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# Chapter 18 Section 2

##  Identifythe relationship between an

electric current and a magnetic field

##  Describe how electromagnetism is

involved in the operation of doorbells,
electric motors, and galvanometers
 Hans Christian Oersted – discovered
the relationship between electricity
and magnetism (1820)
 Passinga compass under a wire
carrying electric current
A compass moves its North-South
orientation only when it is in a
magnetic field different from Earth’s
 Oersted concluded that an electric
current produces a magnetic field

##  Thedirection of the field depends on

the direction of the current

##  Thismarked the 1st research about

electromagnetism
 Themagnetic field generated by the
current is not very strong

## 2devices can strengthen this

magnetic field:
 Solenoid

 Electromagnet
 Suppose you made many loops in a
wire carrying current?

##  Themagnetic fields of the individual

loops in a coil combine to make a
stronger field (a solenoid)

##  Similar field as a bar magnet

http://www.societyofrobots.com/images/actuators_solonoid_magneti
c_field.gif
A solenoid wrapped around an iron core

line up

solenoid

##  Maglev trains (levitating trains)

http://georgeprice.net/wp-
http://www.pause-for-thought.co.uk/www/images/maglev.jpeg
 Used in every day life…

containing iron

##  There are electromagnets in motors

2 solenoids in the doorbell make the
doorbell work

##  Pushing the bell opens the circuit of the

1st solenoid; the current stops causing
the magnetic field to drop and the light
to go out; the change in the field
causes the current in the second
solenoid; this current induces a
magnetic field that pushes an iron rod
that sounds the bell
 If a current-carrying wire can cause a
magnet to move, can a magnet
cause a current-carrying wire to
move??

_effect.gif
A device that converts electrical energy
into mechanical energy
 Armature: a loop or coil of wire that can
rotate; located between the poles of a
permanent magnet
 Use direct current
 Commutator: attached to the armature;
reverses the direction of electric
current in a wire
http://ffden-2.phys.uaf.edu/211.fall2000.web.projects/Kristian%20Swearingen/dcmotor.gif
 Measures current

 Contains
an electromagnet placed
between the poles of a permanent magnet

##  Thepoles of the electromagnet are

pushed away by the poles of the
permanent magnet

##  Electromagnet is free to rotate and is

attached to a pointer
http://images.hobbytron.com/GI-1309-20-lg.jpg
 Explain Oersted’s 1820 discovery