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Chapter 18 Section 2

 Identifythe relationship between an


electric current and a magnetic field

 Compare solenoids and electromagnets

 Describe how electromagnetism is


involved in the operation of doorbells,
electric motors, and galvanometers
 Hans Christian Oersted – discovered
the relationship between electricity
and magnetism (1820)
 Passinga compass under a wire
carrying electric current
A compass moves its North-South
orientation only when it is in a
magnetic field different from Earth’s
 Oersted concluded that an electric
current produces a magnetic field

 Thedirection of the field depends on


the direction of the current

 Thismarked the 1st research about


electromagnetism
 Themagnetic field generated by the
current is not very strong

2devices can strengthen this


magnetic field:
 Solenoid

 Electromagnet
 Suppose you made many loops in a
wire carrying current?

 Themagnetic fields of the individual


loops in a coil combine to make a
stronger field (a solenoid)

 Similar field as a bar magnet


http://www.societyofrobots.com/images/actuators_solonoid_magneti
c_field.gif
A solenoid wrapped around an iron core

 Makes the domains inside the iron core


line up

 100’sof times stronger than just a


solenoid

 Maglev trains (levitating trains)


http://georgeprice.net/wp-
content/uploads/2009/11/electromagnet1.gif
http://www.pause-for-thought.co.uk/www/images/maglev.jpeg
 Used in every day life…

 Canbe used to lift heavy objects


containing iron

 There are electromagnets in motors


2 solenoids in the doorbell make the
doorbell work

 Pushing the bell opens the circuit of the


1st solenoid; the current stops causing
the magnetic field to drop and the light
to go out; the change in the field
causes the current in the second
solenoid; this current induces a
magnetic field that pushes an iron rod
that sounds the bell
 If a current-carrying wire can cause a
magnet to move, can a magnet
cause a current-carrying wire to
move??

http://www.skoool.co.za/studynotes/science/uploadedImages/Coord12.20_motor
_effect.gif
A device that converts electrical energy
into mechanical energy
 Armature: a loop or coil of wire that can
rotate; located between the poles of a
permanent magnet
 Use direct current
 Commutator: attached to the armature;
reverses the direction of electric
current in a wire
http://ffden-2.phys.uaf.edu/211.fall2000.web.projects/Kristian%20Swearingen/dcmotor.gif
 Measures current

 Contains
an electromagnet placed
between the poles of a permanent magnet

 Thepoles of the electromagnet are


pushed away by the poles of the
permanent magnet

 Electromagnet is free to rotate and is


attached to a pointer
http://images.hobbytron.com/GI-1309-20-lg.jpg
 Explain Oersted’s 1820 discovery

 Explain how an electromagnet works