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Properties of Gases

5th Edition

Index

10.1 Familiar properties of gases can be explained at the mo

lecular level

10.2 Pressure is a measured property of gases

10.3 The gas laws summarize experimental observations

10.4 Gas volumes are used in solving stoichiometry proble

ms

10.5 The ideal gas law relates P, V, T,

and the number of moles of gas, n

10.6 In a mixture each gas exerts its own partial pressure

10.7 Effusion and diffusion in gases leads to Graham's law

10.8 The kinetic molecular theory explains the gas laws

10.9 Real gases don't obey the ideal gas law perfectly

10.1 Familiar properties of gases can be explained at the molecular level

Properties of Gases

What is the shape of the air in a balloon?

Gases have an indefinite shape

They have an indefinite volume

At room temperature, air has a density of 1.3 g/L while

water has a density of 1.0 g/mL

Hot air is less dense than cold air

Gases completely fill their

containers:

Gases are in constant random

motion

easy to compress

Gas molecules are very far apart

Gas molecules dont attract one

another strongly

10.1 Familiar properties of gases can be explained at the molecular level

Your Turn!

Which of the following statements is likely to be true

about the scent from an open bottle of perfume?

A. It is only detected above the bottle

B. It is detectable in all directions from the

bottle

C. None of these

What Is Pressure?

The force of the collisions of the gas distributed over

the surface area of the container walls; P = force/area

Units : 1 atmosphere (atm) = 760 mm Hg = 760 torr =

1.01325 105 Pascal (Pa) = 14.7 psi = 1013 millibar (mb)

P=gdh

d = density of the liquid

g = gravitational acceleration

h = height of the column supported

10.2 Pressure is a measured property of gases

Convert 675 mm Hg to atm

Start: 675 mm Hg

Target: atm

Conversion factor?

760 mm Hg = 1 atm

1 atm

675 mm Hg

= 0.888 atm

760 mm Hg

Your Turn!

Gas pressure is measured using a mercury barometer.

The height of fluid in the barometer is 23.7 in Hg.

What is this pressure in atm?

A. 23.7 atm

B. 0.792 atm

C. 602 atm

D. 1.61 atm

E. None of these

Atmospheric Pressure

Is the result of the collisions

of the air in the atmosphere

with the objects they contact

Why is the pressure less in

the mountains than at sea

level?

Air density is greater at sea

level, hence there are more

collisions.

p

r

e

s

s

u

r

e

Learning Check

Under water, the pressure is increased. Why?

Because the weight of the air is added to the

weight of the water, increasing the force acting on

objects

This is why deep sea exploration requires a

submarine: our bodies cannot handle the extreme

pressures at great depths

10

Open-end Manometer

11

Closedend Manometer

12

Your Turn!

A gas is measured in a manometer manifold. The

level of Hg is 12.2 cm lower on the side of the gas

than on the atmosphere side. The atmospheric

pressure is measured as 755 mm Hg. What is the

pressure of the gas?

A. 767 mm Hg

B. 633 mm Hg

C. 743 mm Hg

D. 12.2 mm Hg

E. None of these 877 mm Hg

10.2 Pressure is a measured property of gases

13

Proportionality

Direct proportionality means that 2 variables are:

Opposite the equality from one another

On the same level of the fraction on their respective

sides

Directly proportional variables follow each otherwhen one increases so does the other

i.e. P = F/A, or P/1=F/A.

Since P and F are both numerators, they are directly

proportional.

P and A, however, are inversely proportional

14

Learning Check

What happens to gas pressure when you raise the

temperature?

Force of Collisions

P

Area

in response to the force

No change in pressure is

observed because the area

increased.

Pressure increases

because the faster moving

molecules hit the walls of

the container with greater

force

15

Learning Check

What happens to gas pressure when you increase the number

of molecules in the container?

Force of Collisions

P

Area

If a container can expand

No pressure change

is observed.

Pressure increases

because more molecules

hit the walls of the

container, thus exert a

greater force on the

container

16

Your Turn!

