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Chapter 10

Properties of Gases

Brady and Senese


5th Edition

Index
10.1 Familiar properties of gases can be explained at the mo
lecular level
10.2 Pressure is a measured property of gases
10.3 The gas laws summarize experimental observations
10.4 Gas volumes are used in solving stoichiometry proble
ms
10.5 The ideal gas law relates P, V, T,
and the number of moles of gas, n
10.6 In a mixture each gas exerts its own partial pressure
10.7 Effusion and diffusion in gases leads to Graham's law
10.8 The kinetic molecular theory explains the gas laws
10.9 Real gases don't obey the ideal gas law perfectly
10.1 Familiar properties of gases can be explained at the molecular level

Properties of Gases
What is the shape of the air in a balloon?
Gases have an indefinite shape

What is the volume of the gas in the balloon?


They have an indefinite volume

Why do bubbles rise in liquids?


At room temperature, air has a density of 1.3 g/L while
water has a density of 1.0 g/mL

Why does a hot air balloon rise?


Hot air is less dense than cold air

10.1 Familiar properties of gases can be explained at the molecular level

How Does a Molecular Model Explain This?


Gases completely fill their
containers:
Gases are in constant random
motion

Gases have low density and are


easy to compress
Gas molecules are very far apart

Gases are easy to expand


Gas molecules dont attract one
another strongly
10.1 Familiar properties of gases can be explained at the molecular level

Your Turn!
Which of the following statements is likely to be true
about the scent from an open bottle of perfume?
A. It is only detected above the bottle
B. It is detectable in all directions from the
bottle
C. None of these

10.1 Familiar properties of gases can be explained at the molecular level

What Is Pressure?
The force of the collisions of the gas distributed over
the surface area of the container walls; P = force/area
Units : 1 atmosphere (atm) = 760 mm Hg = 760 torr =
1.01325 105 Pascal (Pa) = 14.7 psi = 1013 millibar (mb)

Measured with a barometer


P=gdh
d = density of the liquid
g = gravitational acceleration
h = height of the column supported

Why use mercury?


10.2 Pressure is a measured property of gases

Learning Check: Pressure Units


Convert 675 mm Hg to atm
Start: 675 mm Hg

Target: atm

Conversion factor?

760 mm Hg = 1 atm

1 atm
675 mm Hg
= 0.888 atm
760 mm Hg

10.2 Pressure is a measured property of gases

Your Turn!
Gas pressure is measured using a mercury barometer.
The height of fluid in the barometer is 23.7 in Hg.
What is this pressure in atm?
A. 23.7 atm
B. 0.792 atm
C. 602 atm
D. 1.61 atm
E. None of these

10.2 Pressure is a measured property of gases

Atmospheric Pressure
Is the result of the collisions
of the air in the atmosphere
with the objects they contact
Why is the pressure less in
the mountains than at sea
level?
Air density is greater at sea
level, hence there are more
collisions.

p
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

10.2 Pressure is a measured property of gases

Learning Check
Under water, the pressure is increased. Why?
Because the weight of the air is added to the
weight of the water, increasing the force acting on
objects
This is why deep sea exploration requires a
submarine: our bodies cannot handle the extreme
pressures at great depths

10.2 Pressure is a measured property of gases

10

Open-end Manometer

10.2 Pressure is a measured property of gases

11

Closedend Manometer

10.2 Pressure is a measured property of gases

12

Your Turn!
A gas is measured in a manometer manifold. The
level of Hg is 12.2 cm lower on the side of the gas
than on the atmosphere side. The atmospheric
pressure is measured as 755 mm Hg. What is the
pressure of the gas?
A. 767 mm Hg
B. 633 mm Hg
C. 743 mm Hg
D. 12.2 mm Hg
E. None of these 877 mm Hg
10.2 Pressure is a measured property of gases

13

Proportionality
Direct proportionality means that 2 variables are:
Opposite the equality from one another
On the same level of the fraction on their respective
sides

Directly proportional variables follow each otherwhen one increases so does the other
i.e. P = F/A, or P/1=F/A.
Since P and F are both numerators, they are directly
proportional.
P and A, however, are inversely proportional

10.3 The gas laws summarize experimental observations

14

Learning Check
What happens to gas pressure when you raise the
temperature?
Force of Collisions
P
Area

If the container can expand In a rigid walled container


in response to the force
No change in pressure is
observed because the area
increased.

