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Gear and Gear

Train

What is Gear?

A gear is a wheel with teeth on its outer edge.


The teeth of one gear mesh (or engage) with the
teeth of another.

Applications of Gears:
Toys and Small Mechanisms small, low load, low
cost
Appliance gears long life, low noise & cost, low to
moderate load
Power transmission long life, high load and speed
Aerospace gears light weight, moderate to high load
Control gears long life, low noise, precision gears

Applications
animation

Conveyor/Counting

Watch gear wheels

Gear train

Gear Pump

Advantages of Gear
Drive:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

It transmits exact velocity ratio.


It may be used to transmit large power.
It has high efficiency.
It has reliable service.
It has compact layout.

Dis-advantages of Gear Drive:


6. The manufacturing of gear require special tool and
equipment.
7. The error in cutting teeth may cause vibration and
noise during operation.

Classification of toothed wheel:


1) According to the position of axes of the shafts:
a) Parallel b) Intersecting c)Non-intersecting and
non-parallel (Skew Shaft)

2) According to the peripheral velocity of the gear:


a) Low velocity: The gear having less than 3 m/s
b) Medium velocity: The gears having velocity
between 3 to 15 m/s
c) High velocity: The velocity of gears is more than 15
m/s

3)

According to the type of gear:

a) External gearing
b) Internal gearing
c) Rack and pinion

Example of External, Internal & Rack


and Pinion

Internal Gear
(Pump)

External Gear
Rack and Pinion
(Jack)

4) According to the position of the teeth on the


gear surface:
a) Straight
b) Inclined
c) Curved

Inclined
gear

Spiral
gear

Worm and Worm Wheel

Heringbone gears
Or Double Helical gears

Terms used in Gear


Face Width

Addendum Circle

Width of space
Tooth Thickness

Addendum

Top Land
Face

Dedendum

Flank

Bottom Land

Circular Pitch
Working Depth
Whole Depth

Dedendum
Circle

Clearance

Pitch circle
Based Circle

Pitch Cylinder: It is an imaginary friction


cylinder which by pure
rolling, transmit the same
motion as that of a pair of
gear.
Pitch surface: The surface
On which teeth are cut to
ensure positive drive is
called pitch surface

Pitch circle: The intersection of pitch surface with a


plane perpendicular to the axis of rotation is called the
pitch circle.
Pitch point: The contact point of two pitch circle is
called the pitch point.
Addendum circle: It is the circle which bounds the
outer end of the teeth. In other words, it is the diameter
of a blank on which teeth are cut.
Addendum: The radial distance between the pitch
circle and addendum circle is called the addendum.
Generally, this distance is kept equal to one module in a
20 full depth involute teeth gear and 0.8 times the
module in 20 stubbed teeth gear.

Dedendum circle: It is a circle which bounds the


bottom of the teeth.
Dedendum: The radial distance between the pitch circle
and the dedendum circle is called the dedendum. The
standard value of dedendum is 1.25 times module in 200
full depth teeth gear and that is 0.8 times module in 20
stubbed teeth gear.
Total depth of teeth: The sum of addendum and
dedendum is called the total depth of the tooth.
Clearance: The difference between dedendum and
addendum of a mating gear teeth is commonly referred
to as clearance.
Base circle: A circle from which the tooth profile curve
is generated is known as base circle.

Tooth thickness: The chord length measured along the


pitch circle between the two opposite faces of the same
tooth is called tooth thickness.
Top land: It is the surface of the top of the tooth.
Bottom land: The surface at the bottom of the tooth
between the adjacent fillets.
Face: Tooth surface between the pitch circle and the top
land is known as face.
Flank: Tooth surface between the pitch circle and the
bottom land is known flank.
Circular pitch: The distance measured along the pitch
circle from a point on one tooth to the corresponding
point on the adjacent tooth is called the circular pitch. It
is denoted by p and given by the following relation:

d1
d 2
p=
=
Z1
Z2

Where d1, d2 = pitch circle diameters of pinion and gear


respectively
And Z1, Z2 = number of teeth on the pinion and gear
respectively
Module: The ratio of the pitch circle diameter to the
number of teeth is called module and is denoted by m.

d1
m=
Z1

Diametral pitch: The ratio of number of teeth in the


pitch circle diameter is called the pitch. It is reciprocal of
the module.
Z1
1
DP =
=
d1
m

Gear Ratio: It is the ratio of number of teeth on the gear


to that on the pinion.
Z2
G=
Z1

Velocity ratio: It is the ratio of the angular velocity of


the driven gear to the angular velocity of the driving
pinion.

N
d
Z
1
VR =

N1

d2

Z2

Law of Gearing:
O2

P
Q

V1

M
V2

T
O1