Which of the following is likely to be true about a

balloon taken under water?

A. The balloon is compressed.

B. The balloon expands.

C. No change is observed.

D. Not enough information is known.

17

Boyles Law

P1

P2

1

P

or

V

V1

V2

volume

Assumes: temperature and the

number of moles of gas are

constant

May be used to describe two

different conditions

Two gases in separate containers or

A sample of gas whose conditions

change

10.3 The gas laws summarize experimental observations

18

Charles Law

V1 V2

V T or

T1 T2

Assumes: the pressure of gas and the number of

moles of gas are constant

May be used to describe two different

conditions

Two gases in separate containers or

A sample of gas whose conditions change

19

Absolute Zero

Temperature of a gas at

which pressure and

volume are zero

It is not possible to

have a gas with a V = 0

Molecular volume

doesnt change but the

total volume decreases

Extrapolation is

necessary due to

condensation

20

Ideal Gases

Their behavior is predicted by the gas laws

There are no ideal gases

However, most gases behave ideally under most P and

T conditions

You need to know when they are not useful

21

Gay-Lussacs Law

P T

Gas pressure is directly

proportional to absolute

temperature

Assumes: the volume and

number of moles are

constant

This is why we dont heat

canned foods on a campfire

without opening them!

10.3 The gas laws summarize experimental observations

22

Boyles Law

1

P

V

Charles Law

T V

Gay-Lussacs Law

T P

T

P

V

10.3 The gas laws summarize experimental observations

PV

P2V2

1 1

T1

T2

23

Your Turn!

Consider the following: 22.4 L of He at 25 C are

heated to 200. C. What is the resulting volume?

Which is best suited to solving the problem?

A. Boyles Law

B. Charles Law

C. Gay-Lussacs Law

D. None of these

24

Your Turn!

Which units must be used in all gas law

calculations?

A. K

B. atm

C. L

D. No specific units as long as they cancel

25

PV

P2V2

1 1

T1

T2

Works if the temperature is in Kelvin, but P and V can

have any units so long as they cancel

Learning Check

If a sample of air occupies 500. mL at STP*, what is

the volume at 85 C and 560 torr?

760 torr 500. mL

273.15 K

560 torr V2

358 K

889 mL

*Standard Temperature (273.15 K) and Pressure (1 atm)

10.3 The gas laws summarize experimental observations

26

Learning Check

A sample of oxygen gas occupies 500.0 mL at 722

torr and 25 C. Calculate the temperature in C if

the gas has a volume of 2.53 L at 491 mm Hg.

PV

P2V2

1 1

T1

T2

722 torr 500.0 mL

491 torr 2530 mL

248 K

T2

T2 = 853 K

T2 = 580 C

27

Learning Check

A sample of helium gas occupies 500.0 mL at 1.21

atm. Calculate the volume of the gas if the pressure

is reduced to 491 torr.

PV

P2V2

1 1

T1

T2

936 mL

28

Your Turn!

A 22.4 L sample of He at 25 C are heated to 200 C,

what is the resulting volume?

A. 22.4 L

B. 179 L

C. 35.6 L

D. Not enough information given

29

Molar Volume

The volume of one mole of any gas at STP is 22.4 L

Identity of the gas doesnt matter

Molar mass of the gas doesnt matter

same number of particles as long as the T and P are

the same

Gay Lussacs Law of Combining Volumes: For gas

phase reactions, we can use volume ratios in place of

mole ratios in stoichiometry problems

30

Avogadros Principle

V1

V2

V n or

n1

n2

V is volume and n is moles of gas

Assumes: the temperature and pressure

remain constant

Containers of equal volume under the

same conditions contain the same number

of particles

31

Learning Check

Calculate the volume of ammonia formed by the

reaction of 25 L of hydrogen with excess nitrogen.