Pressure increases
because the faster moving
molecules hit the walls of
the container with greater
force

10.3 The gas laws summarize experimental observations

15

Learning Check
What happens to gas pressure when you increase the number
of molecules in the container?
Force of Collisions
P
Area
If a container can expand
No pressure change
is observed.

In a rigid walled container


Pressure increases
because more molecules
hit the walls of the
container, thus exert a
greater force on the
container

10.3 The gas laws summarize experimental observations

16

Your Turn!
Which of the following is likely to be true about a
balloon taken under water?
A. The balloon is compressed.
B. The balloon expands.
C. No change is observed.
D. Not enough information is known.

10.3 The gas laws summarize experimental observations

17

Boyles Law

P1
P2
1
P
or

V
V1
V2

Where P is pressure and V is


volume
Assumes: temperature and the
number of moles of gas are
constant
May be used to describe two
different conditions
Two gases in separate containers or
A sample of gas whose conditions
change
10.3 The gas laws summarize experimental observations

18

Charles Law

V1 V2
V T or

T1 T2

Where V is volume and T is absolute temperature


Assumes: the pressure of gas and the number of
moles of gas are constant
May be used to describe two different
conditions
Two gases in separate containers or
A sample of gas whose conditions change

10.3 The gas laws summarize experimental observations

19

Absolute Zero
Temperature of a gas at
which pressure and
volume are zero
It is not possible to
have a gas with a V = 0
Molecular volume
doesnt change but the
total volume decreases
Extrapolation is
necessary due to
condensation

10.3 The gas laws summarize experimental observations

20

Ideal Gases
Their behavior is predicted by the gas laws
There are no ideal gases
However, most gases behave ideally under most P and
T conditions
You need to know when they are not useful

10.3 The gas laws summarize experimental observations

21

Gay-Lussacs Law

P T
Gas pressure is directly
proportional to absolute
temperature
Assumes: the volume and
number of moles are
constant
This is why we dont heat
canned foods on a campfire
without opening them!
10.3 The gas laws summarize experimental observations

22

Combining This Information:


Boyles Law

1
P
V

Charles Law

T V

Gay-Lussacs Law

T P

Thus combining this information

T
P
V

And therefore, for any 2 conditions:


10.3 The gas laws summarize experimental observations

PV
P2V2
1 1

T1
T2
23

Your Turn!
Consider the following: 22.4 L of He at 25 C are
heated to 200. C. What is the resulting volume?
Which is best suited to solving the problem?
A. Boyles Law
B. Charles Law
C. Gay-Lussacs Law
D. None of these

10.3 The gas laws summarize experimental observations

24

Your Turn!
Which units must be used in all gas law
calculations?
A. K
B. atm
C. L
D. No specific units as long as they cancel

10.3 The gas laws summarize experimental observations

25

PV
P2V2
1 1

T1
T2

Combined Gas Law

Used for calculating the effects of changing conditions


Works if the temperature is in Kelvin, but P and V can
have any units so long as they cancel

Learning Check
If a sample of air occupies 500. mL at STP*, what is
the volume at 85 C and 560 torr?
760 torr 500. mL
273.15 K

560 torr V2
358 K

889 mL
*Standard Temperature (273.15 K) and Pressure (1 atm)
10.3 The gas laws summarize experimental observations

26

Learning Check
A sample of oxygen gas occupies 500.0 mL at 722
torr and 25 C. Calculate the temperature in C if
the gas has a volume of 2.53 L at 491 mm Hg.
PV
P2V2
1 1

