlier expression which is the


condition for having the same work done at
radius r and at radius d/2
Referring to figure, we have an element of radius
r and thickness dr
Area of this element is 2rdr
Force on this element is thus dF = 2prdr
We can find the total normal force by integrating
over r which varies between d/2 and D/2
Thus Dwith
pr constant
2
D2
p d

d 2

2prdr pa d

d 2

dr

D d

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The torque is found by integrating the product of


the frictional force and the radius

D2

d 2

2fpr dr fpa d
2

D2

d 2

fpa d 2

rdr
D d2
8

By substituting the value of F from the force


equation, we may obtain a more convenient
expression
for the torque. Thus;
Ff

D d

In use, the force equation gives the actuating


force for the selected maximum pressure pa. This
equation holds for any number of friction pairs or
surfaces. The torque equation above gives torque
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output for one surface

Frictional contact axial clutches - uniform pressure

In this type of clutch arrangement, springs are


employed to obtain a uniform pressure over the
whole disk surface
When uniform pressure can be assumed over the
area of the disk, the actuating force F is simply
the product
pa 2 of 2the pressure and area. This gives;

Torque is thus an integral of the product of the


2
frictional Dforce
fpthe 3radius
2 and
3

T 2fp

d 2

r dr

D
12

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Since p = pa from earlier equation, we can write

Ff
T
3

D3 d 3
2

2
D d

The above torque value should be multiplied by


the number of surfaces to get overall torque for a
multi-plate clutch
Torque
wear
T
1for
d uniform
D

fFD

3
For
uniform
pressure
T
1 1 d D

fFD

3 1 d D 2

Plot of the above two eqs. on right

Page 10

Disk brakes
There is no fundamental
difference between a
disk brake and a clutch
Can be of a sliding
caliper (one side piston)
or a fixed caliper (dual
side piston) type

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The governing axial wear equation is

w f1 f 2 KPVt
Where

w = wear in length units


f1 = operational conditions for motion type,
load and speed
f2 = conditions for temperature and
cleanliness
K = material wear property
P = pressure on material
V = velocity of sliding
t = time of operation
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The coordinate locates the line of action of F


Of interest is effective radius re, which is the
equivalent of an infinitesimal radial thickness
2

ro

ro

ri

ri

prdrd 2 1 prdr
ro

ri

fpr drd 2 1 f pr 2 dr
2

ro

ri

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The equivalent radius can thus be found from fFre


ro
=T
pr 2 dr

T
re

fF

ri

ro

ri

prdr

The locating coordinate of the activating force is


2 ro
ro
found
by
taking
moments
about
the
x-axis
M Fr
pr r sin drd cos cos pr 2 dr
x

ri

M x cos 1 cos 2
r

fre
F
2 1

ri

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Disk brakes uniform wear


For wear to be uniform, PV has to be constant
Pressure p expressed in terms of largest
allowable pressure pa (occurring at the inner
radius
papri =
F 2 ri) 1as
ro prai r i/r

1
Torque

T 2 equation
1 fpa ri then
rdr becomes
2 1 fpa ri ro2 ri 2
ri
2
ro
pa ri rdr r 2 r 2 1
ro ri
ri
o
i
re

ro
2 ro ri
2
pa ri dr
ro

ri

cos 1 cos 2 ro ri
r
2 1
2

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Disk brakes uniform pressure


In this situation, p = pa

1
F 2 1 pa rdr 2 1 pa ro2 ri 2
ri
2
ro
1
2
T 2 1 fpa r dr 2 1 fpa ro3 ri3
ri
3
ro

ro

pa r 2 dr

3
3
3
3
r

r
2
2
r

r
ri
o
i
o
i
re

ro
2
2
2
2
3
r

r
3
r

r
o
i
o
i
pa rdr
ri

cos 1 cos 2 2 ro3 ri3 2 ro3 ri3 cos 1 cos 2


r

2
2
2 1
3 ro ri
3 ro2 ri 2
2 1
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Circular (Button or Puck) pad caliper brake


In this situation, re = e
The actuating force is given by

F R 2 pav
And the torque is given by

T fFre

Page 17

Energy considerations
When a rotating member of a machine is caused
to stop by a brake, the kinetic energy of rotation
must be absorbed by the brake heat
Similarly, when a clutch engages drive between
two members of which one is moving and the
other is initially at rest, kinetic energy is dissipated
due to the initial slippage
A clutch or brake may be destroyed by its own
generated heat
Capability of a clutch depends on
Type of material of clutch
Ability of the clutch to dissipate heat

Page 18

Considering the simplified diagram of clutch

Writing the equations for moments of inertia vs. T


for the two members

T I11

T I 22

Instantaneous velocities are

1 t 1
I1

2 t 2
I2
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and
Where1 1
at t=0
2
2
The difference in velocities (relative velocity) is
given by
T

1 2 t 1
t 2
I1
I2

I1 I 2

t
1 2 T
I1 I 2
The clutching operation is completed at the
instant when the relative velocity or w1 - w2
I1 I 2 1 2
becomes
t1 zero, hence

T I1 I 2

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If we assume the clutch torque during


engagement constant, hence, we get the rate of
energy-dissipation (power units) during the

process
to
be

I
1
2

u T T 1 2 T

I1 I 2

This shows that the energy dissipation rate is


greatest at the start when t = 0. The total energy
dissipated during the clutching operation of
braking
operation
is obtained
the

t1
t1
I1 Iby
integrating
2
t tdt1
E udt
T from
T 0 to t =
above
equation
1 2t=
0
0

I1 I 2 1 2
E
2 I1 I 2

I1 I 2

2
Page 21

Temperature rise
The temperature rise of a clutch / brake assembly
can be approximated by

E
T
C pm
Where
T = Temperature rise
Cp = Specific heat for material
m = Mass of clutch or brake parts

Page 22

If an object is at initial temperature T 1 in an


environment of temperature Tinf, then Newtons
cooling model is expressed as

hcr A
T T
exp
t
C m
T1 T
p

Where

Tx = Temperatures
hcr = Overall heat transfer coefficient
A = Lateral heat transfer area
Cooling of disk brake / clutch is governed by
another Newtonian equation

H loss hCR A T T hr f hc A T T

Page 23

Where

Hloss = Rate of energy loss


hCR = Overall heat transfer coefficient
hr = Radial component of hCR
hv = Ventilation factor

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Thank you

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