N2(g) + 3H2(g) 2NH3(g)

25 L H 2 2 L NH3

17 L NH3

1

3 L H2

32

Learning Check

N2(g) + 3H2(g) 2NH3(g)

If 125 L H2 react with 50 N2, what volume of NH3 can

be expected?

125 L H 2 2 L NH 3

83.3 L NH 3

1

3 L H2

50 L N 2 2 L NH3

100 L NH3

1

1 L N2

33

Learning Check

How many liters of N2(g) at 1.00 atm and 25.0 C are

produced by the decomposition of 150. g of NaN3?

2NaN3(s) 2Na(s) + 3N2(g)

150. g NaN 3 1 mol NaN 3

3 mol N 2

3.46 mol N 2

1

65.02 g

2 mol NaN 3

3.46 mol N 2

22.4 L

1 mol at STP

1

V1 V2

VT

; V2 1 2

T1 T2

T1

V2

77.5 L 298 K

84.6 L

273 K

10.4 Gas volumes can be used in solving stoichiometry problems

34

Your Turn!

According to the following gas phase reaction, what

volume of C would be required to react 23 L of B?

A + 5B + 3C 2D

A. 38 L

B. 14 L

C. 7.2 L

D. None of these

35

Bringing It Together

Avogadro: n directly proportional to V

Boyle: P indirectly proportional to V

Charles: T directly proportional to V

Gay-Lussac: T directly proportional to P

Combining these variables into one equation results in

the Ideal Gas Law.

R is the constant of proportionality (the ideal or universal

gas constant) its value is 0.082057 Latm/molK

PV = nRT

10.5 The ideal gas law relates P, V, T, and the number of moles of gas, n

36

Used to describe a sample of gas under one set of

conditions

The units have to be:

P in atm

V in L

n in mol

T in K

PV = nRT

R = 0.082057 Latm/molK

10.5 The ideal gas law relates P, V, T, and the number of moles of gas, n

37

Your Turn!

A 12.2 g sample of Ne are placed into a 5.0 L flask at

25 C. What is the pressure of the gas?

A. 3.0 atm

B. 60. atm

C. 0.25 atm

D. None of these

10.5 The ideal gas law relates P, V, T, and the number of moles of gas, n

38

Case Study

A hard-boiled egg is placed over the opening of an

Erlenmeyer flask. What will happen to each gas law

variable when the flask is placed in a tub of liquid

nitrogen?

Your answer will be either increase, decrease or stay

constant.

a) Number of gas moles Stay constant

Decrease

b) Temperature

c) Volume of trapped gas Stay constant

d) Pressure of trapped gas Decrease

10.5 The ideal gas law relates P, V, T, and the number of moles of gas, n

39

Gas Density

The number of moles may be related to both the mass

(g) of the gas sample and the molar mass of the gas

involved

Thus we may rewrite the Ideal Gas Law as

g

PV

RT

Molar Mass

terms of density

g

P Molar Mass RT dRT

V

10.5 The ideal gas law relates P, V, T, and the number of moles of gas, n

40

Learning Check

What is the molar mass of a gas with a density of 6.7 g/L

at -73 C and a pressure of 36.7 psi?

P Molar mass = d R T

6.7 g 0.0821 L atm

2.50 atm Molar Mass

200 K

L

mol K

10.5 The ideal gas law relates P, V, T, and the number of moles of gas, n

41

Learning Check

What is the density of NO2 at 200 C and 600. torr?

P Molar mass = d R T

0.789 atm

46.01 g

0.0821 L atm

d

473 K

mol

mol K

0.935 g/L

10.5 The ideal gas law relates P, V, T, and the number of moles of gas, n

42

Learning Check

Calculate the volume of 1.00 mol of gas at STP

PV = nRT

0.0821 L atm

1 atm V 1.00 mol

273 K

mol K

V = 22.4 L

10.5 The ideal gas law relates P, V, T, and the number of moles of gas, n

43

Your Turn!

What is the density of Helium gas at 35 C and 1.2 atm?

