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Define what is safety:
-it can be thought as an absence of hazards or minimum
exposure to hazards
-is the control of hazards to an acceptable level
-Electricity is the second leading cause of death in construction.

OSHA(Occupational Safety and Health Administration)

Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)
standards, National Fire Protection Association (NFPA)
standards, and other safety standards give precise safety
requirements for the operation of electrical systems and
equipment in such dangerous areas. Ignition can also be
caused by overheated conductors or equipment, or by
normal arcing at switch contacts or in circuit breakers .

Step potential is the step voltage between the feet of a person standing near an
energized grounded object. It is equal to the difference in voltage, given by the
voltage distribution curve, between two points at different distances from the
electrode. A person could be at risk of injury during a fault simply by standing
near the grounding point.
STEP Potential
Step Potential Test
1. Connect the X lead to the grounding system
2. Insert the injector electrode at the approximate distance of the projected fault
away from the grounding system and connect the Z lead to it
3. Insert two electrodes 3 feet apart (the distance of a human step) at the
approximate location of the expected position of the person. All electrodes should
be in a straight line.

4. Attach the Xv lead to the electrode closest to Z and the Y lead

to the other electrode.
5. Start the test and record the resistance reading.
6. Determine the expected fault current and multiply it by the
resistance reading to get the step potential voltage.
Touch potential is the touch voltage between the energized
object and the feet of a person in contact with the object. It is
equal to the difference in voltage between the object and a point
some distance away. The touch potential or touch voltage could
be nearly the full voltage across the grounded object if that
object is grounded at a point remote from the place where the
person is in contact with it.

Fundamentals of Electricity
CONDUCTOR -> is a material that allows electrons to flow
through it.
INSULATOR -> resists the flow of electrons.
VOLTAGE -> unit of measurement of electromotive force (EMF)
CURRENT -> Continuous movement of electrons past a given
point. (measured in amperes)
RESISTANCE -> Opposition to movement of electrons. Makes it
possible to generate heat, control current flow, & supply correct
voltage to devices

Electrical Safety Model

Recognize Hazards
Evaluate Risk
Control Hazards

Dangers of Electric shock

Electric shock occurs when the body becomes
part of an electrical circuit. Shocks can
happen in three ways.
A person may come in contact with both
conductors in a circuit.
A person may provide a path between an
ungrounded conductor and the ground.
A person may provide a path between the
ground and a conducting material that is in
contact with an ungrounded conductor.

Severity of Electrical Shock

The severity of injury from electrical shock depends
Amount of electrical amperage (current) higher
voltage creates greater current
Length of time the current passes through the body
of the current
1 milliamp
5 milliamps

9-30 milliamps

Just a faint tingle.

Slight shock felt. Disturbing,but not painful.
Most people can let go.
However, strong involuntary movements can cause
Painful shock. Muscular control is lost.
This is the range where freezing currents start.
It may not be possible to let go.

Extremely painful shock, respiratory

arrest(breathing stops).
Severe muscle contractions.

The most common shock-related, non-fatal injury is a BURN.

Burns caused by electricity may be of three types:
Electrical burns
Arc burns
Thermal contact burns
1. Electrical burns can result when a person touches poorly
maintained electrical wiring or equipment.
2. Electrical burns are among the most serious injuries you can
receive. They require immediate medical attention

Hazards of Electricity
Most common and can cause electrocution or
muscle contraction leading to secondary injury which includes
Enough heat or sparks can ignite combustible
Electrical spark can ignite vapors in the air
(light and heat) can cause burns ranging
from 14,000 degrees f. to 35,000 degrees fahrenheight(19,400
(explosive blast ) Type of electrical explosion
Very hot equipment surface, explosion

Five technicians were performing preventive maintenance on
the electrical system of a railroad maintenance facility. One of
the technicians was assigned to clean the lower compartment
of an electrical cabinet using cleaning fluid in an aerosol can.
But, he began to clean the upper compartment as well. The
upper compartment was filled with live circuitry. When the
cleaning spray contacted the live circuitry, a conductive path
for the current was created. The current passed through the
stream of fluid, into the technicians arm, and across his chest.
The current caused a loud explosion. Co-workers found the
victim with his clothes on fire. One worker put out the fire with
an extinguisher, and another pulled the victim away from the
compartment with a plastic vacuum cleaner hose. The
paramedics responded in 5 minutes. Although the victim
survived the shock, he died 24 hours later of burns. This death
could have been prevented if the following precautions had
been taken: