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Mahatma Gandhi

1869-1948

Life Sketch
Born on October 2, 1869 at Porbandar
Went to England to study
Worked in South Africa, 20 years
Experience at Tolstoy farm, Transval shaped his

educational ideas

Life Sketch

1914
Jan 30, 1948

Leadership of the Indian National


struggle
Assassinated

Philosophy of Life
Absolute supremacy and oneness of God
God is truth and truth is God.
Ahimsa
All religions have an essential unity (riteousness is the

highest religion)
Material possessions not an end in itself

Philosophy of Education
Concept of Education
All-round development, drawing out the best body,

mind and spirit. Education spans life of a person

Philosophy of Education
Aims of Education
Ultimate Aim:
Self realization- Knowledge of truth and God leading to a merger of finite selves into the infinite self.
Immediate Aims
Synthesis of individual and social aims
Bread and Butter Aim
self supporting

Philosophy of Education
Aims of Education
Cultural Aim
Knowledge of Indian culture
All round development
Cultivation of the 3 Hs (head, hand and heart)
Moral Aim
Acquisition of knowledge building up of character

Curriculum
Craft Centered

Subjects

Craft, language (mother tongue/


hindustani), arithmetic, social studies,
general science, fine arts, music
Girls: Domestic help

Methods of Teaching
Based on activity, experience and correlation.
Basic craft at focal point
Mother tongue: medium of instruction
Foreign Languages have made our children

foreigners in their own land

Role of Teacher
Should satisfy need for:
Affection
Self respect
Activity
Teacher should possess:
Knowledge
Skill
Patriotism
Spirit of non violence
Woe to the teacher who teaches one thing with the lips
and carries another in the heart

Textbooks
Required more by teachers than by students
Children to listen to the teacher than read books

Discipline
Craft centered education, focuses on social discipline.
Real freedom through self discipline and self control
Should reflect purity and non violence

Education for Women


Should have the same facilities as men. Special facilities if

necessary

Special Contributions
Basic education or Nai Talim
Also known as craft centered education
Gained National approval in 1937 at Wardha

Features:
1. Free and compulsory education for 7 years (from age of 7 to
14)
2. Education is imparted through a craft
3. Active correlation between craft and other subjects
4. Stress on planning, ,cooperation and individual responsibility
5. Co-education initially
6. Prepares child for a vocation
7. Self supporting

An Estimate: Positive
1.

NATURALIST: paid attention to childs individual needs


and interests

2.

PRAGMATIST: Imparted learning through activities

3.

IDEALIST: Stressed on character, morality and harmony

4.

FREE AND COMPULSORY EDUCATION

5.

CRAFT CENTERED EDUCATION

6.

BASIC EDUCATION: self supporting

7.

Dignity of Labour

Drawbacks
Neglects role of textbooks
English
International Perspective
Impossible to correlate everything with craft
Stress on self sufficiency could lead to exploitation

Conclusions
Gandhijis Philosophy of education is
naturalistic in its setting
Idealistic in its aim and
Pragmatic in its method

All these tendencies fuse into a unity, giving rise to a theory


of education which would suit the need of the day and
satisfy the loftiest aspiration of the human soul.
Dr. S.M. Patel