A. 5.1 g/L

B. 0.19 g/L

C. 2.34 g/L

D. None of these

10.5 The ideal gas law relates P, V, T, and the number of moles of gas, n

44

Learning Check

A sample of fluorine gas occupies 275 mL at 945

torr and 72 C. What is the mass of the sample?

PV = nRT

g

PV

RT

Molar mass

mol

0.0821 L atm

1.24 atm 0.275 L m

345 K

38.0 g

mol K

0.457 g = mass

10.5 The ideal gas law relates P, V, T, and the number of moles of gas, n

45

Learning Check

Determine the molecular weight of a gas if 1.053 g of

the gas occupies a volume of 1.000 L at 25 C and 752

mm Hg (The Dumas Method).

PV = nRT

g

PV

RT

Molar mass

1.053 g

0.0821 L atm

0.989 atm 1.000 L

298 K

MM

mol K

10.5 The ideal gas law relates P, V, T, and the number of moles of gas, n

46

Your Turn!

What is the molar mass of a sample of gas if 2.22 g

occupies a volume of 5.0 L a 35 C and 769 mm Hg?

A. 1.3 g/mol

B. 0.015 g/mol

C. 0.090 g/mol

D. None of these 11 g/mol

10.5 The ideal gas law relates P, V, T, and the number of moles of gas, n

47

Daltons Law

The partial pressure of a gas is the pressure that the

gas would exert if it were in the container by itself

48

Collected gas pressure must be corrected for water vapor

Ptotal = Pgas + Pwater (see Table 10.2)

49

Learning Check

Pump 520 mm Hg N2 and 250 mm Hg O2 into an

empty gas cylinder. What is the overall pressure of

the mixture?

PTotal = P1 + P2 + P3 + .

10.6 In a mixture each gas exerts its own partial pressure

50

Learning Check

A 32.5 mL sample of hydrogen gas is collected over

water at 25 C and 755 torr. What is the pressure of dry

hydrogen gas?

Look up vapor pressure for water: Pwater 25 C = 23.76

mm Hg

Correct Pt to find the Pdry gas:

755 torr - 23.76 torr = 731 torr

731 torr = Phydrogen

PTotal = P1 + P2 + P3 + .

10.6 In a mixture each gas exerts its own partial pressure

51

Mole Fraction, X

Each gas molecule contributes a

fraction of the total pressure

XA=the mole fraction of substance A

nA =the moles of component A

nt= the total number of moles of gas in

the mixture

XA

nA

nt

P A = X A Pt

contributed by the component gas

A is a fraction of the total pressure

52

Learning Check

What is the mole fraction of N2 in the atmosphere?

1.000 atm Air = 0.7808 atm N2+ 0.2095 atm O2+

0.0093 atm Ar + 0.00036 atm CO2

XA

nA

nt

0.781 = Xnitrogen

53

Learning Check

In a mixture of gases there are 5.0 g each of Ne, O 2 and H2.

What is the mole fraction of Ne? If the partial pressure of

Ne in this mix is 1.0 psi. what is the total pressure?

nneon = 0.248

nA

XA

nt

PNe

0.248

XNe

2.88

X Ne Ptotal

0.0861 = XNe

1.0 psi

0.0861 =

Ptotal

Ptotal = 12 psi

10.6 In a mixture each gas exerts its own partial pressure

54

Learning Check

PTV = nTRT

of the contributions of all gases. In a mixture

containing 5.0 g each of Ne, O2 and H2, what is the

total pressure (in atm) at 50.0 C in a 2.5 L vessel?

nNe= 0.248 mol noxygen= 0.156 mol

PTV=nTRT

n = 2.88

n RT

Pt = t

mol-1 K-1

323 K

2.5 L

Pt = 31 atm

10.6 In a mixture each gas exerts its own partial pressure

55

Your Turn!

At 45 C, 5.0 g each of He and of Ne are placed into

5.0 L flask. What is the total pressure?

A. 7.8 atm

B. 1.1 atm

C. 52 atm

D. None of these

56

When the

partition is

removed, blue

molecules

diffuse to mix

The molecules

effuse through a

pinhole into a

vacuum

57

Relates the velocity (rate at which the gas moves

through a given space) to the molecular mass of

the gas.

