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INTRODUCTION TO MICROWAV
E ENGINEERING

LECTURER: TRAN THI HUONG

Outline
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Microwave Band
Microwave Applications
Differences between Audio and Microwave Amplifier
Phenomena at High Frequency
Units
Properties of Materials
Modern Microwave Circuits/System Design
Transmission Line

What is Microwave?
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Narrowly defined

300 MHz ~ 300 GHz


=1m
~ =1mm

Below 1 GHzRF (radio frequency)


1 - 30 GHz
Microwave (cm waves)
30 - 300 GHzMillimeter wave

Frequency designation
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L-band
S-band
C-band
X-band
Ku-band
K-band
Ka-band
V-band
W-band

1.1 - 1.7 GHz


2.6 - 3.95 GHz
5.85 - 8.2 GHz
8.2 - 12.4 GHz
12.4 - 18 GHz
18 - 26.6 GHz
26.5 - 40 GHz
50 - 75 GHz
75 - 110 GHz

Outline
5

Microwave Band
Microwave Applications
Differences between Audio and Microwave Amplifier
Phenomena at High Frequency
Units
Properties of Materials
Modern Microwave Circuits/System Design
Transmission Line

Opportunities for Microwave applications


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Antenna gain is proportional to the electrical size of the antenna


More bandwidth can be realized at higher frequencies
higher data rate
At

600 MHz 1% bandwidth = 6MHz


6Mbps (binary phase shift keying modulation)
At 60 GHz 1% bandwidth = 600MHz
600Mbps

es

Microwave signal travel by the line of sight and are not bend by the ionosphere
Possible for satellite and terrestrial communication link with high capaciti

Opportunities for Microwave applications (C


ont.)

The radar cross section of a radar target is proportional to the targets electrical siz
e
microwave frequencies proper for radar system
Various molecular, atomic and nuclear resonances occur at microwave frequencies
variety of unique applications in:

The area of basic science


Remote sensing
Medical diagnostic and treatment
Heating method

Microwave applications
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Cellular phone
800/900 MHz, 2.4 GHz
Microwave oven
2.4 GHz
Police radar
X-band, K-band
Military radar
X, Ka,.
Communication links S, Ku, Ka

Outline
9

Microwave Band
Microwave Applications
Differences between Audio and Microwave Amplifier
Phenomena at High Frequency
Units
Properties of Materials
Modern Microwave Circuits/System Design
Transmission Line

Differences btx. Audio and Microwave Amplifier


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Audio amplifier

Freq range:
10-20 KHz
Power:
10W more
Gain:
80dB
Noise:
Power line noise,
te noise
Input impedance: Usually high

Microwave amplifier

whi

Output impedance: low to drive 8, 16


ohm speakers
Stability:
usually stable

Example 1 to 4 GHz
mW
10-30dB
Specified in terms of noise
temperature
Must be matched to transmission line
characteristic impedance
Usually 50 ohm
Very important

Differences btx. Audio and Microwave Devices


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Audio region:
At 1 KHz

=300m

Size of a device <<

RF region:
At 1 GHz

=0.3 m

Size of a circuit board

Microwave region:
At 10 GHz =3 cm

Size of a device ~

Outline
12

Microwave Band
Microwave Applications
Differences between Audio and Microwave Amplifier
Phenomena at High Frequency
Units
Properties of Materials
Modern Microwave Circuits/System Design
Transmission Line

Phenomena at High Frequency


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Reflection from an unmatched load


Incident
Mirror
Reflected

Mirror

Phenomena at high frequency (Cont.)


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Standing waves
| Voltage |
Large reflection

Mirror

Mirror
Distance
| Voltage |

Device 1

Device 2

No reflection

Distance

Outline
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Microwave Band
Microwave Applications
Differences between Audio and Microwave Amplifier
Phenomena at High Frequency
Units
Properties of Materials
Modern Microwave Circuits/System Design
Transmission Line

Units
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Time:nsec (nano second)


psec (pico second)

10-9 s
10-12 s

Power: dBm (dB milliwatts) ~ 10log(Power/1mW)


0 dBm
1mW
20 dBm
100mW
*** Important *** dBm is an absolute value.