T1
T2
722 torr 500.0 mL
491 torr 2530 mL

248 K
T2

T2 = 853 K

T2 = 580 C

10.3 The gas laws summarize experimental observations

27

Learning Check
A sample of helium gas occupies 500.0 mL at 1.21
atm. Calculate the volume of the gas if the pressure
is reduced to 491 torr.
PV
P2V2
1 1

T1
T2

1.21 atm 500.0 mL = 0.646 atm V2


936 mL

10.3 The gas laws summarize experimental observations

28

Your Turn!
A 22.4 L sample of He at 25 C are heated to 200 C,
what is the resulting volume?
A. 22.4 L
B. 179 L
C. 35.6 L
D. Not enough information given

10.3 The gas laws summarize experimental observations

29

Molar Volume
The volume of one mole of any gas at STP is 22.4 L
Identity of the gas doesnt matter
Molar mass of the gas doesnt matter

Corollary: Equal volumes of any gas contain the


same number of particles as long as the T and P are
the same
Gay Lussacs Law of Combining Volumes: For gas
phase reactions, we can use volume ratios in place of
mole ratios in stoichiometry problems

10.4 Gas volumes can be used in solving stoichiometry problems

30

Avogadros Principle
V1
V2
V n or

n1
n2
V is volume and n is moles of gas
Assumes: the temperature and pressure
remain constant
Containers of equal volume under the
same conditions contain the same number
of particles

10.4 Gas volumes can be used in solving stoichiometry problems

31

Learning Check
Calculate the volume of ammonia formed by the
reaction of 25 L of hydrogen with excess nitrogen.
N2(g) + 3H2(g) 2NH3(g)

25 L H 2 2 L NH3

17 L NH3
1
3 L H2

10.4 Gas volumes can be used in solving stoichiometry problems

32

Learning Check
N2(g) + 3H2(g) 2NH3(g)
If 125 L H2 react with 50 N2, what volume of NH3 can
be expected?
125 L H 2 2 L NH 3

83.3 L NH 3
1
3 L H2
50 L N 2 2 L NH3

100 L NH3
1
1 L N2

H2 is limiting reagent 83.3 L

10.4 Gas volumes can be used in solving stoichiometry problems

33

Learning Check
How many liters of N2(g) at 1.00 atm and 25.0 C are
produced by the decomposition of 150. g of NaN3?
2NaN3(s) 2Na(s) + 3N2(g)
150. g NaN 3 1 mol NaN 3
3 mol N 2

3.46 mol N 2
1
65.02 g
2 mol NaN 3
3.46 mol N 2
22.4 L

1 mol at STP
1
V1 V2
VT
; V2 1 2
T1 T2
T1
V2

77.5 L 298 K
84.6 L
273 K
10.4 Gas volumes can be used in solving stoichiometry problems

34

Your Turn!
According to the following gas phase reaction, what
volume of C would be required to react 23 L of B?
A + 5B + 3C 2D
A. 38 L
B. 14 L
C. 7.2 L
D. None of these

10.4 Gas volumes can be used in solving stoichiometry problems

35

Bringing It Together
Avogadro: n directly proportional to V
Boyle: P indirectly proportional to V
Charles: T directly proportional to V
Gay-Lussac: T directly proportional to P
Combining these variables into one equation results in
the Ideal Gas Law.
R is the constant of proportionality (the ideal or universal
gas constant) its value is 0.082057 Latm/molK

PV = nRT
10.5 The ideal gas law relates P, V, T, and the number of moles of gas, n

36

Ideal Gas Law


Used to describe a sample of gas under one set of
conditions
The units have to be:

P in atm
V in L
n in mol
T in K

PV = nRT

R = 0.082057 Latm/molK

10.5 The ideal gas law relates P, V, T, and the number of moles of gas, n

37

Your Turn!
A 12.2 g sample of Ne are placed into a 5.0 L flask at
25 C. What is the pressure of the gas?
A. 3.0 atm
B. 60. atm
C. 0.25 atm
D. None of these

10.5 The ideal gas law relates P, V, T, and the number of moles of gas, n

38

Case Study
A hard-boiled egg is placed over the opening of an
Erlenmeyer flask. What will happen to each gas law
variable when the flask is placed in a tub of liquid
nitrogen?
Your answer will be either increase, decrease or stay
constant.
a) Number of gas moles Stay constant
Decrease
b) Temperature
c) Volume of trapped gas Stay constant
d) Pressure of trapped gas Decrease
10.5 The ideal gas law relates P, V, T, and the number of moles of gas, n

39

Gas Density
The number of moles may be related to both the mass
(g) of the gas sample and the molar mass of the gas
involved
Thus we may rewrite the Ideal Gas Law as
g
PV
RT
Molar Mass

Further, since d = m/V, we can rewrite the equation in


terms of density
g
P Molar Mass RT dRT
V

10.5 The ideal gas law relates P, V, T, and the number of moles of gas, n

40

Learning Check
What is the molar mass of a gas with a density of 6.7 g/L
at -73 C and a pressure of 36.7 psi?
P Molar mass = d R T
6.7 g 0.0821 L atm
2.50 atm Molar Mass

200 K
L
mol K

44 g/mol = Molar Mass

10.5 The ideal gas law relates P, V, T, and the number of moles of gas, n

41

Learning Check
What is the density of NO2 at 200 C and 600. torr?
P Molar mass = d R T
0.789 atm

46.01 g
0.0821 L atm
d
473 K
mol
mol K

0.935 g/L

10.5 The ideal gas law relates P, V, T, and the number of moles of gas, n

42

Learning Check
Calculate the volume of 1.00 mol of gas at STP
PV = nRT
0.0821 L atm
1 atm V 1.00 mol
273 K
mol K

V = 22.4 L

10.5 The ideal gas law relates P, V, T, and the number of moles of gas, n

43

Your Turn!
What is the density of Helium gas at 35 C and 1.2 atm?
A. 5.1 g/L
B. 0.19 g/L
C. 2.34 g/L
D. None of these

10.5 The ideal gas law relates P, V, T, and the number of moles of gas, n

44

Learning Check
A sample of fluorine gas occupies 275 mL at 945
torr and 72 C. What is the mass of the sample?
PV = nRT

g
PV
RT
Molar mass

mol
0.0821 L atm
1.24 atm 0.275 L m

345 K
38.0 g
mol K

0.457 g = mass

10.5 The ideal gas law relates P, V, T, and the number of moles of gas, n

45

Learning Check
Determine the molecular weight of a gas if 1.053 g of
the gas occupies a volume of 1.000 L at 25 C and 752
mm Hg (The Dumas Method).
PV = nRT

g
PV
RT
Molar mass

1.053 g
0.0821 L atm
0.989 atm 1.000 L

298 K
MM
mol K

26.0 g/mol = mass


10.5 The ideal gas law relates P, V, T, and the number of moles of gas, n

46

Your Turn!
What is the molar mass of a sample of gas if 2.22 g
occupies a volume of 5.0 L a 35 C and 769 mm Hg?
A. 1.3 g/mol
B. 0.015 g/mol
C. 0.090 g/mol
D. None of these 11 g/mol

10.5 The ideal gas law relates P, V, T, and the number of moles of gas, n

47

Daltons Law
The partial pressure of a gas is the pressure that the
gas would exert if it were in the container by itself

10.6 In a mixture each gas exerts its own partial pressure

48

Collecting a Gas by Water Displacement


Collected gas pressure must be corrected for water vapor
Ptotal = Pgas + Pwater (see Table 10.2)

10.6 In a mixture each gas exerts its own partial pressure

49

Learning Check
Pump 520 mm Hg N2 and 250 mm Hg O2 into an
empty gas cylinder. What is the overall pressure of
the mixture?

Pt = 520 mm Hg + 250 mm Hg = 770 mm Hg

PTotal = P1 + P2 + P3 + .
10.6 In a mixture each gas exerts its own partial pressure

50

Learning Check
A 32.5 mL sample of hydrogen gas is collected over
water at 25 C and 755 torr. What is the pressure of dry
hydrogen gas?
Look up vapor pressure for water: Pwater 25 C = 23.76
mm Hg
Correct Pt to find the Pdry gas:
755 torr - 23.76 torr = 731 torr
731 torr = Phydrogen
PTotal = P1 + P2 + P3 + .
10.6 In a mixture each gas exerts its own partial pressure

51

Mole Fraction, X
Each gas molecule contributes a
fraction of the total pressure
XA=the mole fraction of substance A
nA =the moles of component A
nt= the total number of moles of gas in
the mixture

XA

nA

nt

Application: The partial pressure


P A = X A Pt
contributed by the component gas
A is a fraction of the total pressure

10.6 In a mixture each gas exerts its own partial pressure

52

Learning Check
What is the mole fraction of N2 in the atmosphere?
1.000 atm Air = 0.7808 atm N2+ 0.2095 atm O2+
0.0093 atm Ar + 0.00036 atm CO2
XA

nA

nt

0.781 = Xnitrogen

10.6 In a mixture each gas exerts its own partial pressure

53

Learning Check
In a mixture of gases there are 5.0 g each of Ne, O 2 and H2.
What is the mole fraction of Ne? If the partial pressure of
Ne in this mix is 1.0 psi. what is the total pressure?

nneon = 0.248

nA
XA
nt

PNe

noxygen = 0.156 nhydrogen = 2.480


0.248
XNe
2.88

X Ne Ptotal

0.0861 = XNe
1.0 psi
0.0861 =
Ptotal

Ptotal = 12 psi
10.6 In a mixture each gas exerts its own partial pressure

54

Learning Check

PTV = nTRT

For a mixture of gases, the total pressure is the sum


of the contributions of all gases. In a mixture
containing 5.0 g each of Ne, O2 and H2, what is the
total pressure (in atm) at 50.0 C in a 2.5 L vessel?
nNe= 0.248 mol noxygen= 0.156 mol
PTV=nTRT
n = 2.88

nhydrogen= 2.48 mol

n RT
Pt = t

2.88 mol 0.0821 L atm

mol-1 K-1

323 K

2.5 L

Pt = 31 atm
10.6 In a mixture each gas exerts its own partial pressure

55

Your Turn!
At 45 C, 5.0 g each of He and of Ne are placed into
5.0 L flask. What is the total pressure?
A. 7.8 atm
B. 1.1 atm
C. 52 atm
D. None of these

10.6 In a mixture each gas exerts its own partial pressure

56

Diffusion vs. Effusion


When the
partition is
removed, blue
molecules
diffuse to mix
The molecules
effuse through a
pinhole into a
vacuum

10.7 Effusion and diffusion in gases leads to Grahams Law

57

Grahams Law of Effusion


Relates the velocity (rate at which the gas moves
through a given space) to the molecular mass of
the gas.
The greater the molecular mass of the gas, the
slower its velocity.
Effusion rate of B
Molar mass of A
=
Effusion rate of A
Molar mass of B

10.7 Effusion and diffusion in gases leads to Grahams Law

58

Your Turn!
The average kinetic energy of all gas molecules is the
same at the same temperature. Compared to lighter
atoms at the same temperature, heavier atoms on
average:
A. Move faster
B. Move slower
C. Move at the same average velocity

10.7 Effusion and diffusion in gases leads to Grahams Law

59

Your Turn!
Three balloons are filled with equal volumes of the
gases: CH4, H2, and He. After 5 hours the balloons
look like the picture.
Is this effusion or diffusion?
A. Diffusion
B. Effusion
Which is the He balloon?

