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CLOSED LOOP

CONTROL
ASHVANI SHUKLA

BOILER DRUM
LEVEL CONTROL

LT1

LT2

LT3

LY-1

LY-1

LY-1

Prs

Steam
Drum
Pressur
e

AVERAGE DRUL
LEVEL(TWO OUT OF
THREE) SIGNAL

FT2

FT3

2 00 3

2 00 3

FT1

Steam Flow
Compensati
on

F
AVERAGE(TWO OUT OF
THREE) MAIN STEAM
FLOW SIGNAL

PT1

PT2

1 00 2

TT1

TT2

2 00 3

TT3

LT1

LT2

LT3

2 00 3

Compe
nsation
Block
Main
Steam
Pressur
e

Main
Steam
Temperatu
re

Compensated
Feed water Flow
AVERAGE TWO OUT OF THREE
FEED WATER FLOW

SET
POINT
50 %

Q
1
DRUM
LEVEL

PV

PI
D LIC1

Q2
COMP
MAIN
STEA
M
FLOW

OUT PUT
SCALED
BETWEEN 0
-100 % OF
FEEDWATER
FLOW

1* 30 % FCV 101

R.S.P = LIC O/P +


STEAM FLOW -50 %
BIAS OF STEAM
Q3
FLOW
PV

FIC
1

FEEDWA
TER
FLOW

R.
S .P

1* 100 % FCV
102

Introduction of Closed loop


Control/Drum level Control
OBJECTIVE:Drum is a closed vessel which is filled with Treated water during the Normal
operation of Boiler or it act as a water storage tank for boiler tubes. Water is
used to Generate the Steam and Cooling of water tube for protection from
Departure Nucleate Boiling. So we have to maintain the adequate level of
water during the normal operation of boiler. In steam drum there are some
physical phenomenon are happening during the load change of boiler. Due to
load change Pressure goes suddenly up and sudden down So level will
fluctuate and will not maintain properly at desired level. It is called shrink and
swell effect. When sudden load increase then stem flow increases and
pressure drops inside the drum and level stars swelling vice versa when
steam flow decreased the pressure will rise then and level will goes down
called shrink effect. So we are not able to maintain the adequate level of
water level inside the drum. Formerly we are using the single element and
two element level control philosophy to control the level of steam drum.

Continue
But during the sudden load change above technologies are failed to maintain
the adequate water level in steam drum. So due to these constrains we are
using the three element control philosophy for steam drum level control.
It has some important physical system and parameters which are used to
control the process.
1.FEEDWATER CONTROL
The BFP Discharge pressure controller is responsible for maintaining enough
pressure in the BFP Discharge Header.
The objective of the feed water control system is to balance the boiler steam
and feed water flows in proportion to steam out flow to maintain a safe water
level in the steam drum at any boiler load condition

Continue..
Drum level control is typical three-element control consisting of drum level,
feed water flow and main steam flow parameter. It is used to maintain drum
level by sensing steam load variation in main steam flow and by regulating
Feed water flow through feed water control valves.
The feed water controls valves that both typically have 100 % capacity can
be substitute each other with one 30% capacity control valve (start up control
valve).The feed water start up valve controller represents the single element
portion of the feed water control loop that is used during the start up of the
boiler. When the boiler generates steam load of 30 % MCR, the feed water
control is switched to three element mode (1E to 3E switch over is manual)
and controls shall be done with 100% control valves.
The control loop is designed in such a way that 100% CV can be operate in
single element by Operator selection

Continue..
Feed water Start up Valve Control 30 %( FCV-101)
The controller objective is to maintain drum water level at a required set point during
the start up of the boiler. A pressure compensated drum water level measurement is
used as the process variable for the controller.

The feed water start up valve controller (LIC-101) compares the drum water level
measurement to the operator adjustable set point and generates an output that sets
the position of the feed water start up control valve( 30 % ) resulting in the change in
feed water flow rate and drum water level.

Controller (LIC-101) action is reverse type.

Continue..
Feed water Main Control Valve (FCV-102)

The controller objective is to maintain drum water level at a required set


point during the operational load i.e. (>30%) of the boiler. A pressure
compensated drum water level measurement is used as the process variable
for the controller.
The feed water main valve controller (LIC-101) compares the drum water
level measurement to the operator adjustable set point and generates an
output that add or subtract with the (e.g. load changes) the balance between
the steam and feed water flow rates and final value sets the position of the
feed water Main control valve resulting in the change in feed water flow rate
and drum water level.

Continue..
Drum Level Control

Drum level is measured using three nos. of level transmitters. The 2 out of 3
level signals ( LT-1,2,3) is compensated for drum pressure individually before
the 2 out of 3 block. Drum pressure is measured with the help of drum
pressure transmitter.
As the characteristics of drum pressure Vs drum level is non- linear. Drum
pressure is passed through function generator (for generation of non- linear
curve) the output of which is multiplied with drum level signal to generate
compensated level signal.
The values (as per enclosed annexure) for the curve are to be fed in PLC.

Continue.
For Boiler protection, level switches very high and very low will be derived in PLC using level
transmitters 2 out of 3 logic for high-low alarm (LAHH-01 & LALL-01) will be generated in PLC,
very high and very low drum level will be used for trip logic.

The remote water level indication from Hydra step will be displayed near by the Feed water
flow control station.

The steam drum level controller (LIC-101 ) objective is to maintain drum water level at a
required set point during the operating of the boiler. If for any reason (e.g. load changes) the
balance between the steam and feed water flow rates is altered, a change in the boilers water
inventory is affected that is indicated by the change in the amount of water stored in the drum.
So at that point we summate the LIC-101 output with steam flow and subtract the bias of steam
flow to generate the remote set point for FIC-101.Depends upon the error generated by FIC101 we control the position of FCV-102 to maintain the feed water flow.