The greater the molecular mass of the gas, the

slower its velocity.

Effusion rate of B

Molar mass of A

=

Effusion rate of A

Molar mass of B

58

Your Turn!

The average kinetic energy of all gas molecules is the

same at the same temperature. Compared to lighter

atoms at the same temperature, heavier atoms on

average:

A. Move faster

B. Move slower

C. Move at the same average velocity

59

Your Turn!

Three balloons are filled with equal volumes of the

gases: CH4, H2, and He. After 5 hours the balloons

look like the picture.

Is this effusion or diffusion?

A. Diffusion

B. Effusion

Which is the He balloon?

60

Learning Check

If it is observed that Br2 effuses at a rate of 5 cm s-1, if a

sample of an unknown gas travels at half the speed,

what is the molecular mass of the unknown gas?

Effusion rate of Br2

Effusion rate of X

Molar mass X

Molar mass Br2

2

Effusion rate of X Molar mass Br2 Molar mass X

5.0 cm s-1

159.80 g

Molar mass X

-1

mol

2.5 cm s

MM = 640 g/mol

10.7 Effusion and diffusion in gases leads to Grahams Law

61

Learning Check

A glass tube is 1.0 m long. A sample of NH3 gas is

introduced into one end of the tube at the same time

that HCl is introduced into the other. Where the gases

meet, they form a ring of crystalline NH4Cl. Where

does the ring form inside the tube?

NH3

HCl

(1 - x) = distance by HCl

x time-1

(1 x) time-1

x

1.463

1 x

17.034 g/mol NH3

62

Your Turn!

Which flask has molecules that

are moving faster?

A. CO2

B. He

C. Neither

have a greater average kinetic

energy?

A. CO2

B. He

C. Neither

10.7 Effusion and diffusion in gases leads to Grahams Law

CO2

25 C

1 atm

50 L

He

25 C

2 atm

50 L

63

Your Turn!

Which flask has more molecules?

A.

B.

C.

CO2

He

Neither

CO2

He

25 C

25 C

1 atm

2 atm

50 L

50 L

64

Your Turn!

What is the molar mass of X if it travels 7.0 times

more slowly than Xe at the same temperature?

A. 919 g/mol

B. 6,400 g/mol

C. 18.7 g/mol

D. Not enough information given

65

Behaviors

Gases consists of an extremely large number of very

tiny particles that:

Are in constant, random motion

Occupy a negligible portion of the total volume of the

sample-their individual contribution may be ignored

Collide elastically with themselves and the walls of the

container

Move in straight lines between collisions, neither

attracting nor repelling each other

66

The volume of a gas molecule is negligible

NO! Under conditions of extremely high pressure,

gases are closer, their relative size is a factor

NO! Under conditions of extremely low temperatures,

gases move more slowly and intermolecular attractions

are more significant

67

Real Gases

an 2

( P 2 )(V nb) nRT

V

accounts for deviations from

ideal behavior by removing 2

assumptions:

Particle volume is negligible

Particles do not interact

b, are specific to the substance

10.9 Real gases dont obey the ideal gas law perfectly

68

TABLE 10.3

Substance

a

(L atm mol2)

2

b

(L mol1)

Noble gases

Substance

a

(L atm mol2)

2

b

(L mol1)

Other Gases

He

0.03421

0.02370

H2

0.02444

0.02661

Ne

0.2107

0.01709

O2

1.360

0.03183

Ar

1.345

0.03219

N2

1.390

0.03913

Kr

2.318

0.03978

CH4

2.253

0.04278

Xe

4.194

0.05105

CO2

3.592

0.04267

NH3

4.170

0.03707

H2O

5.464

0.03049

C2H5OH

12.02

0.08407

10.9 Real gases dont obey the ideal gas law perfectly

69

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