10.7 Effusion and diffusion in gases leads to Grahams Law

60

Learning Check
If it is observed that Br2 effuses at a rate of 5 cm s-1, if a
sample of an unknown gas travels at half the speed,
what is the molecular mass of the unknown gas?
Effusion rate of Br2

Effusion rate of X

Molar mass X
Molar mass Br2
2

Effusion rate of Br2


Effusion rate of X Molar mass Br2 Molar mass X

5.0 cm s-1
159.80 g

Molar mass X

-1

mol
2.5 cm s

MM = 640 g/mol
10.7 Effusion and diffusion in gases leads to Grahams Law

61

Learning Check
A glass tube is 1.0 m long. A sample of NH3 gas is
introduced into one end of the tube at the same time
that HCl is introduced into the other. Where the gases
meet, they form a ring of crystalline NH4Cl. Where
does the ring form inside the tube?

NH3

HCl

x = distance traveled by NH3;


(1 - x) = distance by HCl
x time-1
(1 x) time-1
x
1.463
1 x

36.461 g/mol HCl


17.034 g/mol NH3

x = 0.594 m from the NH3 end

10.7 Effusion and diffusion in gases leads to Grahams Law

62

Your Turn!
Which flask has molecules that
are moving faster?
A. CO2
B. He
C. Neither

Which flask has molecules that


have a greater average kinetic
energy?
A. CO2
B. He
C. Neither
10.7 Effusion and diffusion in gases leads to Grahams Law

CO2
25 C
1 atm
50 L
He
25 C
2 atm
50 L
63

Your Turn!
Which flask has more molecules?
A.
B.
C.

CO2
He
Neither

CO2

He

25 C

25 C

1 atm

2 atm

50 L

50 L

10.7 Effusion and diffusion in gases leads to Grahams Law

64

Your Turn!
What is the molar mass of X if it travels 7.0 times
more slowly than Xe at the same temperature?
A. 919 g/mol
B. 6,400 g/mol
C. 18.7 g/mol
D. Not enough information given

10.7 Effusion and diffusion in gases leads to Grahams Law

65

Kinetic Molecular Theory Explains Gas


Behaviors
Gases consists of an extremely large number of very
tiny particles that:
Are in constant, random motion
Occupy a negligible portion of the total volume of the
sample-their individual contribution may be ignored
Collide elastically with themselves and the walls of the
container
Move in straight lines between collisions, neither
attracting nor repelling each other

10.8 The kinetic molecular theory explains the gas laws

66

Kinetic Molecular Theory - Irregularities


The volume of a gas molecule is negligible
NO! Under conditions of extremely high pressure,
gases are closer, their relative size is a factor

Gas molecules collide elastically


NO! Under conditions of extremely low temperatures,
gases move more slowly and intermolecular attractions
are more significant

10.8 The kinetic molecular theory explains the gas laws

67

Real Gases

an 2
( P 2 )(V nb) nRT
V

van der Waals equation


accounts for deviations from
ideal behavior by removing 2
assumptions:
Particle volume is negligible
Particles do not interact

van der Waals constants, a and


b, are specific to the substance

10.9 Real gases dont obey the ideal gas law perfectly

68

van der Waals Constants


TABLE 10.3
Substance

a
(L atm mol2)
2

b
(L mol1)

Noble gases

Substance

a
(L atm mol2)
2

b
(L mol1)

Other Gases

He

0.03421

0.02370

H2

0.02444

0.02661

Ne

0.2107

0.01709

O2

1.360

0.03183

Ar

1.345

0.03219

N2

1.390

0.03913

Kr

2.318

0.03978

CH4

2.253

0.04278

Xe

4.194

0.05105

CO2

3.592

0.04267

NH3

4.170

0.03707

H2O

5.464

0.03049

C2H5OH

12.02

0.08407

10.9 Real gases dont obey the ideal gas law perfectly

69