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HRM Principles & Practices (Second Edition)

Oxford Fajar Sdn. Bhd. (008974-T), 2011

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Chapter 7 1

CHAPTER

SAFETY AND HEALTH AT


WORK

HRM Principles & Practices (Second Edition)


Oxford Fajar Sdn. Bhd. (008974-T), 2011

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Chapter 7 2

PREVIEW

The provisions of the Occupational Safety and Health


Act which affect employers.

The importance of encouraging safe work practices and


healthy lifestyles amongst employees.

Reducing incidences of sexual harassment at work.

The need for a planned programme to reduce violence


at the workplace.

Programmes and activities which can improve the health


and wellness of employees.

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Chapter 7 3

THE HEAVY COST OF


ACCIDENTS

Medical bills

Wages of workers on medical leave

Damage to equipment and materials

Overtime work

Employee replacement costs, in case of


fatal accident

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Chapter 7 4

THE HEAVY COST OF


ACCIDENTS (cont.)

Time cost of supervisors, management


and colleagues

Lowered morale of employees

Poor public image

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Chapter 7 5

CAUSES OF ACCIDENTS

Technical causes

Human causes

Environmental causes
Causes of Accidents, 2007
Cause

Percentage

Struck by object

50

Falls

27

Caught in object

12

Struck by falling object

10

Cause
Exposed to extreme

Percentage

heat, electricity or other


dangerous substance,
including radiation

Source: SOCSO
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Chapter 7 6

CAUSES OF ACCIDENTS
(cont.)
Employees problems lead to accidents:

Faulty attitudes

Nervousness

Impulsiveness

Faulty

Low attention span

judgement of
speed and distance

Irresponsibility

Worry

Drinking and drug


abuse

Fatigue

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and fear

and depression

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Chapter 7 7

EMPLOYEE HEALTH ISSUES


Common health hazards at work include:

Use of organic chemicals and toxic substances

Fumes, dust and smoke

Radiation

Infection

Noise and vibration levels

Extreme temperatures

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Chapter 7 8

WHO IS RESPONSIBLE FOR


SAFETY AND HEALTH AT WORK?
Everyone is responsible for safety and
health at work, especially:
The

Department of Occupational Safety and


Health (DOSH)
The National Institute of Occupational Safety and
Health (NIOSH)
Employers
Employees
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Chapter 7 9

(i) The Department of Occupational Safety and Health


(DOSH) which is responsible for enforcing the safety laws
as well as guiding employers on how to make their
workplaces safe;
(ii) The Employees Social Security Organisation (SOCSO)
provides some funds to sponsor efforts to reduce the
accident rate at the workplace;
(iii) The National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health
(NIOSH) which offers training programmes and carries out
research;
(iv) The Federation of Malaysian Manufacturers (FMM) and the
Malaysian Employers Federation (MEF) provide training to the
staff of their members in the field of safety and health;
(v) Safety training vendors who assist employers by offering
expert facilitators for training programmes, and
(vi) Trade unions and their representative body, the Malaysian
Trades Union Congress (MTUC) which undertake research into
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hazardous
work
conditions
in
their
particular
industry.
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Chapter 7 10

Accidents are usually classified in various ways, for example by


their impact or severity:
(i)

Near miss, whereby no one was injured or hurt, although


damage to property may have occurred;
(ii)

Non-fatal, one or more employees required first-aid


treatment;
(iii)

Non-fatal, whereby one or more employees were


temporarily disabled;
(iv)

Non-fatal, whereby one or more employees were


permanently disabled, and
(v)

Fatal, whereby one or more workers were killed.

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Chapter 7 11

Causes of Accidents at the


Workplace
Work situation
Inadequate
Management
Control
Unsafe system
design
Lack of suitable
standards
Faulty or
inadequate
equipment
Business
pressures

Fault of person
Insufficient skill or
knowledge
Failure to follow
procedures
Personal problems
Lack of motivation
Inattention
Forgetfulness

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Unsafe act
Process error
Taking short cuts
Taking
unnecessary risks
Removal of safety
equipment
Failure to use safety
equipment

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Chapter 7 12

Occupational diseases and


health issues
Common health hazards at work are:
(i)

Use of organic chemicals and toxic


substances;
(ii)

Fumes, dust and smoke;

(iii)

Radiation;

(iv)

Infection;

(v)

Noise and vibration levels, and

(vi)

Extreme temperatures.

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Chapter 7 13

THE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY


AND HEALTH ACT (OSHA)
To ensure the safety and health of
persons at work, the Occupational
Safety and Health Act 1994, lays
down a number of requirements
which must be complied with by
employers and employees.

