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Chapter 11

Physical Disabilities,
Health Impairments, and ADHD

WilliamL.Heward
ExceptionalChildren:AnIntroductiontoSpecialEducation,8e
Copyright2006byPearsonEducation,Inc.
UpperSaddleRiver,NewJersey07458
Allrightsreserved.

Components of IDEA Definitions


Orthopedic Impairment (OI)
Dysfunction of bones, joints, limbs, and associated muscles
Dysfunction of central nervous system affecting movement
Adversely affecting educational performance

Other Health Impairment (OHI)


Limited strength, vitality, or alertness due to chronic or
acute health problems
Adversely affecting educational performance

Many children with OI and OHI receive services under other


categories
Some do not require specialized educational services
WilliamL.Heward
ExceptionalChildren:AnIntroductiontoSpecialEducation,8e
Copyright2006byPearsonEducation,Inc.
UpperSaddleRiver,NewJersey07458
Allrightsreserved.

Orthopedic Impairments
Cerebral Palsy
Permanent disorder of voluntary movement and posture
Little relation between impairment and intellectual
development
Classified according to muscle tone and motor movement

Spina Bifida
Congenital defect in the vertebra that enclose the spinal cord
Can result in paralysis below affected vertebra
Hydrocephalic condition common; treated with a shunt

WilliamL.Heward
ExceptionalChildren:AnIntroductiontoSpecialEducation,8e
Copyright2006byPearsonEducation,Inc.
UpperSaddleRiver,NewJersey07458
Allrightsreserved.

Orthopedic Impairments
Muscular Dystrophy
Progressive weakening and degeneration of the muscles
Little relation between impairment and intellectual
development

Spinal Cord Injuries


Caused by fracture, stretching, or compression of spinal cord
Car accidents, sports injuries, and violence most common
causes
Result in paralysis below affected vertebra

WilliamL.Heward
ExceptionalChildren:AnIntroductiontoSpecialEducation,8e
Copyright2006byPearsonEducation,Inc.
UpperSaddleRiver,NewJersey07458
Allrightsreserved.

Other Health Impairments


Seizure disorder (epilepsy)
Caused by abnormal electrical activity in the brain
Three different categories based on severity
Seizures can be controlled with medicine

Diabetes
Chronic disorder of metabolism
Body unable to breakdown sugar
Treated with insulin, diet, and exercise

WilliamL.Heward
ExceptionalChildren:AnIntroductiontoSpecialEducation,8e
Copyright2006byPearsonEducation,Inc.
UpperSaddleRiver,NewJersey07458
Allrightsreserved.

Other Health Impairments


Asthma
Chronic lung disease resulting in a narrowing of airways
Leading cause of absenteeism in school

Cystic Fibrosis
Genetic disorder affecting pulmonary and digestive systems

Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)


Children afforded legal protection under Section 504

WilliamL.Heward
ExceptionalChildren:AnIntroductiontoSpecialEducation,8e
Copyright2006byPearsonEducation,Inc.
UpperSaddleRiver,NewJersey07458
Allrightsreserved.

Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
The essential feature of ADHD is a persistent pattern of
inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity
Children with ADHD can be served under the other health
impairments category
Estimates of prevalence of ADHD range from 3% to 5% of
all school-age children
Two treatment approaches that are widely used with
children with ADHD are drug therapy and behavioral
intervention
WilliamL.Heward
ExceptionalChildren:AnIntroductiontoSpecialEducation,8e
Copyright2006byPearsonEducation,Inc.
UpperSaddleRiver,NewJersey07458
Allrightsreserved.

Characteristics
Children are more different than alike
Classification based on symptoms of little use in
educational planning
For no other group of exceptional learner is the
continuum of educational services more relevant

Three important factors that affect educational needs


Age of onset - children with congenital or acquired
impairments have different needs
Visibility - the visibility of impairment may cause some to
underestimate the childs abilities and limit opportunities

WilliamL.Heward
ExceptionalChildren:AnIntroductiontoSpecialEducation,8e
Copyright2006byPearsonEducation,Inc.
UpperSaddleRiver,NewJersey07458
Allrightsreserved.

Educational Approaches
Often involve the collaboration of an interdisciplinary team
Teachers
Physical, occupational, and speech therapists,
Other health care specialists (e.g., heath care aids)

Children with physical disabilities may also need


environmental modifications
Examples include, wheelchair accessible classrooms, or other
assistive technology

Inclusive attitude on the part of teaches and non-disabled


peers
Students should be encouraged to develop as much
independence as possible

WilliamL.Heward
ExceptionalChildren:AnIntroductiontoSpecialEducation,8e
Copyright2006byPearsonEducation,Inc.
UpperSaddleRiver,NewJersey07458
Allrightsreserved.

Current Issues and Future Trends


Related services in the classroom
Teachers will need to make accommodations for related
services in the classroom

New and emerging technology


Myoelectric (bionic) limbs
Robotics

Animal assistance
Canine helpers in the classroom

Employment, life skills, and self-advocacy


Vocational and professional opportunities must be
expanded
WilliamL.Heward
ExceptionalChildren:AnIntroductiontoSpecialEducation,8e
Copyright2006byPearsonEducation,Inc.
UpperSaddleRiver,NewJersey07458
Allrightsreserved.