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C2C2 -- Material

Material Choices

Choices

Revision

Revision

Material Choices (C2) Revision for Exams
Material Choices (C2) Revision for
Exams

Properties ofof Materials

Properties

Materials

When we decide which material to use, we have to think about the properties of the material.

Polystyrene is used for hot drink containers because it is waterproof, low density and a poor thermal conductor.

Property Words

Property

Words

   

Strong

   
 

This means that it is hard to break a material.

 

Strong under tension

The material needs a big load to break it when stretched.

 
 

Strong under compression

The material needs a big load to make it break when squashed.

 
 

Hard

The material is difficult to dent or scratch.

 

Soft

The material can be scratched or dented easily.

 
   

Flexible

The material will bend easily and without breaking.

 
 

Stiff

This means that a material is difficult to bend or stretch.

 
 

High density

This means that a material has a big mass for its size.

 

High melting point

The material will turn into a liquid at a high

Natural

Natural oror Synthetic

Synthetic

Natural or or Synthetic Some materials are natural . They are made from plants or animals:

Some materials are natural. They are made from plants or animals:

Cotton is made from the cotton plant Silk is made by the silkworm Wool is made when a sheep is sheared Leather is made from the hide of cows Paper and wood are made from trees

Natural or or Synthetic Some materials are natural . They are made from plants or animals:
Natural or or Synthetic Some materials are natural . They are made from plants or animals:
Natural or or Synthetic Some materials are natural . They are made from plants or animals:
Natural or or Synthetic Some materials are natural . They are made from plants or animals:

Lots of materials are synthetic now. Synthetic means made by a chemical reaction. Anything with a name starting with poly is synthetic, for example polythene, polyester and pvc (polyvinylchloride ). Other synthetic materials include acrylic, viscose and nylon. The raw material is usually crude oil.

Natural or or Synthetic Some materials are natural . They are made from plants or animals:

What

What are

are materials?

materials?

Materials we use are rarely pure. They are made of mixtures of different elements and compounds.

This is done to change the properties to ensure that it is fit for the use desired.

This could be a mixture of metals (Iron and carbon to make steel), ceramics and polymers.

Millions of years ago, tiny sea creatures died. They

became crude oil.

Crude Oil

Crude

Oil

Millions
Millions
of years
of
years
Millions of years ago, tiny sea creatures died. They became crude oil. Millions of years They
Millions of years ago, tiny sea creatures died. They became crude oil. Millions of years They

They drill for oil at an oil rig and then transport it by tanker, pipeline and lorries to the oil refinery.

Crude oil is a mixture of hydrocarbons. Hydrocarbons are molecules with only carbon and hydrogen in. E.g. CH 4 and C 20 H 42 but not CO 2 .

Millions of years ago, tiny sea creatures died. They became crude oil. Millions of years They

At the oil refinery, the mixture is separated into fuels, lubricants and the raw materials for making polymers. Most of the products are fuels.

Drilling, refining and making the plastic products require energy.
Drilling, refining and making
the plastic products
require energy.

A very small percentage is used in chemical synthesis. Most is used for fuels

How

How we

we get

get fuels.

fuels.

How How we we get get fuels. fuels.

Polymerization

Polymerization

Polymerization Polymerization Polymerization e Polythen polymerisation Ethene Polymers are very large molecules made when many small
Polymerization e
Polymerization
e
Polythen polymerisation Ethene
Polythen
polymerisation
Ethene
Polymers are very large molecules made when many small molecules join together. The small molecules are
Polymers are very large molecules made
when many small molecules join
together. The small molecules are called
monomers. Polymerization is making a
polymer from many monomers.

Monomer vsvs Polymer

Monomer

Polymer

Mono means one.

A monomer is one compound that will be reacted to form a long chain.

Poly means many

A polymer is many monomers connected together by a chemical bond.

May the

May

the force

force bebe with

with you

you

the May force be be with you The atoms in a polymer are held together
the May force be be with you The atoms in a polymer are held together

The atoms in a polymer are held together by strong covalent bonds. A lot of energy is needed to break them. Heating with a Bunsen burner or pulling won’t break these bonds.

There are weaker forces between the molecules. They don’t need so much energy to break them. When a rope snaps, it is because these forces are broken. When a plastic melts, it is these forces which are broken.

the May force be be with you The atoms in a polymer are held together

Polymers

Polymers aren’t

aren’t always

always the

the same

same lengths

lengths

Longer molecules means greater tensile strength. Longer molecules Stronger forces between That’s why the melting point
Longer molecules means
greater tensile strength.
Longer
molecules
Stronger
forces
between
That’s why the melting
point is higher when
the molecules are
longer.
molecules
More
energy
needed to
separate
molecules

Cross-links

Cross-links and

and Plasticizers

Plasticizers

Natural rubber is very flexible because the forces between molecules are weak and they can slide over each other.

Cross-links Cross-links and and Plasticizers Plasticizers Natural rubber is very flexible because the forces between molecules

Vulcanised rubber is less

flexible, harder and

stronger if stretched.

This is because the

cross-links stop the chains from sliding over

each other.

