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Motivation

Motivation is defined as the willingness to


exert high levels of effort towards organizational
goals, conditioned by the efforts ability to
satisfy some individual need.
Latin word Movere

to move

Motivation
Motivation is a process that starts with a
Physiological or Psychological deficiency or need that
activates behavior or a drive that is aimed at a goal or
incentive.
Physiological / Psychological Deficiency
Need from within self
Activates behavior
Leads to a drive
Aimed at a goal or incentive

Motivation
Thus basically
Needs

Drives

Incentives

the Basic Motivation Process


Needs : Created due to a physiological or
psychological imbalance. E.g. a need for achieving
more.
Drives: Drives provide an energizing thrust to
achieve an incentive.
Incentives: Incentives restore the physiological or
psychological balance & reduce a drive. Eg.
Achieving Success.

Classification of Motivation

Primary Motives

General Motives

Secondary Motives

Primary Motives : Arise out of basic primary needs or basic


psychological and physiological makeup.
Eg: hunger ,thirst ,sleep, avoidance of pain
etc.
These are unlearned motives. No learning
reqd. Must be physiologically based.
General Motives : Basically to bridge the gap between primary
and secondary motives. Also known as
stimulus motives.
Generally increases stimulation.
Eg: Curiosity, Manipulation ,etc.

Classification of Motivation
Secondary Motives :
Arise out of learned drive Eg: power , achievement, affiliation
etc.

Power

to grow

to rule

Achievement

To the extent of taking moderate risks.


Achieving satisfaction with accomplishments
To the extent of being preoccupied with the
concerned task.

Affiliation

Belongingness.
To be accepted in a group.

Classification of Motivation
Security
More prominent in advanced societies.
Social Security No. (Canada)
so personal security in maintaining human
relationship.
Status
Seeking prominence in organisation / society

Classification of Motivation

Primary Motives

General Motives

Secondary Motives

Secondary Motives :
These are learned motives.
Learning reqd.
Not physiologically based .Other eg. Security Motive,
status motive.

CONTENT THEORIES OF WORK MOTIVATION


Maslows Hierarchy of Needs
Abraham Maslow Motivational needs have a hierarchical order /
levels .Once a given level of need has been satisfied, it ceases to
motivate. So the next level has to be activated to motivate the
individual.
SELF- ACTUALISATION
ESTEEM NEEDS
LOVE NEEDS
SAFETY NEEDS
PHYSIOLOGICAL NEEDS

CONTENT THEORIES OF WORK MOTIVATION


Maslows Hierarchy of Needs
PHYSIOLOGICAL NEEDS :
These are basic unlearned primary needs. Viz. hunger ,
thirst , sleep etc.
SAFETY NEEDS:
This implies security needs.
LOVE NEEDS :
This implies affection and affiliation i.e. social belongingness.
ESTEEM NEEDS:
This includes title ,status, power, promotion etc.
SELF-ACTUALISATION:
Need for self development .Integration of all needs
level self growth.

Macro

HERZBERGS TWO-FACTOR THEORY OF MOTIVATION


Two basic questions asked
When did you feel particularly good about your job?
When did you feel exceptionally bad about your job?
Positive feelings :
Associated with job experiences and job content.
Identification of job satisfiers
Within job content
Eg. New computer in a managers cabin.
These if handled properly, generate satisfaction

HERZBERGS TWO-FACTOR THEORY OF MOTIVATION


(contd)

MOTIVATORS
Correspond to Maslows higher level needs
Truly motivates.
(+ve motivation)

HERZBERGS TWO-FACTOR THEORY OF MOTIVATION


Negative responses with regard to various aspects of job
Identification of job dissatisfiers
Within peripheral aspect of job
(job context / environment )
Eg. Problem with boss
These if handled properly, can only prevent dissatisfaction
but cannot generate satisfaction on their own

HERZBERGS TWO-FACTOR THEORY OF MOTIVATION


(contd)

HYGIENE FACTORS
Correspond to Maslows lower level needs
Brings motivation to a theoretical zero from -ve ,
(Floor for removing dissatisfaction at work )

ALDERFERS ERG THEORY


Clayton Alderfer
Extension of Maslows and Herzbergs theories
There exists three basic groups of core needs.
Intrinsic desire for
The
personal growth and
Growth
development
Needs
(Motivators)
The
Relatedness
Needs

The
Existence
Needs

Social and interpersonal


needs.
Love , Esteem
(Motivators)
Basic physiological
well being
(Hygiene factors)

PROCESS THEORIES OF WORK MOTIVATION


Vrooms Expectancy Theory of Motivation
Victor Vroom
VIE Theory

Valence
Strength of an individuals preference for a particular outcome
Positive Valence
Individual prefers attaining the outcome.
Zero Valence Individual is indifferent towards the outcome
Negative Valence
Individual prefers not attaining the outcome

Motivation class 2

PROCESS THEORIES OF WORK MOTIVATION


Vrooms Expectancy Theory of Motivation

Instrumentality
Instrumentality of the first level outcome in getting a desired
second level outcome.
Eg. Perform better to get promotion
Perform better is first level outcome and getting promotion is
the second level outcome

Expectancy

Probability ( Extending from zero to 1 )


Probability that a certain action would lead to a certain
first level outcome.

Motivation class 2

PROCESS THEORIES OF WORK MOTIVATION


Contd.

Vrooms Expectancy Theory of Motivation


Expectancy
Three Relationships

Effort Performance Relationship


Performance Reward Relationship
Rewards
Personal Goals Relationship

Motivation class 2

PROCESS THEORIES OF WORK MOTIVATION


Instrumentality
Expectancy
Outcome 1a
Outcome 1
Motivational
Force (F)
Valence x Exp

Outcome 1b

First
Level
Outcomes

Outcome 2a

Outcome 2
VIE Theory of Work

Outcome 2b

Motivation
Valence

-1 to +1 Expectancy 0 to 1

VALENCE .EXPECTANCY = MOTIVATION

Outcome 2c

ACTION

GOAL ATTAINMENT

SATISFACTION

PORTER - LAWLER MODEL


Is a refinement and extension of Vrooms Model
Deals directly with satisfaction performance
relationship.
Speaks of a complex relationship existing
among motivation, performance & satisfaction.
Effort does not directly lead to performance
,rather there exists abilities, traits and role
perceptions of individuals which act as
mediating factors.
Performance too does not directly , lead to
satisfaction; rather the corresponding reward
and the way in which they are perceived
determine satisfaction.

PORTER - LAWLER MODEL


Value of
Reward

Abilities
&
Traits

Perceivable
Rewards

Intrinsic
Reward

Effort

Performance
Extrinsic
Reward

Role
Perception

Reward
Probability

7a

Job Freedom
Job Responsibility

7b

Car parking space


Car for use
Flat

PORTER - LAWLER MOTIVATION MODEL

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