Units (Cont.)
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Voltage and S-parameters:


20log |S11|
S11=0.1 ---> -20 dB
S21=10 ---> 20 dB gain

*** Important *** dB is a relative value.

Length: meter, cm, millimeter

Outline
18

Microwave Band
Microwave Applications
Differences between Audio and Microwave Amplifier
Phenomena at High Frequency
Units
Properties of Materials
Modern Microwave Circuits/System Design
Transmission Line

Conductivities for Some Materials


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Physical Constants
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Dielectric Constants and Loss Tangents


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Dielectric Constants and Loss Tangents


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Properties of Some Microwave Ferrite Material


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Outline
24

Microwave Band
Microwave Applications
Differences between Audio and Microwave Amplifier
Phenomena at High Frequency
Units
Properties of Materials
Modern Microwave Circuits/System Design
Transmission Line

Modern Microwave Circuits/System Design


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1. Analysis: approximations and simple formula


2. Simulations: (most important)
HFSS simulation
Circuit models

EM model
Create a physical model then simulate the EM interaction with the physical mod
el

3. Fabrication and testing


Microstrip

TL and strip TL
Network analyzer
TDR (time-domain reflectometer)
Antenna range

Outline
26

Microwave Band
Microwave Applications
Differences between Audio and Microwave Amplifier
Phenomena at High Frequency
Units
Properties of Materials
Modern Microwave Circuits/System Design
Transmission Line

Transmission Line
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Rg
Vg

Sending-end
port

A
Generator Circuit

Transmission Line

Receiving-end
port

RL

Load Circuit

Transmission Line: two-port network with sending end and receiv


ing end
Sending end: Generator circuit
Receiving end: Load circuit

Transmission Line effects


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Audio System

Frequency:
20Hz-20 KHz
Power level: 1-100W
Output device: Speaker (convert audi
o [electric] signal to acoustic waves)
Impedance 4 - 8 ohm
Power Amplifier: Output impedance o
f power amplifiers ~ low
Connection between speaker and amp
lifier: copper wire (2 conductors)

RF (radio
frequency) amplifier
Frequency:
1 GHz
Power level: 100 mW
Output device: Antenna (radiate RF
signal)
Output impedance is usually matche
d to a 50 ohm TL.
RF Amplifier: Output impedance of
RF amplifier must be matched to Zo
of TL.
Connection between RF amplifier an
d antenna: coaxial cable (Z0=50 ohm)

Transmission Line effect (Cont.)


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Audio System

Frequency:
20Hz-20 KHz
Power level: 1-100W
Output device: Speaker (convert audi
o [electric] signal to acoustic waves)
Impedance 4 - 8 ohm
Power Amplifier: Output impedance o
f power amplifiers ~ low
Connection between speaker and amp
lifier: copper wire (2 conductors)

RF (radio
frequency) amplifier
Frequency:
1 GHz
Power level: 100 mW
Output device: Antenna (radiate RF
signal)
Output impedance is usually matche
d to a 50 ohm TL.
RF Amplifier: Output impedance of
RF amplifier must be matched to Zo
of TL.
Connection between RF amplifier an
d antenna: coaxial cable (Z0=50 ohm)

Transmission Line effects (Cont.)


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RF (radio frequency) amplifier

Audio System
a u d io
a m p lifie r
10m

speaker

RF Amp

Antenna

7.5cm

Z 8

L 5
At 1 KHz (=3x108/1000=3x10
m)
The length of a copper wire is much
less than that of the wavelength.
We can neglect the effects due to the
length of the copper wire.

Volts

At 1GHz, ( =0.3m)

V 0

We need to consider the transmissi


on line effects.

TEM Transmission Line


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Speaker wire (2 conductors)

20-20,000 Hz
Carry audio signals

Coaxial cable
Up to 26 GHz
Instrumentation, computer network

TEM Transmission Line (Cont.)


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Strip Line

Microstrip Line

Microwave band
Printed circuit board (PCB)

Coplanar wave guide

Higher-order Mode Transmission Line


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Rectangular wave guide

Circular Wave guides

Optical fiber