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Chapter 7 14

The Occupational Safety and


Health Act (OSHA) 1994

The purpose of the Occupational Safety and


Health Act is to establish a set of rules which are
wide enough in coverage to ensure, if properly
implemented, that the workplace will be safe as
possible

The Act covers all workplaces, with only a few


minor exceptions, and is enforced by the
Department of Occupational Safety and Health
(DOSH) which is a department in the Ministry of
Human Resources.

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Chapter 7 15

To enforce the law, DOSH:


(i) Makes regular inspections of workplace, especially factories;
(ii) Issues improvement notices and stop work orders where there
is high risk of accident because of unsafe work conditions or
where an accident has occurred and needs to be investigated,
and
(iii) Prosecutes firms who refuse to comply with the law.
DOSH has other functions as well, including:
(i) Issuing competency certificates to safety officers;
(ii) Issuing competency certificates to boilermen and other jobs
which, by law, can only be operated by qualified employees, and
(iii) Investigating accidents

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Chapter 7 16

The Occupational Safety and


Health Act (OSHA)
The Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA) lays down the requirement that
employers do the following:
(i) Ensure the safety of all employees and any other person at the workplace, as far as is
practicable;
(ii) Draft and disseminate a safety policy, if the organization has more than five
employees;
(iii) Appoint a safety committee, if the organization has 40 or more employees;
(iv) Appoint a dedicated, qualified safety and health officer, if the organization falls
within the scope of the relevant regulation;
(v) Provide appropriate training, supervision and information to employees
concerning safe work practices, and
(vi) Report serious accidents to the Department of Occupational Safety and
Health.
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Chapter 7 17

SAFETY POLICIES
All employers with more than five employees
are required under OSHA to:

Draft a SAFETY POLICY

Communicate it to employees

Revise it as necessary

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Chapter 7 18

APPOINTMENT OF A QUALIFIED SAFETY


OFFICER

Employers in designated
industries are required under
OSHA to employ a qualified
safety officer.

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Chapter 7 19

APPOINTMENT OF A QUALIFIED
SAFETY OFFICER (cont.)
Appointment compulsory in high-risk
industries:

Building and engineering construction

Ship building (with more than 100 workers)

Gas and petroleum (with more than 100 workers)

Chemical industry (with more than 100 workers)

Metal industry (with more than 100 workers)

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Chapter 7 20

APPOINTMENT OF A QUALIFIED SAFETY


OFFICER (cont.)

Wood working industry (with more than 100


workers)

Cement industry (with more than 100


workers)

Other manufacturing industries (with more


than 500 workers)

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Chapter 7 21

QUALIFIED SAFETY OFFICERS


A qualified safety officer is one who is
registered with DOSH.
To be eligible for registration, the applicant
must have:
a recognized diploma in OSH, or

a minimum of 10 years experience in OSH, or

have completed a training programme in OSH


recognized by the Ministry of Human Resources.

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Chapter 7 22

APPOINTMENT OF A SAFETY
COMMITTEE
OSHA requires all employers with 40 or more
employees to appoint a SAFETY COMMITTEE.
The committee must meet at least once in 3
months. Minutes must be kept.
The committee members must be provided with
safety training by their employer.

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Chapter 7 23

APPOINTMENT OF A SAFETY
COMMITTEE (cont.)
The functions of the committee include:
Establishing policies on safety and health
matters, including the setting of rules and
regulations.
Conducting an inspection of the workplace,
at least once in 3 months.
Analysing records on accidents and health
problems.
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Chapter 7 24

APPOINTMENT OF A SAFETY
COMMITTEE (cont.)

Investigating accidents and unsafe


conditions and making recommendations to
prevent similar occurrences.

Planning and executing safety and health


awareness programmes.

Recommending the purchase of suitable


safety equipment, where relevant.

HRM Principles & Practices (Second Edition)


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Chapter 7 25

REPORTING ACCIDENTS
Accidents have to be reported to the relevant
authorities:
When

a Malaysian worker is involved in an


accident, or occupational disease, his employer
must report to SOCSO and DOSH.

When

a foreign worker is involved in an


accident, or occupational disease, his employer
must report to the Labour Department and the
relevant insurance company.

HRM Principles & Practices (Second Edition)


Oxford Fajar Sdn. Bhd. (008974-T), 2011

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Chapter 7 26

REVIEW

The provisions of the Occupational Safety and Health


Act which affect employers.

The importance of encouraging safe work practices and


healthy lifestyles amongst employees.

Reducing incidences of sexual harassment at work.

The need for a planned programme to reduce violence


at the workplace.

Programmes and activities which can improve the health


and wellness of employees.

HRM Principles & Practices (Second Edition)


Oxford Fajar Sdn. Bhd. (008974-T), 2011

All Rights Reserved

Chapter 7 27