Cross-links Cross-links and and Plasticizers Plasticizers Natural rubber is very flexible because the forces between molecules
Cross-links Cross-links and and Plasticizers Plasticizers Natural rubber is very flexible because the forces between molecules
Cross-links Cross-links and and Plasticizers Plasticizers Natural rubber is very flexible because the forces between molecules

Plasticizers are small molecules which push the

polymer chains

apart. The force

between them

decreases and

the chains can

slide over each

other. The polymer is softer and more flexible.

Cross-links Cross-links and and Plasticizers Plasticizers Natural rubber is very flexible because the forces between molecules
Cross-links Cross-links and and Plasticizers Plasticizers Natural rubber is very flexible because the forces between molecules
Cross-links Cross-links and and Plasticizers Plasticizers Natural rubber is very flexible because the forces between molecules

Crystallinity

Crystallinity isis crazy?

crazy? (Higher

(Higher only)

only)

If we say a polymer is crystalline it means the long molecules line up close to each other.

Crystallinity is is crazy? (Higher only) If we say a polymer is crystalline it means the
Crystallinity is is crazy? (Higher only) If we say a polymer is crystalline it means the
Crystallinity is is crazy? (Higher only) If we say a polymer is crystalline it means the

These polymer chains are close together. The polythene has a higher density, is

stronger and has a

higher melting point.

Forces between molecules are stronger so more energy is needed to overcome the forces.

Crystallinity is is crazy? (Higher only) If we say a polymer is crystalline it means the

High density polythene

In low density polythene, the molecules have

branches. The branches keep the chains apart. It is not crystalline. The forces between molecules decrease because they are further apart.

Low density polythene

Materials that

Materials

that have

have been

been

replaced.

replaced.

The problem

The

problem with

with plastics

plastics

Plastics are non-biodegradable and crude oil is running out – don’t just put plastic objects in
Plastics are non-biodegradable and crude oil is running
out – don’t just put plastic objects in the bin.
Burning plastics
makes CO 2 , a
Try to reuse bottles,
bags and containers.
Give old toys to a
friend or a charity
shop.
greenhouse gas.
The heat energy
could be used to
make electricity
though.
You can recycle your
plastic rubbish. It is
sorted into type of
plastic, melted and
remoulded into new
objects.

Can

Can we,

we, should

should we?

we?

Science can tell us if making a product is possible. For instance making cars completely from
Science can tell us if making a product is possible. For
instance making cars completely from plastics is possible.
It can be done. But should we do it?
Can Can we, we, should should we? we? Science can tell us if making a product
They would be lighter – not good on windy days. How much would the cars cost
They
would be
lighter –
not good
on windy
days.
How much
would the
cars cost
to buy?

Crude oil is running out – I’d rather use it as a fuel.

They might last longer – car manufacturers would lay people off.

Nanoparticles

Nanoparticles

Nanoparticles are very tiny particles 1-

100 nanometers across (100 will fit

across the width of a hair)

Nanotechnology is an area of science

that deal with using these nanoparticles

to change the properties of materials to

make them better.

Nanomaterials

Nanomaterials

Nanomaterial are materials made by using nanotechnology some are natural and some are made in a lab.

Sea-spray is a natural nanomateral.

It is when the sea produces nanosize salt particles which go into the atmosphere.

Combustion produces natural nanomaterials.

Nanoscale soot particles are produced and sent into the atmosphere. These are what cause breathing issues.

Changing

Changing properties

properties

Nanoparticles are added to plastics in sports equipment to make them stronger and more durable, without adding weight.

Silver nanoparticles have antibacterial properties so are added to piolymer fibres to make surgical masks and wound dressings.

*Normal silver particles are to big to have this property.

Why nanoparticles

Why

nanoparticles work

work

The particles are so small that they have

a large surface area to volume ratio

which is why they are super useful.

Why nanoparticles Why nanoparticles work work  The particles are so small that they have a

Health Problems

Health

Problems toto

using nanoparticles

using

nanoparticles

Due to the size nanoparticles could

easily get into our blood and cause harm

to our body.

Due to a lack of long term testing before

being introduced into the health and food

industries, we are unsure of what effects

they actually have on our health.

Data Analysis

Data

Analysis

Calculations you need to know

What does

What

does itit mean?

mean?

Average/ Mean- add them all up and divide by the number of pieces of data

Outlier- a result much higher or lower than most of the other results

Best estimate- The mean not including outliers Range- The highest and lowest values True value- what the value should be

Real difference when comparing 2 sets of results, the mean of each set should not lie in the range of the other results

Correlation - relationship

Outliers

Outliers

Outliers Outliers

Mean, Range

Mean,

Range and

and Best

Best

Estimate

Estimate

Data, 1,2,3,12

1. Mean = (1+2+3+12)/4 = 4.5

2. Range = 1 to 12

3. Best Estimate = (1+2+3)/3 = 2

(removed 12 due to it being an outlier)

Real Difference

Real

Difference

Data Set 1: 1,2,3,4,5

Date Set 2: 6,7,8,9,10 1. Mean of data set 1 = 3

Mean of data set 2 = 8

2. Range of data set 1 = 1 to 5

Range of data set 2 = 6 to 10

? Does the mean of data set 1 fit into range of data set 2? NO therefore there is a real difference.